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Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2,Part 1, Slice 1The Project Gutenberg EBook of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition,

Volume 2, Part 1, Slice 1, by Various This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the ProjectGutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net

Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Part 1, Slice 1

Author: Various

Release Date: October 8, 2004 [EBook #13600]

Language: English

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FIRST edition, published in three volumes, 1768-1771. SECOND edition, published in ten volumes,1777-1784. THIRD edition, published in eighteen volumes, 1788-1797. FOURTH edition, published intwenty volumes, 1801-1810. FIFTH edition, published in twenty volumes, 1815-1817. SIXTH edition,published in twenty volumes, 1823-1824. SEVENTH edition, published in twenty-one volumes, 1830-1842.EIGHTH edition, published in twenty-two volumes, 1853-1860. NINTH edition, published in twenty-fivevolumes, 1875-1889. TENTH edition, ninth edition and eleven supplementary volumes, 1902-1903.ELEVENTH edition, published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910-1911.






[E-Text Edition of Volume II - Part 01 of 16 - ANDROS to ANISE]


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[Note: Listing adjusted to E-Text Edition of Volume II, Part 01. The full list of contributors appear in thecomplete E-text Edition of Volume II. A complete list of all contributors to the encyclopaedia, appears in thefinal volume.]

A.B.R. - ALFRED BARTON RENDLE, F.R S F.L.S. D.Sc. Keeper of the Department of Botany, BritishMuseum.


C.Pl. - REV. CHARLES PLUMMER, M.A. Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1901.Author of _Life and Times of Alfred the Great_; &c.


E.O. - EDMUND OWEN, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.SC. Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London,and to the Children's Hospital, Great Ormond Street. Late Examiner in Surgery at the Universities ofCambridge, Durham and London. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.


H.M.C. - HECTOR MUNRO CHADWICK, M.A. Fellow and Librarian of Clare College, Cambridge. Authorof _Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions_.


H.Sm. - HUGH SHERINGHAM. Angling Editor of The Field (London).


I.B.B. - ISAAC BAYLEY BALFOUR, F.R.S., M.D. King's Botanist in Scotland. Regius Keeper of RoyalBotanic Garden, Edinburgh. Professor of Botany in the University of Edinburgh. Regius Professor of Botanyin the University of Glasgow, 1879-1884. Sherardian Professor of Botany in the University of Oxford,1884-1888.

- ANGIOSPERMS (_in part_).

J.G.C.A. - JOHN GEORGE CLARK ANDERSON, M.A. Student, Censor and Tutor of Christ Church,Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1896. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Joint-author of Studica Pontica.


L.J.S. - LEONARD JAMES SPENCER, M.A., F.G.S. Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. FormerlyScholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine.


L.M.Br. - LOUIS MAURICE BRANDIN, M.A. Fielden Professor of French and of Romance Philology in theUniversity of London.


N.W.T. - NORTHCOTE WHITBRIDGE THOMAS, M.A. Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria.

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Corresponding Member of the Societe d'Anthropologie de Paris. Author of _Thought Transference_; _Kinshipand Marriage in Australia_; &c.


P.C.M. - PETER CHALMERS MITCHELL, F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc., LL.D. Secretary to the Zoological Societyof London from 1903. University Demonstrator in Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professorat Oxford, 1888-1891. Lecturer on Biology at Charing Cross Hospital, 1892-1894; at London Hospital, 1894.Examiner in Biology to the Royal College of Physicians, 1892-1896, 1901-1903. Examiner in Zoology to theUniversity of London, 1903.


P.C.Y. - PHILIP CHESNEY YORKE, M.A. Magdalen College, Oxford.


P.Vi. - PAUL VINOGRADOFF, D.C.L. (Oxford), LL.D. (Cambridge and Harvard). Corpus Professor ofJurisprudence in the University of Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Honorary Professor of History inthe University of Moscow. Author of _Villainage in England_; _English Society in the 11th Century_; &c.



Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council of the Congo Free State.Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of _Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy_; &c. M.P. forBlackburn, 1910.


W.H.Be. - WILLIAM HENRY BENNETT, M.A., D.D., D.LITT. (Cantab.). Professor of Old TestamentExegesis in New and Hackney Colleges, London. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Lecturerin Hebrew at Firth College, Sheffield. Author of _Religion of the Post-Exilic Prophets_; &c.







Anglican Communion. Angola.

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ANDROS, SIR EDMUND (1637-1714), English colonial governor in America, was born in London on the6th of December 1637, son of Amice Andros, an adherent of Charles I., and the royal bailiff of the island ofGuernsey. He served for a short time in the army of Prince Henry of Nassau, and in 1660-1662 was gentlemanin ordinary to the queen of Bohemia (Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of James I. of England). He then servedagainst the Dutch, and in 1672 was commissioned major in what is said to have been the first Englishregiment armed with the bayonet. In 1674 he became, by the appointment of the duke of York (later JamesII.), governor of New York and the Jerseys, though his jurisdiction over the Jerseys was disputed, and until hisrecall in 1681 to meet an unfounded charge of dishonesty and favouritism in the collection of the revenues, heproved himself to be a capable administrator, whose imperious disposition, however, rendered him somewhatunpopular among the colonists. During a visit to England in 1678 he was knighted. In 1686 he becamegovernor, with Boston as his capital, of the "Dominion of New England," into which Massachusetts (includingMaine), Plymouth, Rhode Island, Connecticut and New Hampshire were consolidated, and in 1688 hisjurisdiction was extended over New York and the Jerseys. But his vexatious interference with colonial rightsand customs aroused the keenest resentment, and on the 18th of April 1689, soon after news of the arrival ofWilliam, prince of Orange, in England reached Boston, the colonists deposed and arrested him. In New Yorkhis deputy, Francis Nicholson, was soon afterwards deposed by Jacob Leisler (q.v.); and the inter-colonialunion was dissolved. Andros was sent to England for trial in 1690, but was immediately released without trial,and from 1692 until 1698 he was governor of Virginia, but was recalled through the agency of CommissaryJames Blair (q.v.), with whom he quarrelled. In 1693-1694 he was also governor of Maryland. From 1704 to1706 he was governor of Guernsey. He died in London in February 1714 and was buried at St. Anne's, Soho.

See The Andros Tracts (3 vols., Boston, 1869-1872).

ANDROS, or ANDRO, an island of the Greek archipelago, the most northerly of the Cyclades, 6 m. S.E. ofEuboea, and about 2 m. N. of Tenos; it forms an eparchy in the modern kingdom of Greece. It is nearly 25 m.long, and its greatest breadth is 10 m. Its surface is for the most part mountainous, with many fruitful andwell-watered valleys. Andros, the capital, on the east coast, contains about 2000 inhabitants. The ruins ofPalaeopolis, the ancient capital, are on the west coast; the town possessed a famous temple, dedicated toBacchus. The island has about 18,000 inhabitants.

The island in ancient times contained an Ionian population, perhaps with an admixture of Thracian blood.Though originally dependent on Eretria, by the 7th century B.C. it had become sufficiently prosperous to sendout several colonies to Chalcidice (Acanthus, Stageirus, Argilus, Sane). In 480 it supplied ships to Xerxes andwas subsequently harried by the Greek fleet. Though enrolled in the Delian League it remained disaffectedtowards Athens, and in 447 had to be coerced by the settlement of a cleruchy. In 411 Andros proclaimed itsfreedom and in 408 withstood an Athenian attack. As a member of the second Delian League it was againcontrolled by a garrison and an archon. In the Hellenistic period Andros was contended for as a frontier-postby the two naval powers of the Aegean Sea, Macedonia and Egypt. In 333 it received a Macedonian garrisonfrom Antipater; in 308 it was freed by Ptolemy I. In the Chremonidean War (266-263) it passed again toMacedonia after a battle fought off its shores. In 200 it was captured by a combined Roman, Pergamene and


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Rhodian fleet, and remained a possession of Pergamum until the dissolution of that kingdom in 133 B.C.Before falling under Turkish rule, Andros was from A.D. 1207 till 1566 governed by the families Zeno andSommariva under Venetian protection.

ANDROTION (c. 350 B.C.), Greek orator, and one of the leading politicians of his time, was a pupil ofIsocrates and a contemporary of Demosthenes. He is known to us chiefly from the speech of Demosthenes, inwhich he was accused of illegality in proposing the usual honour of a crown to the Council of Five Hundred atthe expiration of its term of office. Androtion filled several important posts, and during the Social War wasappointed extraordinary commissioner to recover certain arrears of taxes. Both Demosthenes and Aristotle(_Rhet._ iii. 4) speak favourably of his powers as an orator. He is said to have gone into exile at Megara, andto have composed an _Atthis_, or annalistic account of Attica from the earliest times to his own days(Pausanias vi. 7; x. 8). It is disputed whether the annalist and orator are identical, but an Androtion who wroteon agriculture is certainly a different person. Professor Gaetano de Sanctis (in _L'Attide di Androzione e unpapiro di Oxyrhynchos_, Turin, 1908) attributes to Androtion, the atthidographer, a 4th-century historicalfragment, discovered by B.P. Grenfell and A.S. Hunt (_Oxyrhynchus Papyri_, vol. v.). Strong argumentsagainst this view are set forth by E.M. Walker in the _Classical Review_, May 1908.

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ANDÚJAR (the anc. _Slilurgi_), a town of southern Spain, in the province of Jaén; on the right bank of theriver Guadalquivir and the Madrid-Cordova railway. Pop. (1900) 16,302. Andújar is widely known for itsporous earthenware jars, called _alcarrazas_, which keep water cool in the hottest weather, and aremanufactured from a whitish clay found in the neighbourhood.

ANECDOTE (from [Greek: an]-, privative, and [Greek: ekdidomi], to give out or publish), a word originallymeaning something not published. It has now two distinct significations. The primary one is something notpublished, in which sense it has been used to denote either secret histories--Procopius, _e.g._, gives this as oneof the titles of his secret history of Justinian's court--or portions of ancient writers which have remained longin manuscript and are edited for the first time. Of such anecdota there are many collections; the earliest wasprobably L.A. Muratori's, in 1709. In the more general and popular acceptation of the word, however,anecdotes are short accounts of detached interesting particulars. Of such anecdotes the collections are almostinfinite; the best in many respects is that compiled by T. Byerley (d. 1826) and J. Clinton Robertson (d. 1852),known as the Percy Anecdotes (1820-1823).

ANEL, DOMINIQUE (1679-1730), French surgeon, was born at Toulouse about 1679. After studying atMontpellier and Paris, he served as surgeon-major in the French army in Alsace; then after two years atVienna he went to Italy and served in the Austrian army. In 1710 he was teaching surgery in Rouen, whencehe went to Genoa, and in 1716 he was practising in Paris. He died about 1730. He was celebrated for hissuccessful surgical treatment of _fistula lacrymalis_, and while at Genoa invented for use in connexion withthe operation the fine-pointed syringe still known by his name.

ANEMOMETER (from Gr. [Greek: anemos], wind, and [Greek: metron], a measure), an instrument formeasuring either the velocity or the pressure of the wind. Anemometers may be divided into two classes, (1)those that measure the velocity, (2) those that measure the pressure of the wind, but inasmuch as there is aclose connexion between the pressure and the velocity, a suitable anemometer of either class will giveinformation about both these quantities.

Velocity anemometers may again be subdivided into two classes, (1) those which do not require a wind vaneor weatherco*ck, (2) those which do. The Robinson anemometer, invented (1846) by Dr. Thomas RomneyRobinson, of Armagh Observatory, is the best-known and most generally used instrument, and belongs to thefirst of these. It consists of four hemispherical cups, mounted one on each end of a pair of horizontal arms,which lie at right angles to each other and form a cross. A vertical axis round which the cups turn passes


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through the centre of the cross; a train of wheel-work counts up the number of turns which this axis makes,and from the number of turns made in any given time the velocity of the wind during that time is calculated.The cups are placed symmetrically on the end of the arms, and it is easy to see that the wind always has thehollow of one cup presented to it; the back of the cup on the opposite end of the cross also faces the wind, butthe pressure on it is naturally less, and hence a continual rotation is produced; each cup in turn as it comesround providing the necessary force. The two great merits of this anemometer are its simplicity and theabsence of a wind vane; on the other hand it is not well adapted to leaving a record on paper of the actualvelocity at any definite instant, and hence it leaves a short but violent gust unrecorded. Unfortunately, whenDr. Robinson first designed his anemometer, he stated that no matter what the size of the cups or the length ofthe arms, the cups always moved with one-third of the velocity of the wind. This result was apparentlyconfirmed by some independent experiments, but it is very far from the truth, for it is now known that theactual ratio, or factor as it is commonly called, of the velocity of the wind to that of the cups depends verylargely on the dimensions of the cups and arms, and may have almost any value between two and a little overthree. The result has been that wind velocities published in many official publications have often been in errorby nearly 50%.

The other forms of velocity anemometer may be described as belonging to the windmill type. In the Robinsonanemometer the axis of rotation is vertical, but with this subdivision the axis of rotation must be parallel to thedirection of the wind and therefore horizontal. Furthermore, since the wind varies in direction and the axis hasto follow its changes, a wind vane or some other contrivance to fulfil the same purpose must be employed.This type of instrument is very little used in England, but seems to be more in favour in France. In caseswhere the direction of the air motion is always the same, as in the ventilating shafts of mines and buildings forinstance, these anemometers, known, however, as air meters, are employed, and give most satisfactory results.

Anemometers which measure the pressure may be divided into the plate and tube classes, but the former termmust be taken as including a good many miscellaneous forms. The simplest type of this form consists of a flatplate, which is usually square or circular, while a wind vane keeps this exposed normally to the wind, and thepressure of the wind on its face is balanced by a spring. The distortion of the spring determines the actualforce which the wind is exerting on the plate, and this is either read off on a suitable gauge, or leaves a recordin the ordinary way by means of a pen writing on a sheet of paper moved by clockwork. Instruments of thiskind have been in use for a long series of years, and have recorded pressures up to and even exceeding 60 lbper sq. ft., but it is now fairly certain that these high values are erroneous, and due, not to the wind, but tofaulty design of the anemometer.

The fact is that the wind is continually varying in force, and while the ordinary pressure plate is admirablyadapted for measuring the force of a steady and uniform wind, it is entirely unsuitable for following the rapidfluctuations of the natural wind. To make matters worse, the pen which records the motion of the plate is oftenconnected with it by an extensive system of chains and levers. A violent gust strikes the plate, which is drivenback and carried by its own momentum far past the position in which a steady wind of the same force wouldplace it; by the time the motion has reached the pen it has been greatly exaggerated by the springiness of theconnexion, and not only is the plate itself driven too far back, but also its position is wrongly recorded by thepen; the combined errors act the same way, and more than double the real maximum pressure may beindicated on the chart.

A modification of the ordinary pressure-plate has recently been designed. In this arrangement a catch isprovided so that the plate being once driven back by the wind cannot return until released by hand; but thecatch does not prevent the plate being driven back farther by a gust stronger than the last one that moved it.Examples of these plates are erected on the west coast of England, where in the winter fierce gales oftenoccur; a pressure of 30 lb per sq. ft. has not been shown by them, and instances exceeding 20 lb are extremelyrare.

Many other modifications have been used and suggested. Probably a sphere would prove most useful for a


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pressure anemometer, since owing to its symmetrical shape it would not require a weatherco*ck. A small lightsphere hanging from the end of 30 or 40 ft. of fine sewing cotton has been employed to measure the windvelocity passing over a kite, the tension of the cotton being recorded, and this plan has given satisfactoryresults.

Lind's anemometer, which consists simply of a U tube containing liquid with one end bent into a horizontaldirection to face the wind, is perhaps the original form from which the tube class of instrument has sprung. Ifthe wind blows into the mouth of a tube it causes an increase of pressure inside and also of course an equalincrease in all closed vessels with which the mouth is in airtight communication. If it blows horizontally overthe open end of a vertical tube it causes a decrease of pressure, but this fact is not of any practical use inanemometry, because the magnitude of the decrease depends on the wind striking the tube exactly at rightangles to its axis, the most trifling departure from the true direction causing great variations in the magnitude.The pressure tube anemometer (fig. 1) utilizes the increased pressure in the open mouth of a straight tubefacing the wind, and the decrease of pressure caused inside when the wind blows over a ring of small holesdrilled through the metal of a vertical tube which is closed at the upper end. The pressure differences on whichthe action depends are very small, and special means are required to register them, but in the ordinary form ofrecording anemometer (fig. 2), any wind capable of turning the vane which keeps the mouth of the tube facingthe wind is capable of registration.

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The great advantage of the tube anemometer lies in the fact that the exposed part can be mounted on a highpole, and requires no oiling or attention for years; and the registering part can be placed in any convenientposition, no matter how far from the external part. Two connecting tubes are required. It might appear at firstsight as though one connexion would serve, but the differences in pressure on which these instruments dependare so minute, that the pressure of the air in the room where the recording part is placed has to be considered.Thus if the instrument depends on the pressure or suction effect alone, and this pressure or suction ismeasured against the air pressure in an ordinary room, in which the doors and windows are carefully closedand a newspaper is then burnt up the chimney, an effect may be produced equal to a wind of 10 m. an hour;and the opening of a window in rough weather, or the opening of a door, may entirely alter the registration.

[Illustration: FIG. 1 & FIG. 2 Anemometers.]

The connexion between the velocity and the pressure of the wind is one that is not yet known with absolutecertainty. Many text-books on engineering give the relation P=.005 _v_^2 when P is the pressure in lb per sq.ft. and v the velocity in miles per hour. The history of this untrue relation is curious. It was given about theend of the 18th century as based on some experiments, but with a footnote stating that little reliance could beplaced on it. The statement without the qualifying note was copied from book to book, and at last receivedgeneral acceptance. There is no doubt that under average conditions of atmospheric density, the .005 shouldbe replaced by .003, for many independent authorities using different methods have found values very close tothis last figure. It is probable that the wind pressure is not strictly proportional to the extent of the surfaceexposed. Pressure plates are generally of moderate size, from a half or quarter of a sq. ft. up to two or three sq.ft., are round or square, and for these sizes, and shapes, and of course for a flat surface, the relation P=.003_v_^2 is fairly correct.

In the tube anemometer also it is really the pressure that is measured, although the scale is usually graduatedas a velocity scale. In cases where the density of the air is not of average value, as on a high mountain, or withan exceptionally low barometer for example, an allowance must be made. Approximately 1-1/2% should beadded to the velocity recorded by a tube anemometer for each 1000 ft. that it stands above sea-level.

(W.H. Di.)


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ANEMONE, or WIND-FLOWER (from the Gr. [Greek: anemos], wind), a genus of the buttercup order(Ranunculaceae), containing about ninety species in the north and south temperate zones. _Anemonenemorosa_, wood anemone, and _A. Pulsatilla_, Pasque-flower, occur in Britain; the latter is found on chalkdowns and limestone pastures in some of the more southern and eastern counties. The plants are perennialherbs with an underground rootstock, and radical, more or less deeply cut, leaves. The elongated flower stembears one or several, white, red, blue or rarely yellow, flowers; there is an involucre of three leaflets beloweach flower. The fruits often bear long hairy styles which aid their distribution by the wind. Many of thespecies are favourite garden plants; among the best known is _Anemone coronaria_, often called the poppyanemone, a tuberous-rooted plant, with parsley-like divided leaves, and large showy poppy-like blossoms onstalks of from 6 to 9-in. high; the flowers are of various colours, but the principal are scarlet, crimson, blue,purple and white. There are also double-flowered varieties, in which the stamens in the centre are replaced bya tuft of narrow petals. It is an old garden favourite, and of the double forms there are named varieties. Theygrow best in a loamy soil, enriched with well-rotted manure, which should be dug in below the tubers. Thesemay be planted in October, and for succession in January, the autumn-planted ones being protected by acovering of leaves or short stable litter. They will flower in May and June, and when the leaves have ripenedshould be taken up into a dry room till planting time. They are easily raised from the seed, and a bed of thesingle varieties is a valuable addition to a flower-garden, as it affords, in a warm situation, an abundance ofhandsome and often brilliant spring flowers, almost as early as the snowdrop or crocus. The genus containsmany other lively spring-blooming plants, of which _A. hortensis_ and _A. fulgens_ have less divided leavesand splendid rosy-purple or scarlet flowers; they require similar treatment. Another set is represented by _A.Pulsatilla_, the Pasque-flower, whose violet blossoms have the outer surface hairy; these prefer a calcareoussoil. The splendid _A. japonica_, and its white variety called Honorine Joubert, the latter especially, areamongst the finest of autumn-blooming hardy perennials; they grow well in light soil, and reach 2-1/2 to 3 ft.in height, blooming continually for several weeks. A group of dwarf species, represented by the native British_A. nemorosa_ and _A. apennina_, are amongst the most beautiful of spring flowers for planting in woodsand shady places.

The genus Hepatica is now generally included in anemone as a subgenus. The plants are known in gardens ashepaticas, and are varieties of the common South European _A. Hepatica_; they are charmingspring-flowering plants with usually blue flowers.

ANENCLETUS, or ANACLETUS, second bishop of Rome. About the 4th century he is treated in thecatalogues as two persons--Anacletus and Cletus. According to the catalogues he occupied the papal chair fortwelve years (c. 77-88).

ANERIO, the name of two brothers, musical composers, very great Roman masters of 16th-centurypolyphony. Felice, the elder, was born about 1560, studied under G.M. Nanino and succeeded Palestrina in1594 as composer to the papal chapel. Several masses and motets of his are printed in Proske's Musica Divinaand other modern anthologies, and it is hardly too much to say that they are for the most part worthy ofPalestrina himself. The date of his death is conjecturally given as 1630. His brother, Giovanni Francesco, wasborn about 1567, and seems to have died about 1620. The occasional attribution of some of his numerouscompositions to his elder brother is a pardonable mistake, if we may judge by the works that have beenreprinted. But the statement, which continues to be repeated in standard works of reference, that "he was oneof the first of Italians to use the quaver and its subdivisions" is incomprehensible. Quavers were commonproperty in all musical countries quite early in the 16th century, and semiquavers appear in a madrigal ofPalestrina published in 1574. The two brothers are probably the latest composers who handled 16th-centurymusic as their mother-language; suffering neither from the temptation to indulge even in such mildneologisms as they might have learnt from the elder brother's master, Nanino, nor from the necessity ofpreserving their purity of style by a mortified negative asceticism. They wrote pure polyphony because theyunderstood it and loved it, and hence their work lives, as neither the progressive work of their own day nor thereactionary work of their imitators could live. The 12-part Stabat Mater in the seventh volume of Palestrina'scomplete works has been by some authorities ascribed to Felice Anerio.


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ANET, a town of northern France, in the department of Eure-et-Loir, situated between the rivers Eure andVègre, 10 m. N.E. of Dreux by rail. Pop. (1906) 1324. It possesses the remains of a magnificent castle, built inthe middle of the 16th century by Henry II. for Diana of Poitiers. Near it is the plain of Ivry, where Henry IV.defeated the armies of the League in 1590.

ANEURIN, or ANEIRIN, the name of an early 7th-century British (Welsh) bard, who has been taken byThomas Stephens (1821-1875), the editor and translator of Aneurin's principal epic poem _Gododin_, for ason of Gildas, the historian. Gododin is an account of the British defeat (603) by the Saxons at Cattraeth(identified by Stephens with Dawstane in Liddesdale), where Aneurin is said to have been taken prisoner; butthe poem is very obscure and is differently interpreted. It was translated and edited by W.F. Skene in his FourAncient Books of Wales (1866), and Stephens' version was published by the Cymmrodorion Society in 1888.See CELT: Literature (Welsh).

ANEURYSM, or ANEURISM (from Gr. [Greek: aneurisma], a dilatation), a cavity or sac whichcommunicates with the interior of an artery and contains blood. The walls of the cavity are formed either ofthe dilated artery or of the tissues around that vessel. The dilatation of the artery is due to a local weakness,the result of disease or injury. The commonest cause is chronic inflammation of the inner coats of the artery.The breaking of a bottle or glass in the hand is apt to cut through the outermost coat of the artery at the wrist(radial) and thus to cause a local weakening of the tube which is gradually followed by dilatation. Also whenan artery is wounded and the wound in the skin and superficial structures heals, the blood may escape in to thetissues, displacing them, and by its pressure causing them to condense and form the sac-wall. The coats of anartery, when diseased, may be torn by a severe strain, the blood escaping into the condensed tissues whichthus form the aneurysmal sac.

The division, of aneurysms into two classes, true and _false_, is unsatisfactory. On the face of it, an aneurysmwhich is false is not an aneurysm, any more than a false bank-note is legal tender. A better classification isinto spontaneous and traumatic. The man who has chronic inflammation of a large artery, the result, forinstance, of gout, arduous, straining work, or kidney-disease, and whose artery yields under cardiac pressure,has a spontaneous aneurysm; the barman or window-cleaner who has cut his radial artery, the soldier whosebrachial or femoral artery has been bruised by a rifle bullet or grazed by a bayonet, and the boy whose nakedfoot is pierced by a sharp nail, are apt to be the subjects of traumatic aneurysm. In those aneurysms which area saccular bulging on one side of the artery the blood may be induced to coagulate, or may of itself depositlayer upon layer of pale clot, until the sac is obliterated. This laminar coagulation by constant additionsgradually fills the aneurysmal cavity and the pulsation in the sac then ceases; contraction of the sac and itscontents gradually takes place and the aneurysm is cured. But in those aneurysms which are fusiformdilatations of the vessel there is but slight chance of such cure, for the blood sweeps evenly through it withoutstaying to deposit clot or laminated fibrine.

In the treatment of aneurysm the aim is generally to lower the blood pressure by absolute rest and moderateddiet, but a cure is rarely effected except by operation, which, fortunately, is now resorted to more promptlyand securely than was previously the case. Without trying the speculative and dangerous method of treatmentby compression, or the application of an india rubber bandage, the surgeon now without loss of time cutsdown upon the artery, and applies an aseptic ligature close above the dilatation. Experience has shown thatthis method possesses great advantages, and that it has none of the disadvantages which were formerlysupposed to attend it. Saccular dilatations of arteries which are the result of cuts or other injuries are treated bytying the vessel above and below, and by dissecting out the aneurysm. Popliteal, carotid and other aneurysms,which are not of traumatic origin, are sometimes dealt with on this plan, which is the old "Method ofAntyllus" with modern aseptic conditions. Speaking generally, if an aneurysm can be dealt with surgically thesooner that the artery is tied the better. Less heroic measures are too apt to prove painful, dangerous,ineffectual and disappointing. For anturysm in the chest or abdomen (which cannot be dealt with by


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operation) the treatment may be tried of injecting a pure solution of gelatine into the loose tissues of thearmpit, so that the gelatine may find its way into the blood stream and increase the chance of curativecoagulation in the distant aneurysmal sac.


ANFRACTUOSITY (from Lat. _anfractuosus_, winding), twisting and turning, circuitousness; a word usuallyemployed in the plural to denote winding channels such as occur in the depths of the sea, mountains, or thefissures (_sulci_) separating the convolutions of the brain, or, by analogy, in the mind.

ANGARIA (from [Greek: aggaros], the Greek form of a Babylonian word adopted in Persian for "mountedcourier"), a sort of postal system adopted by the Roman imperial government from the ancient Persians,among whom, according to Xenophon (_Cyrop._ viii. 6; cf. Herodotus viii. 98) it was established by Cyrusthe Great. Couriers on horseback were posted at certain stages along the chief roads of the empire, for thetransmission of royal despatches by night and day in all weathers. In the Roman system the supply of horsesand their maintenance was a compulsory duty from which the emperor alone could grant exemption. Theword, which in the 4th century was used for the heavy transport vehicles of the cursus publicus, and also forthe animals by which they were drawn, came to mean generally "compulsory service." So _angaria_,_angariare_, in medieval Latin, and the rare English derivatives "angariate," "angariation," came to mean anyservice which was forcibly or unjustly demanded, and oppression in general.

ANGARY (Lat. _jus angariae_; Fr. _droit d'angarie_; Ger. _Angarie_; from the Gr. [Greek: aggareia], theoffice of an [Greek: aggaros], courier or messenger), the name given to the right of a belligerent to seize andapply for the purposes of war (or to prevent the enemy from doing so) any kind of property on, belligerentterritory, including that which may belong to subjects or citizens of a neutral state. Art. 53 of the Regulationsrespecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, annexed to the Hague Convention of 1899 on the samesubject, provides that railway plant, land telegraphs, telephones, steamers and other ships (other than such asare governed by maritime law), though belonging to companies or private persons, may be used for militaryoperations, but "must be restored at the conclusion of peace and indemnities paid for them." And Art. 54 addsthat "the plant of railways coming from neutral states, whether the property of those states or of companies orprivate persons, shall be sent back to them as soon as possible." These articles seem to sanction the right ofangary against neutral property, while limiting it as against both belligerent and neutral property. It may beconsidered, however, that the right to use implies as wide a range of contingencies as the "necessity of war"can be made to cover.

(T. BA.)

ANGEL, a general term denoting a subordinate superhuman being in monotheistic religions, _e.g._. Islam,Judaism, Christianity, and in allied religions, such as Zoroastrianism. In polytheism the grades of superhumanbeings are continuous; but in monotheism there is a sharp distinction of kind, as well as degree, between Godon the one hand, and all other superhuman beings on the other; the latter are the "angels."

"Angel" is a transcription of the Gr. [Greek: angelos], messenger. [Greek: angelos] in the New Testament, andthe corresponding _mal'akh_ in the Old Testament, sometimes mean "messenger," and sometimes "angel,"and this double sense is duly represented in the English Versions. "Angel" is also used in the English Versionfor [Hebrew:] _'Abbir_, Ps. lxxviii. 25. (lit. "mighty"), for [Hebrew:] _'Elohim_, Ps. viii. 5, and for theobscure [Hebrew:] _shin'an_, in Ps. lxviii. 17.

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In the later development of the religion of Israel, _'Elohim_ is almost entirely reserved for the one true God;but in earlier times _'Elohim_ (gods), _bn[=e] 'Elohim, bn[=e] Elim_ (sons of gods, _i.e._ members of the


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class of divine beings) were general terms for superhuman beings. Hence they came to be used collectively ofsuperhuman beings, distinct from Yahweh, and therefore inferior, and ultimately subordinate.[1] So, too, theangels are styled "holy ones,"[2] and "watchers,"[3] and are spoken of as the "host of heaven"[4] or of"Yahweh."[5] The "hosts," [Hebrew:] Sebaoth in the title _Yahweh Sebaoth_, Lord of Hosts, were probably atone time identified with the angels.[6] The New Testament often speaks of "spirits," [Greek: pneumata].[7] Inthe earlier periods of the religion of Israel, the doctrine of monotheism had not been formally stated, so thatthe idea of "angel" in the modern sense does not occur, but we find the _Mal'akh Yahweh_, Angel of theLord, or _Mal'akh Elohim_, Angel of God. The _Mal'akh Yahweh_ is an appearance or manifestation ofYahweh in the form of a man, and the term _Mal'akh Yahweh_ is used interchangeably with Yahweh (cf.Exod. iii. 2, with iii. 4; xiii. 21 with xiv. 19). Those who see the _Mal'akh Yahweh_ say they have seenGod.[8] The _Mal'akh Yahweh_ (or _Elohim_) appears to Abraham, Hagar, Moses, Gideon, &c., and leadsthe Israelites in the Pillar of Cloud.[9] The phrase _Mal'akh Yahweh_ may have been originally a courtlycircumlocution for the Divine King; but it readily became a means of avoiding crude anthropomorphism, andlater on, when the angels were classified, the _Mal'akh Yahweh_ came to mean an angel of distinguishedrank.[10] The identification of the _Mal'akh Yahweh_ with the _Logos_, or Second Person of the Trinity, isnot indicated by the references in the Old Testament; but the idea of a Being partly identified with God, andyet in some sense distinct from Him, illustrates the tendency of religious thought to distinguish persons withinthe unity of the Godhead, and foreshadows the doctrine of the Trinity, at any rate in some slight degree.

In the earlier literature the _Mal'akh Yahweh_ or Elohim is almost the only _mal'akh_ ("angel") mentioned.There are, however, a few passages which speak of subordinate superhuman beings other than the _Mal'akhYahweh_ or Elohim. There are the cherubim who guard Eden. In Gen. xviii., xix. (J) the appearance ofYahweh to Abraham and Lot is connected with three, afterwards two, men or messengers; but possibly in theoriginal form of the story Yahweh appeared alone.[11] At Bethel, Jacob sees the angels of God on theladder,[12] and later on they appear to him at Mahanaim.[13] In all these cases the angels, like the _Mal'akhYahweh_, are connected with or represent a theophany. Similarly the "man" who wrestles with Jacob at Penielis identified with God.[14] In Isaiah vi. the seraphim, superhuman beings with six wings, appear as theattendants of Yahweh. Thus the pre-exilic literature, as we now have it, has little to say about angels or aboutsuperhuman beings other than Yahweh and manifestations of Yahweh; the pre-exilic prophets hardly mentionangels.[15] Nevertheless we may well suppose that the popular religion of ancient Israel had much to say ofsuperhuman beings other than Yahweh, but that the inspired writers have mostly suppressed references tothem as unedifying. Moreover such beings were not strictly angels.

The doctrine of monotheism was formally expressed in the period immediately before and during the Exile, inDeuteronomy[16] and Isaiah;[17] and at the same time we find angels prominent in Ezekiel who, as a prophetof the Exile, may have been influenced by the hierarchy of supernatural beings in the Babylonian religion, andperhaps even by the angelology of Zoroastrianism.[18] Ezekiel gives elaborate descriptions of cherubim;[19]and in one of his visions he sees seven angels execute the judgment of God upon Jerusalem.[20] As in Genesisthey are styled "men," _mal'akh_ for "angel" does not occur in Ezekiel. Somewhat later, in the visions ofZechariah, angels play a great part; they are sometimes spoken of as "men," sometimes as _mal'akh_, and the_Mal'akh Yahweh_ seems to hold a certain primacy among them.[21] Satan also appears to prosecute (so tospeak) the High Priest before the divine tribunal.[22] Similarly in Job the _bne Elohim_, sons of God, appearas attendants of God, and amongst them Satan, still in his rôle of public prosecutor, the defendant beingJob.[23] Occasional references to "angels" occur in the Psalter;[24] they appear as ministers of God.

In Ps. lxxviii. 49 the "evil angels" of A.V. conveys a false impression; it should be "angels of evil," as R.V.,_i.e._ angels who inflict chastisem*nt as ministers of God.

The seven angels of Ezekiel may be compared with the seven eyes of Yahweh in Zech. iii. 9, iv. 10. The latterhave been connected by Ewald and others with the later doctrine of seven chief angels,[25] parallel to andinfluenced by the Ameshaspentas (Amesha Spenta), or seven great spirits of the Persian mythology, but theconnexion is doubtful.


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In the Priestly Code, _c._ 400 B.C., there is no reference to angels apart from the possible suggestion in theambiguous plural in Genesis i. 26.

During the Persian and Greek periods the doctrine of angels underwent a great development, partly, at anyrate, under foreign influences. In Daniel, _c._ 160 B.C., angels, usually spoken of as "men" or "princes,"appear as guardians or champions of the nations; grades are implied, there are "princes" and "chief" or "greatprinces"; and the names of some angels are known, Gabriel, Michael; the latter is pre-eminent,[26] he is theguardian of Judah. Again in Tobit a leading part is played by Raphael, "one of the seven holy angels."[27]

In Tobit, too, we find the idea of the demon or evil angel. In the canonical Old Testament angels may inflictsuffering as ministers of God, and Satan may act as accuser or tempter; but they appear as subordinate to God,fulfilling His will; and not as morally evil. The statement[28] that God "charged His angels with folly" appliesto all angels. In Daniel the princes or guardian angels of the heathen nations oppose Michael the guardianangel of Judah. But in Tobit we find Asmodaeus the evil demon, [Greek: to poneros daimonion], whostrangles Sarah's husbands, and also a general reference to "a devil or evil spirit," [Greek: pneuma].[29] TheFall of the Angels is not properly a scriptural doctrine, though it is based on Gen. vi. 2, as interpreted by theBook of Enoch. It is true that the _bn[=e] Elohim_ of that chapter are subordinate superhuman beings (cf.above), but they belong to a different order of thought from the angels of Judaism and of Christian doctrine;and the passage in no way suggests that the bne Elohim suffered any loss of status through their act.

The guardian angels of the nations in Daniel probably represent the gods of the heathen, and we have there thefirst step of the process by which these gods became evil angels, an idea expanded by Milton in ParadiseLost. The development of the doctrine of an organized hierarchy of angels belongs to the Jewish literature ofthe period 200 B.C. to A.D. 100. In Jewish apocalypses especially, the imagination ran riot on the rank,classes and names of angels; and such works as the various books of Enoch and the Ascension of Isaiahsupply much information on this subject.

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In the New Testament angels appear frequently as the ministers of God and the agents of revelation;[30] andOur Lord speaks of angels as fulfilling such functions,[31] implying in one saying that they neither marry norare given in marriage.[32] Naturally angels are most prominent in the Apocalypse. The New Testament takeslittle interest in the idea of the angelic hierarchy, but there are traces of the doctrine. The distinction of goodand bad angels is recognized; we have names, Gabriel,[33] and the evil angels Abaddon or Apollyon,[34]Beelzebub.[35] and Satan;[36] ranks are implied, archangels,[37] principalities and powers,[38] thrones anddominions.[39] Angels occur in groups of four or seven.[40] In Rev. i.-iii. we meet with the "Angels" of theSeven Churches of Asia Minor. These are probably guardian angels, standing to the churches in the samerelation that the "princes" in Daniel stand to the nations; practically the "angels" are personifications of thechurches. A less likely view is that the "angels" are the human representatives of the churches, the bishops orchief presbyters. There seems, however, no parallel to such a use of "angel," and it is doubtful whether themonarchical government of churches was fully developed when the Apocalypse was written.

Later Jewish and Christian speculation followed on the lines of the angelology of the earlier apocalypses; andangels play an important part in Gnostic systems and in the Jewish Midrashim and the Kabbala. Religiousthought about the angels during the middle ages was much influenced by the theory of the angelic hierarchyset forth in the _De Hierarchia Celesti_, written in the 5th century in the name of Dionysius the Areopagiteand passing for his. The creeds and confessions do not formulate any authoritative doctrine of angels; andmodern rationalism has tended to deny the existence of such beings, or to regard the subject as one on whichwe can have no certain knowledge. The principle of continuity, however, seems to require the existence ofbeings intermediate between man and God.

The Old Testament says nothing about the origin of angels; but the Book of Jubilees and the Slavonic Enoch


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describe their creation; and, according to Col. i. 16, the angels were created in, unto and through Christ.

Nor does the Bible give any formal account of the nature of angels. It is doubtful how far Ezekiel's account ofthe cherubim and Isaiah's account of the seraphim are to be taken as descriptions of actual beings; they areprobably figurative, or else subjective visions. Angels are constantly spoken of as "men," and, including eventhe Angel of Yahweh, are spoken of as discharging the various functions of human life; they eat anddrink,[41] walk[42] and speak.[43] Putting aside the cherubim and seraphim, they are not spoken of as havingwings. On the other hand they appear and vanish,[44] exercise miraculous powers,[45] and fly.[46] Seeingthat the anthropomorphic language used of the angels is similar to that used of God, the Scriptures wouldhardly seem to require a literal interpretation in either case. A special association is found, both in the Bibleand elsewhere, between the angels and the heavenly bodies,[47] and the elements or elemental forces, fire,water, &c.[48] The angels are infinitely numerous.[49]

The function of the angels is that of the supernatural servants of God. His agents and representatives; theAngel of Yahweh, as we have seen, is a manifestation of God. In old times, the bne Elohim and the seraphimare His court, and the angels are alike the court and the army of God; the cherubim are his throne-bearers. Inhis dealings with men, the angels, as their name implies, are specially His messengers, declaring His will andexecuting His commissions. Through them he controls nature and man. They are the guardian angels of thenations; and we also find the idea that individuals have guardian angels.[50]. Later Jewish tradition held thatthe Law was given by angels.[51] According to the Gnostic Basilides, the world was created by angels.Mahommedanism has taken over and further elaborated the Jewish and Christian ideas as to angels.

While the scriptural statements imply a belief in the existence of spiritual beings intermediate between Godand men, it is probable that many of the details may be regarded merely as symbolic imagery. In Scripture thefunction of the angel overshadows his personality; the stress is on their ministry; they appear in order toperform specific acts.

[Footnote 1: _E.g._ Gen. vi. 2; Job i. 6; Ps. viii. 5, xxix. I.]

[Footnote 2: Zech. xiv. 5.]

[Footnote 3: Dan. iv. 13.]

[Footnote 4: Deut. xvii. 3 (?).]

[Footnote 5: Josh. v. 14 (?).]

[Footnote 6: The identification of the "hosts" with the stars comes to the same thing; the stars were thought ofas closely connected with angels. It is probable that the "hosts" were also identified with the armies of Israel.]

[Footnote 7: Rev. i. 4.]

[Footnote 8: Gen. xxxii. 30; Judges xiii. 22.]

[Footnote 9: Exod. iii. 2, xiv.]

[Footnote 10: Zech. i. 11f.]

[Footnote 11: Cf. xviii. I with xviii. 2, and note change of number in xix. 17.]

[Footnote 12: Gen. xxviii. 12, E.]


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[Footnote 13: Gen. xxxii. I, E.]

[Footnote 14: Gen. xxxii. 24, 30, J.]

[Footnote 15: "An angel" of I Kings xiii. 18 might be the _Mal'akh Yahweh_, as in xix. 5, cf. 7, or thepassage, at any rate in its present form, may be exilic or post-exilic.]

[Footnote 16: Deut. vi. 4. 5.]

[Footnote 17: Isaiah xliii. 10 &c.]

[Footnote 18: It is not however certain that these doctrines of Zoroastrianism were developed at so early adate.]

[Footnote 19: Ezek. i.x.]

[Footnote 20: Ezek. ix.]

[Footnote 21: Zech. i. 11 f.]

[Footnote 22: Zech. iii. 1.]

[Footnote 23: Job i., ii. Cf. I Chron. xxi. 1.]

[Footnote 24: Pss. xci. 11, ciii. 20 &c.]

[Footnote 25: Tobit xii. 15; Rev. viii. 2.]

[Footnote 26: Dan. viii. 16, x. 13, 20, 21.]

[Footnote 27: Tob. xii. 15.]

[Footnote 28: Job iv. 18.]

[Footnote 29: Tobit iii. 8, 17, vi. 7.]

[Footnote 30: _E.g._ Matt. i. 20 (to Joseph), iv. 11. (to Jesus), Luke i. 26 (to Mary), Acts xii. 7 (to Peter).]

[Footnote 31: _E.g._ Mark viii. 38, xiii. 27.]

[Footnote 32: Mark xii. 25.]

[Footnote 33: Luke i. 19.]

[Footnote 34: Rev. ix. 11.]

[Footnote 35: Mark iii. 22.]

[Footnote 36: Mark i. 13.]

[Footnote 37: Michael, Jude 9.]


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[Footnote 38: Rom. viii. 38; Col, ii. 10.]

[Footnote 39: Col. i. 16.]

[Footnote 40: Rev. vii. 1.]

[Footnote 41: Gen. xviii. 8.]

[Footnote 42: Gen. xix. 16.]

[Footnote 43: Zech. iv. 1.]

[Footnote 44: Judges vi. 12, 21.]

[Footnote 45: Rev. vii. 1. viii.]

[Footnote 46: Rev. viii. 13, xiv. 6.]

[Footnote 47: Job xxxviii. 7; _Asc. of Isaiah_, iv. 18; Slav. _Enoch_, iv. 1.]

[Footnote 48: Rev. xiv. 18, xvi. 5; possibly Gal. iv. 3; Col. ii. 8, 20.]

[Footnote 49: Ps. lxviii. 17; Dan. vii. 10.]

[Footnote 50: Matt, xviii. 10; Acts xii. 15.]

[Footnote 51: Gal. iii. 19; Heb. ii. 2; LXX. of Deut. xxxiii. 2.]

BIBLIOGRAPHY.--See the sections on "Angels" in the handbooks of O.T. Theology by Ewald, Schultz,Smend, Kayser-Marti, &c.; and of N.T. Theology by Weiss, and in van Oosterzee's Dogmatics. Alsocommentaries on special passages, especially Driver and Bevan on _Daniel_, and G.A. Smith, _MinorProphets_, ii. 310 ff.; and articles _s.v._ "Angel" in Hastings' _Bible Dictionary_, and the EncyclopaediaBiblica.

(W.H. BE.)

ANGEL, a gold coin, first used in France (_angelot, ange_) in 1340, and introduced into England by EdwardIV. in 1465 as a new issue of the "noble," and so at first called the "angel-noble." It varied in value betweenthat period and the time of Charles I. (when it was last coined) from 6s. 8d. to 10s. The name was derivedfrom the representation it bore of St. Michael and the dragon. The angel was the coin given to those who cameto be touched for the disease known as king's evil; after it was no longer coined, medals, called touch-pieces,with the same device, were given instead.

ANGELICA, a genus of plants of the natural order _Umbelliferae_, represented in Britain by one species, _A.sylvestris_, a tall perennial herb with large bipinnate leaves and large compound umbels of white or purpleflowers. The name Angelica is popularly given to a plant of an allied genus, _Archangelica officinalis_, thetender shoots of which are used in making certain kinds of aromatic sweetmeats. Angelica balsam is obtainedby extracting the roots with alcohol, evaporating and extracting the residue with ether. It is of a dark browncolour and contains angelica oil, angelica wax and angelicin, C_{18}_H_{30}_O. The essential oil of theroots of Angelica archangelica contains ß-terebangelene, C_{10}_H_{16}, and other terpenes; the oil of theseeds also contains ß-terebangelene, together with methylethylacetic acid and hydroxymyristic acid.


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The angelica tree is a member of the order _Avaliaceae_, a species of _Aralia (A. spinosa_), a native of NorthAmerica; it grows 8 to 12 ft. high, has a simple prickle-bearing stem forming an umbrella-like head, and muchdivided leaves.

ANGELICO, FRA (1387-1455), Italian painter. Il Beato Fra Giovanni Angelico da Fiesole is the name givento a far-famed painter-friar of the Florentine state in the 15th century, the representative, beyond all othermen, of pietistic painting. He is often, but not accurately, termed simply "Fiesole," which is merely the nameof the town where he first took the vows; more often Fra Angelico. If we turn his compound designation intoEnglish, it runs thus--"the Beatified Friar John the Angelic of Fiesole." In his lifetime he was known no doubtsimply as Fra Giovanni or Friar John; "The Angelic" is a laudatory term which was assigned to him at an earlydate,--we find it in use within thirty years after his death; and, at some period which is not defined in ourauthorities, he was beatified by due ecclesiastical process. His baptismal name was Guido, Giovanni beingonly his name in religion. He was born at Vicchio, in the Tuscan province of Mugello, of unknown butseemingly well-to-do parentage, in 1387 (not 1390 as sometimes stated); in 1407 he became a novice in theconvent of S. Domenico at Fiesole, and in 1408 he took the vows and entered the Dominican order. Whetherhe had previously been a painter by profession is not certain, but may be pronounced probable. The painternamed Lorenzo Monaco may have contributed to his art-training, and the influence of the Sienese school isdiscernible in his work.

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According to Vasari, the first paintings of this artist were in the Certosa of Florence; none such exist therenow. His earliest extant performances, in considerable number, are at Cortona, whither he was sent during hisnovitiate, and here apparently he spent all the opening years of his monastic life. His first works executed infresco were probably those, now destroyed, which he painted in the convent of S. Domenico in this city; as afresco-painter, he may have worked under, or as a follower of, Gherardo Starnina. From 1418 to 1436 he wasback at Fiesole; in 1436 he was transferred to the Dominican convent of S. Marco in Florence, and in 1438undertook to paint the altarpiece for the choir, followed by many other works; he may have studied about thistime the renowned frescoes in the Brancacci chapel in the Florentine church of the Carmine and also thepaintings of Orcagna. In or about 1445 he was invited by the pope to Rome. The pope who reigned from 1431to 1447 was Eugenius IV., and he it was who in 1445 appointed another Dominican friar, a colleague ofAngelico, to be archbishop of Florence. If the story (first told by Vasari) is true--that this appointment wasmade at the suggestion of Angelico only after the archbishopric had been offered to himself, and by himdeclined on the ground of his inaptitude for so elevated and responsible a station--Eugenius, and not (as statedby Vasari) his successor Nicholas V., must have been the pope who sent the invitation and made the offer toFra Giovanni, for Nicholas only succeeded in 1447. The whole statement lacks authentication, though in itselfcredible enough. Certain it is that Angelico was staying in Rome in the first half of 1447; and he painted in theVatican the Cappella del Sacramento, which was afterwards demolished by Paul III. In June 1447 heproceeded to Orvieto, to paint in the Cappella Nuova of the cathedral, with the co-operation of his pupilBenozzo Gozzoli. He afterwards returned to Rome to paint the chapel of Nicholas V. In this capital he died in1455, and he lies buried in the church of the Minerva.

According to all the accounts which have reached us, few men on whom the distinction of beatification hasbeen conferred could have deserved it more nobly than Fra Giovanni. He led a holy and self-denying life,shunning all advancement, and was a brother to the poor; no man ever saw him angered. He painted withunceasing diligence, treating none but sacred subjects; he never retouched or altered his work, probably with areligious feeling that such as divine providence allowed the thing to come, such it should remain. He waswont to say that he who illustrates the acts of Christ should be with Christ. It is averred that he never handleda brush without fervent prayer and he wept when he painted a Crucifixion. The Last Judgment and theAnnunciation were two of the subjects he most frequently treated.


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Bearing in mind the details already given as to the dates of Fra Giovanni's sojournings in various localities,the reader will be able to trace approximately the sequence of the works which we now proceed to name asamong his most important productions. In Florence, in the convent of S. Marco (now converted into a nationalmuseum), a series of frescoes, beginning towards 1443; in the first cloister is the Crucifixion with St. Dominickneeling; and the same treatment recurs on a wall near the dormitory; in the chapterhouse is a thirdCrucifixion, with the Virgin swooning, a composition of twenty life-sized figures--the red background, whichhas a strange and harsh effect, is the misdoing of some restorer; an "Annunciation," the figures of aboutthree-fourths of life-size, in a dormitory; in the adjoining passage, the "Virgin enthroned," with four saints; onthe wall of a cell, the "Coronation of the Virgin," with Saints Paul, Thomas Aquinas, Benedict, Dominic,Francis and Peter Martyr; two Dominicans welcoming Jesus, habited as a pilgrim; an "Adoration of theMagi"; the "Marys at the Sepulchre." All these works are later than the altarpiece which Angelico painted (asbefore mentioned) for the choir connected with this convent, and which is now in the academy of Florence; itrepresents the Virgin with Saints Cosmas and Damian (the patrons of the Medici family), Dominic, Peter,Francis, Mark, John Evangelist and Stephen; the pediment illustrated the lives of Cosmas and Damian, but ithas long been severed from the main subject. In the Uffizi gallery, an altarpiece, the Virgin (life-sized)enthroned, with the Infant and twelve angels. In S. Domenico, Fiesole, a few frescoes, less fine than those inS. Marco; also an altarpiece in tempera of the Virgin and Child between Saints Peter, Thomas Aquinas,Dominic and Peter Martyr, now much destroyed. The subject which originally formed the predella of thispicture has, since 1860, been in the National Gallery, London, and worthily represents there the hand of thesaintly painter. The subject is a Glory, Christ with the banner of the Resurrection, and a multitude of saints,including, at the extremities, the saints or beati of the Dominican order; here are no fewer than 266 figures orportions of figures, many of them having names inscribed. This predella was highly lauded by Vasari; stillmore highly another picture which used to form an altarpiece in Fiesole, and which now obtains world-widecelebrity in the Louvre--the "Coronation of the Virgin," with eight predella subjects of the miracles of St.Dominic. For the church of Santa Trinita, Florence, Angelico executed a "Deposition from the Cross," and forthe church of the Angeli, a "Last Judgment," both now in the Florentine academy; for S. Maria Novella, a"Coronation of the Virgin," with a predella in three sections, now in the Uffizi,--this again is one of hismasterpieces. In Orvieto cathedral he painted three triangular divisions of the ceiling, portraying respectivelyChrist in a glory of angels, sixteen saints and prophets, and the virgin and apostles: all these are now muchrepainted and damaged. In Rome, in the Chapel of Nicholas V., the acts of Saints Stephen and Lawrence; alsovarious figures of saints, and on the ceiling the four evangelists. These works of the painter's advanced age,which have suffered somewhat from restorations, show vigour superior to that of his youth, along with a moreadequate treatment of the architectural perspectives. Naturally, there are a number of works currentlyattributed to Angelico, but not really his; for instance, a "St Thomas with the Madonna's girdle," in theLateran museum, and a "Virgin enthroned," in the church of S. Girolamo, Fiesole. It has often been said thathe commenced and frequently practised as an illuminator; this is dubious and a presumption arises thatilluminations executed by Giovanni's brother, Benedetto, also a Dominican, who died in 1448, have beenascribed to the more famous artist. Benedetto may perhaps have assisted Giovanni in the frescoes at S. Marco,but nothing of the kind is distinctly traceable. A folio series of engravings from these paintings was publishedin Florence, in 1852. Along with Gozzoli already mentioned, Zanobi Strozzi and Gentile da Fabriano arenamed as pupils of the Beato.

We have spoken of Angelico's art as "pietistic"; this is in fact its predominant character. His visages have anair of rapt suavity, devotional fervency and beaming esoteric consciousness, which is intensely attractive tosome minds and realizes beyond rivalry a particular ideal--that of ecclesiastical saintliness and detachmentfrom secular fret and turmoil. It should not be denied that he did not always escape the pitfalls of such amethod of treatment, the faces becoming sleek and prim, with a smirk of sexless religiosity which hardlyeludes the artificial or even the hypocritical; on other minds, therefore, and these some of the most masculineand resolute, he produces little genuine impression. After allowing for this, Angelico should nevertheless beaccepted beyond cavil as an exalted typical painter according to his own range of conceptions, consonant withhis monastic calling, unsullied purity of life and exceeding devoutness. Exquisite as he is in his special modeof execution, he undoubtedly falls far short, not only of his great naturalist contemporaries such as Masaccio


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and Lippo Lippi, but even of so distant a precursor as Giotto, in all that pertains to bold or life-like inventionof a subject or the realization of ordinary appearances, expressions and actions--the facts of nature, asdistinguished from the aspirations or contemplations of the spirit. Technically speaking, he had much finishand harmony of composition and colour, without corresponding mastery of light and shade, and hisknowledge of the human frame was restricted. The brilliancy and fair light scale of his tints is constantlyremarkable, combined with a free use of gilding; this conduces materially to that celestial character which sopre-eminently distinguishes his pictured visions of the divine persons, the hierarchy of heaven and the glory ofthe redeemed.

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Books regarding Fra Angelico are numerous. We may mention those by S. Beissel, 1895; V.M. Crawford,1900; R.L. Douglas, 1900; I.B. Supino, 1901; D. Tumiati, 1897; G. Williamson, 1901.


ANGELL, GEORGE THORNDIKE (1823-1909), American philanthropist, was born at Southbridge,Massachusetts, on the 5th of June 1823. He graduated at Dartmouth in 1846, studied law at the Harvard LawSchool, and in 1851 was admitted to the bar in Boston, where he practised for many years. In 1868 he foundedand became president of the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, in the same yearestablishing and becoming editor of _Our Dumb Animals_, a journal for the promotion of organized effort insecuring the humane treatment of animals. For many years he was active in the organization of humanesocieties in England and America. In 1882 he initiated the movement for the establishment of Bands of Mercy(for the promotion of humane treatment of animals), of which in 1908 there were more than 72,000 in activeexistence. In 1889 he founded and became president of the American Humane Education Society. He becamewell known as a criminologist and also as an advocate of laws for the safeguarding of the public health andagainst adulteration of food. He died at Boston on the 16th of March 1909.

ANGEL-LIGHTS, in architecture, the outer upper lights in a perpendicular window, next to the springing;probably a corruption of the word angle-lights, as they are nearly triangular.

ANGELUS, a Roman Catholic devotion in memory of the Annunciation. It has its name from the openingwords, Angelus Domini nuntiavit Mariae. It consists of three texts describing the mystery, recited as versicleand response alternately with the salutation "Hail, Mary!" This devotion is recited in the Catholic Churchthree times daily, about 6 A.M., noon and 6 P.M. At these hours a bell known as the Angelus bell is rung. Thisis still rung in some English country churches, and has often been mistaken for and alleged to be a survival ofthe curfew bell. The institution of the Angelus is by some ascribed to Pope Urban II., by some to John XXII.The triple recitation is ascribed to Louis XI. of France, who in 1472 ordered it to be thrice said daily.

ANGELUS SILESIUS (1624-1677), German religious poet, was born in 1624 at Breslau. His family namewas Johann Scheffler, but he is generally known by the pseudonym Angelus Silesius, under which hepublished his poems and which marks the country of his birth. Brought up a Lutheran, and at first physician tothe duke of Württemberg-Oels, he joined in 1652 the Roman Catholic Church, in 1661 took orders as a priest,and became coadjutor to the prince bishop of Breslau. He died at Breslau on the 9th of July 1677. In 1657Silesius published under the title _Heilige Seelenlust, oder geistliche Hirtenlieder der in ihren Jesumverliebten Psyche_ (1657), a collection of 205 hymns, the most beautiful of which, such as, _Liebe, die dumich zum Bilde deiner Gottheit hast gemacht_ and _Mir nach, spricht Christus, unser Held_, have beenadopted in the German Protestant hymnal. More remarkable, however, is his _Geistreiche Sinn-undSchluss-reime_ (1657), afterwards called Cherubinischer Wandersmann (1674). This is a collection of"Reimsprüche" or rhymed distichs embodying a strange mystical pantheism drawn mainly from the writingsof Jakob Böhme and his followers. Silesius delighted specially in the subtle paradoxes of mysticism. Theessence of God, for instance, he held to be love; God, he said, can love nothing inferior to himself; but he


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cannot be an object of love to himself without going out, so to speak, of himself, without manifesting hisinfinity in a finite form; in other words, by becoming man. God and man are therefore essentially one.

A complete edition of Scheffler's works (_Sämtliche poetische Werke_) was published by D.A. Rosenthal, 2vols. (Regensburg, 1862). Both the Cherubinischer Wandersmann and Heilige Seelenlust have beenrepublished by G. Ellinger (1895 and 1901); a selection from the former work by O.E. Hartleben (1896). Forfurther notices of Silesius' life and work, see Hoffmann von Fallersleben in Weimarisches Jahrbuch I.(Hanover, 1854); A. Kahlert, Angelus Silesius (1853); C. Seltmann, Angelus Silesius und seine Mystik (1896),and a biog. by H. Mahn (Dresden, 1896).

ANGERMÜNDE, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, on Lake Münde, 43 m. fromBerlin by the Berlin-Stettin railway, and at the junction of lines to Prenzlau, Freien-walde and Schwedt. Pop.(1900) 7465. It has three Protestant churches, a grammar school and court of law. Its industries embrace ironfounding and enamel working. In 1420 the elector Frederick I. of Brandenburg gained here a signal victoryover the Pomeranians.

ANGERONA, or ANGERONIA, an old Roman goddess, whose name and functions are variously explained.According to ancient authorities, she was a goddess who relieved men from pain and sorrow, or delivered theRomans and their flocks from angina (quinsy); or she was the protecting goddess of Rome and the keeper ofthe sacred name of the city, which might not be pronounced lest it should be revealed to her enemies; it waseven thought that Angerona itself was this name. Modern scholars regard her as a goddess akin to Ops, AccaLarentia and Dea Dia; or as the goddess of the new year and the returning sun (according to Mommsen, _abangerendo_= [Greek: apo tou anapheresthai. ton haelion).] Her festival, called Divalia or Angeronalia, wascelebrated on the 21st of December. The priests offered sacrifice in the temple of Volupia, the goddess ofpleasure, in which stood a statue of Angerona, with a finger on her mouth, which was bound and closed(Macrobius i. 10; Pliny, _Nat. Hist._ iii. 9; Varro, _L. L._ vi. 23). She was worshipped as Ancharia atFaesulae, where an altar belonging to her has been recently discovered. (See FAESULAE.)

ANGERS, a city of western France, capital of the department of Maine-et-Loire, 191 m. S.W. of Paris by theWestern railway to Nantes. Pop. (1906) 73,585. It occupies rising ground on both banks of the Maine, whichare united by three bridges. The surrounding district is famous for its flourishing nurseries and marketgardens. Pierced with wide, straight streets, well provided with public gardens, and surrounded by ample,tree-lined boulevards, beyond which lie new suburbs, Angers is one of the pleasantest towns in France. Of itsnumerous medieval buildings the most important is the cathedral of St. Maurice, dating in the main from the12th and 13th centuries. Between the two flanking towers of the west façade, the spires of which are of the16th century, rises a central tower of the same period. The most prominent feature of the façade is the series ofeight warriors carved on the base of this tower. The vaulting of the nave takes the form of a series of cupolas,and that of the choir and transept is similar. The chief treasures of the church are its rich stained glass (12th,13th and 15th centuries) and valuable tapestry (14th to 18th centuries). The bishop's palace which adjoins thecathedral contains a fine synodal hall of the 12th century. Of the other churches of Angers, the principal areSt. Serge, an abbey-church of the 12th and 15th centuries, and La Trinité (12th century). The prefectureoccupies the buildings of the famous abbey of St. Aubin; in its courtyard are elaborately sculptured arcades ofthe 11th and 12th centuries, from which period dates the tower, the only survival of the splendidabbey-church. Ruins of the old churches of Toussaint (13th century) and Notre-Dame du Ronceray (11thcentury) are also to be seen. The castle of Angers, an imposing building girt with towers and a moat, datesfrom the 13th century and is now used as an armoury. The ancient hospital of St. Jean (12th century) isoccupied by an archaeological museum; and the Logis Barrault, a mansion built about 1500, contains thepublic library, the municipal museum, which has a large collection of pictures and sculptures, and the MuséeDavid, containing works by the famous sculptor David d'Angers, who was a native of the town. One of hismasterpieces, a bronze statue of René of Anjou, stands close by the castle. The Hôtel de Pincé or d'Anjou(1523-1530) is the finest of the stone mansions of Angers; there are also many curious wooden houses of the15th and 16th centuries. The palais de justice, the Catholic institute, a fine theatre, and a hospital with 1500


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beds are the more remarkable of the modern buildings of the town. Angers is the seat of a bishopric, datingfrom the 3rd century, a prefecture, a court of appeal and a court of assizes. It has a tribunal of first instance, atribunal of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a chamber of commerce, a branch of the Bank of Franceand several learned societies. Its educational institutions include ecclesiastical seminaries, a lycée, apreparatory school of medicine and pharmacy, a university with free faculties (_facultés libres_) of theology,law, letters and science, a higher school of agriculture, training colleges, a school of arts and handicrafts and aschool of fine art. The prosperity of the town is largely due to the great slate-quarries of the vicinity, but thedistillation of liqueurs from fruit, cable, rope and thread-making, and the manufacture of boots and shoes,umbrellas and parasols are leading industries. The weaving of sail-cloth and woollen and other fabrics,machine construction, wire-drawing, and manufacture of sparkling wines and preserved fruits are also carriedon. The chief articles of commerce, besides slate and manufactured goods, are hemp, early vegetables, fruit,flowers and live-stock.

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Angers, capital of the Gallic tribe of the Andecavi, was under the Romans called Juliomagus. During the 9thcentury it became the seat of the counts of Anjou (_q.v._). It suffered severely from the invasions of theNorthmen in 845 and the succeeding years, and of the English in the 12th and 15th centuries; the Huguenotstook it in 1585, and the Vendean royalists were repulsed near it in 1793. Till the Revolution, Angers was theseat of a celebrated university founded in the 14th century.

See L.M. Thorode, _Notice de la ville d'Angers_ (Angers, 1897).

ANGERSTEIN, JOHN JULIUS (1735-1822), London merchant, and patron of the fine arts, was born at St.Petersburg and settled in London about 1749. His collection of paintings, consisting of about forty of the mostexquisite specimens of the art, purchased by the British government, on his death, formed the nucleus of theNational Gallery.

ANGILBERT (d. 814), Frankish Latin poet, and minister of Charlemagne, was of noble Frankish parentage,and educated at the palace school under Alcuin. As the friend and adviser of the emperor's son, Pippin, heassisted for a while in the government of Italy, and was later sent on three important embassies to the pope, in792, 794 and 796. Although he was the father of two children by Charlemagne's daughter, Bertha, one of themnamed Nithard, we have no authentic account of his marriage, and from 790 he was abbot of St. Riquier,where his brilliant rule gained for him later the renown of a saint. Angilbert, however, was little like the truemedieval saint; his poems reveal rather the culture and tastes of a man of the world, enjoying the closestintimacy with the imperial family. He accompanied Charlemagne to Rome in 800 and was one of thewitnesses to his will in 814. Angilbert was the Homer of the emperor's literary circle, and was the probableauthor of an epic, of which the fragment which has been preserved describes the life at the palace and themeeting between Charlemagne and Leo III. It is a mosaic from Virgil, Ovid, Lucan and Fortunatus, composedin the manner of Einhard's use of Suetonius, and exhibits a true poetic gift. Of the shorter poems, besides thegreeting to Pippin on his return from the campaign against the Avars (796), an epistle to David (Charlemagne)incidentally reveals a delightful picture of the poet living with his children in a house surrounded by pleasantgardens near the emperor's palace. The reference to Bertha, however, is distant and respectful, her nameoccurring merely on the list of princesses to whom he sends his salutation.

Angilbert's poems have been published by E. Dummler in the Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Forcriticisms of this edition see Traube in Roederer's _Schriften für germanische Philologie_ (1888). See also A.Molinier, _Les Sources de l'histoire de France._

ANGINA PECTORIS (Latin for "pain of the chest"), a term applied to a violent paroxysm of pain, arisingalmost invariably in connexion with disease of the coronary arteries, a lesion causing progressivedegeneration of the heart muscle (see HEART: _Disease_). An attack of angina pectoris usually comes on


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with a sudden seizure of pain, felt at first over the region of the heart, but radiating through the chest invarious directions, and frequently extending down the left arm. A feeling of constriction and of suffocationaccompanies the pain, although there is seldom actual difficulty in breathing. When the attack comes on, as itoften does, in the course of some bodily exertion, the sufferer is at once brought to rest, and during thecontinuance of the paroxysm experiences the most intense agony. The countenance becomes pale, the surfaceof the body cold, the pulse feeble, and death appears to be imminent, when suddenly the attack subsides andcomplete relief is obtained. The duration of a paroxysm rarely exceeds two or three minutes, but it may lastfor a longer period. The attacks are apt to recur on slight exertion, and even in aggravated cases without anysuch exciting cause. Occasionally the first seizure proves fatal; but more commonly death takes place as theresult of repeated attacks. Angina pectoris is extremely rare under middle life, and is much more common inmales than in females. It must always be regarded as a disorder of a very serious nature. In the treatment ofthe paroxysm, nitrite of amyl has now replaced all other remedies. It can be carried by the patient in the formof nitrite of amyl pearls, each pearl containing the dose prescribed by the physician. Kept in this way the drugdoes not lose strength. As soon as the pain begins the patient crushes a pearl in his handkerchief and holds itto his mouth and nose. The relief given in this way is marvellous and usually takes place within a very fewseconds. In the rare cases where this drug does not relieve, hypodermic injections of morphia are used. But onaccount of the well-known dangers of this drug, it should only be administered by a medical man. To preventrecurrence of the attacks something may be done by scrupulous attention to the general health, and by theavoidance of mental and physical strain. But the most important preventive of all is "bed," of which fourteendays must be enforced on the least premonition of anginal pain.

_Pseudo-angina_.--In connexion with angina pectoris, a far more common condition must be mentioned thathas now universally received the name of pseudo-angina. This includes the praecordial pains which veryclosely resemble those of true angina. The essential difference lies in the fact that pseudo-angina isindependent of structural disease of the heart and coronary arteries. In true angina there is some conditionwithin the heart which starts the stimulus sent to the nerve centres. In pseudo-angina the starting-point is notthe heart but some peripheral or visceral nerve. The impulse passes thence to the medulla, and so reaching thesensory centres starts a feeling of pain that radiates into the chest or down the arm. There are three mainvarieties:--(1) the reflex, (2) the vaso-motor, (3) the toxic. The reflex is by far the most common, and isgenerally due to irritation from one of the abdominal organs. An attack of pseudo-angina may be agonizing,the pain radiating through the chest and into the left arm, but the patient does not usually assume themotionless attitude of true angina, and the duration of the seizure is usually much longer. The treatment is thatof the underlying neurosis and the prognosis is a good one, sudden death not occurring.

ANGIOSPERMS. The botanical term "Angiosperm" ([Greek: angeion], receptacle, and [Greek: sperma],seed) was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of that one of his primarydivisions of the plant kingdom, which included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, incontradistinction to his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits--the wholefruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked. The term and its antonym were maintainedby Linnaeus with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his classDidynamia. Its use with any approach to its modern scope only became possible after Robert Brown hadestablished in 1827 the existence of truly naked seeds in the Cycadeae and Coniferae, entitling them to becorrectly called Gymnosperms. From that time onwards, so long as these Gymnosperms were, as was usual,reckoned as dicotyledonous flowering plants, the term Angiosperm was used antithetically by botanicalwriters, but with varying limitation, as a group-name for other dicotyledonous plants. The advent in 1851 ofHofmeister's brilliant discovery of the changes proceeding in the embryo-sac of flowering plants, and hisdetermination of the correct relationships of these with the Cryptogamia, fixed the true position ofGymnosperms as a class distinct from Dicotyledons, and the term Angiosperm then gradually came to beaccepted as the suitable designation for the whole of the flowering plants other than Gymnosperms, and asincluding therefore the classes of Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons. This is the sense in which the term isnowadays received and in which it is used here.


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The trend of the evolution of the plant kingdom has been in the direction of the establishment of a vegetationof fixed habit and adapted to the vicissitudes of a life on land, and the Angiosperms are the highest expressionof this evolution and constitute the dominant vegetation of the earth's surface at the present epoch. There is noland-area from the poles to the equator, where plant-life is possible, upon which Angiosperms are not found.They occur also abundantly in the shallows of rivers and fresh-water lakes, and in less number in salt lakesand in the sea; such aquatic Angiosperms are not, however, primitive forms, but are derived from immediateland-ancestors. Associated with this diversity of habitat is great variety in general form and manner of growth.The familiar duckweed which covers the surface of a pond consists of a tiny green "thalloid" shoot, one, thatis, which shows no distinction of parts--stem and leaf, and a simple root growing vertically downwards intothe water. The great forest-tree has a shoot, which in the course perhaps of hundreds of years, has developed awide-spreading system of trunk and branches, bearing on the ultimate twigs or branchlets innumerable leaves,while beneath the soil a widely-branching root-system covers an area of corresponding extent. Between thesetwo extremes is every conceivable gradation, embracing aquatic and terrestrial herbs, creeping, erect orclimbing in habit, shrubs and trees, and representing a much greater variety than is to be found in the othersubdivision of seed-plants, the Gymnosperms.

_Internal structure._

In internal structure also the variety of tissue-formation far exceeds that found in Gymnosperms (seePLANTS: _Anatomy_). The vascular bundles of the stem belong to the collateral type, that is to say, theelements of the wood or xylem and the bast or phloem stand side by side on the same radius. In the larger ofthe two great groups into which the Angiosperms are divided, the Dicotyledons, the bundles in the very youngstem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex. In each bundle, separatingthe xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue, known as cambium; by the formationof a layer of cambium between the bundles (interfascicular cambium) a complete ring is formed, and a regularperiodical increase in thickness results from it by the development of xylem on the inside and phloem on theoutside. The soft phloem soon becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists, and forms the great bulk of thestem and branches of the woody perennial. Owing to differences in the character of the elements produced atthe beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in transverse section into concentric rings, onefor each season of growth--the so-called annual rings. In the smaller group, the Monocotyledons, the bundlesare more numerous in the young stem and scattered through the ground tissue. Moreover they contain nocambium and the stem once formed increases in diameter only in exceptional cases.

_Vegetative organs._

As in Gymnosperms, branching is monopodial; dichotomy or the forking of the growing point into twoequivalent branches which replace the main stem, is absent both in the case of the stem and the root. Theleaves show a remarkable variety in form (see LEAF), but are generally small in comparison with the size ofthe plant; exceptions occur in some Monocotyledons, _e.g._ in the Aroid family, where in some genera theplant produces one huge, much-branched leaf each season.

In rare cases the main axis is unbranched and ends in a flower, as, for instance, in the tulip, wherescale-leaves, forming the underground bulb, green foliage-leaves and coloured floral leaves are borne on oneand the same axis. Generally, flowers are formed only on shoots of a higher order, often only on the ultimatebranches of a much branched system. A potential branch or bud, either foliage or flower, is formed in the axilof each leaf; sometimes more than one bud arises, as for instance in the walnut, where two or three stand invertical series above each leaf. Many of the buds remain dormant, or are called to development underexceptional circ*mstances, such as the destruction of existing branches. For instance, the clipping of a hedgeor the lopping of a tree will cause to develop numerous buds which may have been dormant for years.Leaf-buds occasionally arise from the roots, when they are called adventitious; this occurs in many fruit trees,


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poplars, elms and others. For instance, the young shoots seen springing from the ground around an elm are notseedlings but root-shoots. Frequently, as in many Dicotyledons, the primary root, the original root of theseedling, persists throughout the life of the plant, forming, as often in biennials, a thickened tap-root, as incarrot, or in perennials, a much-branched root system. In many Dicotyledons and most Monocotyledons, theprimary root soon perishes, and its place is taken by adventitious roots developed from the stem.


The most characteristic feature of the Angiosperm is the flower, which shows remarkable variety in form andelaboration, and supplies the most trustworthy characters for the distinction of the series and families ornatural orders, into which the group is divided. The flower is a shoot (stem bearing leaves) which has a specialform associated with the special function of ensuring the fertilization of the egg and the development of fruitcontaining seed. Except where it is terminal it arises, like the leaf-shoot, in the axil of a leaf, which is thenknown as a bract. Occasionally, as in violet, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf; it isthen termed axillary. Generally, however, the flower-bearing portion of the plant is sharply distinguished fromthe foliage leaf-bearing or vegetative portion, and forms a more or less elaborate branch-system in which thebracts are small and scale-like. Such a branch-system is called an inflorescence. The primary function of theflower is to bear the spores. These, as in Gymnosperms, are of two kinds, microspores or pollen-grains, bornein the stamens (or microsporophylls) and megaspores, in which the egg-cell is developed, contained in theovule, which is borne enclosed in the carpel (or megasporophyll). The flower may consist only ofspore-bearing leaves, as in willow, where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. Usually,however, other leaves are present which are only indirectly concerned with the reproductive process, acting asprotective organs for the sporophylls or forming an attractive envelope. These form the perianth and are in oneseries, when the flower is termed monochlamydeous, or in two series (dichlamydeous). In the second case theouter series (calyx of sepals) is generally green and leaf-like, its function being to protect the rest of theflower, especially in the bud; while the inner series (corolla of petals) is generally white or brightly coloured,and more delicate in structure, its function being to attract the particular insect or bird by agency of whichpollination is effected. The insect, &c., is attracted by the colour and scent of the flower, and frequently alsoby honey which is secreted in some part of the flower. (For further details on the form and arrangement of theflower and its parts, see FLOWER.)

_Stamen and pollen._

Each stamen generally bears four pollen-sacs (_microsporangia_) which are associated to form the anther, andcarried up on a stalk or filament. The development of the microsporangia and the contained spores(pollen-grains) is closely comparable with that of the microsporangia in Gymnosperms or heterosporous ferns.The pollen is set free by the opening (dehiscence) of the anther, generally by means of longitudinal slits, butsometimes by pores, as in the heath family (Ericaceae), or by valves, as in the barberry. It is then dropped orcarried by some external agent, wind, water or some member of the animal kingdom, on to the receptivesurface of the carpel of the same or another flower. The carpel, or aggregate of carpels forming the pistil orgynaeceum, comprises an ovary containing one or more ovules and a receptive surface or stigma; the stigma issometimes carried up on a style. The mature pollen-grain is, like other spores, a single cell; except in the caseof some submerged aquatic plants, it has a double wall, a thin delicate wall of unaltered cellulose, theendospore or intine, and a tough outer cuticularized exospore or extine. The exospore often bears spines orwarts, or is variously sculptured, and the character of the markings is often of value for the distinction ofgenera or higher groups. Germination of the microspore begins before it leaves the pollen-sac. In very fewcases has anything representing prothallial development been observed; generally a small cell (the antheridialor generative cell) is cut off, leaving a larger tube-cell. When placed on the stigma, under favourablecirc*mstances, the pollen-grain puts forth a pollen-tube which grows down the tissue of the style to the ovary,and makes its way along the placenta, guided by projections or hairs, to the mouth of an ovule. The nucleus ofthe tube-cell has meanwhile passed into the tube, as does also the generative nucleus which divides to formtwo male- or sperm-cells. The male-cells are carried to their destination in the tip of the pollen-tube.


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_Pistil and embryo-sac._

The ovary contains one or more ovules borne on a placenta, which is generally some part of the ovary-wall.The development of the ovule, which represents the macrosporangium, is very similar to the process inGymnosperms; when mature it consists of one or two coats surrounding the central nucellus, except at theapex where an opening, the micropyle, is left. The nucellus is a cellular tissue enveloping one large cell, theembryo-sac or macrospore. The germination of the macrospore consists in the repeated division of its nucleusto form two groups of four, one group at each end of the embryo-sac. One nucleus from each group, the polarnucleus, passes to the centre of the sac, where the two fuse to form the so-called definitive nucleus. Of thethree cells at the micropylar end of the sac, all naked cells (the so-called egg-apparatus), one is the egg-cell oroosphere, the other two, which may be regarded as representing abortive egg-cells (in rare cases capable offertilization), are known as synergidae. The three cells at the opposite end are known as antipodal cells andbecome invested with a cell-wall. The gametophyte or prothallial generation is thus extremely reduced,consisting of but little more than the male and female sexual cells--the two sperm-cells in the pollen-tube andthe egg-cell (with the synergidae) in the embryo-sac.


At the period of fertilization the embryo-sac lies in close proximity to the opening of the micropyle, intowhich the pollen-tube has penetrated, the separating cell-wall becomes absorbed, and the male or sperm-cellsare ejected into the embryo-sac. Guided by the synergidae one male-cell passes into the oosphere with whichit fuses, the two nuclei uniting, while the other fuses with the definitive nucleus, or, as it is also called, theendosperm nucleus. This remarkable double fertilization as it has been called, although only recentlydiscovered, has been proved to take place in widely-separated families, and both in Monocotyledons andDicotyledons, and there is every probability that, perhaps with variations, it is the normal process inAngiosperms. After impregnation the fertilized oosphere immediately surrounds itself with a cell-wall andbecomes the oospore which by a process of growth forms the embryo of the new plant. Theendosperm-nucleus divides rapidly to produce a cellular tissue which fills up the interior of therapidly-growing embryo-sac, and forms a tissue, known as endosperm, in which is stored a supply ofnourishment for the use later on of the embryo. It has long been known that after fertilization of the egg hastaken place, the formation of endosperm begins from the endosperm nucleus, and this had come to beregarded as the recommencement of the development of a prothallium after a pause following thereinvigorating union of the polar nuclei. This view is still maintained by those who differentiate two acts offertilization within the embryo-sac, and regard that of the egg by the first male-cell, as the true or generativefertilization, and that of the polar nuclei by the second male gamete as a vegetative fertilization which gives astimulus to development in correlation with the other. If, on the other hand, the endosperm is the product of anact of fertilization as definite as that giving rise to the embryo itself, we have to recognize that twin-plants areproduced within the embryo-sac--one, the embryo, which becomes the angiospermous plant, the other, theendosperm, a short-lived, undifferentiated nurse to assist in the nutrition of the former, even as the subsidiaryembryos in a pluri-embryonic Gymnosperm may facilitate the nutrition of the dominant one. If this is so, andthe endosperm like the embryo is normally the product of a sexual act, hybridization will give a hybridendosperm as it does a hybrid embryo, and herein (it is suggested) we may have the explanation of thephenomenon of xenia observed in the mixed endosperms of hybrid races of maize and other plants, regardingwhich it has only been possible hitherto to assert that they were indications of the extension of the influence ofthe pollen beyond the egg and its product. This would not, however, explain the formation of fruitsintermediate in size and colour between those of crossed parents. The signification of the coalescence of thepolar nuclei is not explained by these new facts, but it is noteworthy that the second male-cell is said to unitesometimes with the apical polar nucleus, the sister of the egg, before the union of this with the basal polar one.The idea of the endosperm as a second subsidiary plant is no new one; it was suggested long ago inexplanation of the coalescence of the polar nuclei, but it was then based on the assumption that these


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represented male and female cells, an assumption for which there was no evidence and which was inherentlyimprobable. The proof of a coalescence of the second male nucleus with the definitive nucleus gives theconception a more stable basis. The antipodal cells aid more or less in the process of nutrition of thedeveloping embryo, and may undergo multiplication, though they ultimately disintegrate, as do also thesynergidae. As in Gymnosperms and other groups an interesting qualitative change is associated with theprocess of fertilization. The number of chromosomes (see PLANTS: _Cytology_) in the nucleus of the twospores, pollen-grain and embryo-sac, is only half the number found in an ordinary vegetative nucleus; and thisreduced number persists in the cells derived from them. The full number is restored in the fusion of the maleand female nuclei in the process of fertilization, and remains until the formation of the cells from which thespores are derived in the new generation.

In several natural orders and genera departures from the course of development just described have beennoted. In the natural order Rosaceae, the series Querciflorae, and the very anomalous genus Casuarina andothers, instead of a single macrospore a more or less extensive sporogenous tissue is formed, but only one cellproceeds to the formation of a functional female cell. In _Casuarina_, Juglans and the order Corylaceae, thepollen-tube does not enter by means of the micropyle, but passing down the ovary wall and through theplacenta, enters at the chalazal end of the ovule. Such a method of entrance is styled chalazogamic, in contrastto the porogamic or ordinary method of approach by means of the micropyle.


The result of fertilization is the development of the ovule into the seed. By the segmentation of the fertilizedegg, now invested by cell-membrane, the embryo-plant arises. A varying number of transverse segment-wallstransform it into a pro-embryo--a cellular row of which the cell nearest the micropyle becomes attached to theapex of the embryo-sac, and thus fixes the position of the developing embryo, while the terminal cell isprojected into its cavity. In Dicotyledons the shoot of the embryo is wholly derived from the terminal cell ofthe pro-embryo, from the next cell the root arises, and the remaining ones form the suspensor. In manyMonocotyledons the terminal cell forms the cotyledonary portion alone of the shoot of the embryo, its axialpart and the root being derived from the adjacent cell; the cotyledon is thus a terminal structure and the apexof the primary stem a lateral one--a condition in marked contrast with that of the Dicotyledons. In someMonocotyledons, however, the cotyledon is not really terminal. The primary root of the embryo in allAngiosperms points towards the micropyle. The developing embryo at the end of the suspensor grows out to avarying extent into the forming endosperm, from which by surface absorption it derives good material forgrowth; at the same time the suspensor plays a direct part as a carrier of nutrition, and may even develop,where perhaps no endosperm is formed, special absorptive "suspensor roots" which invest the developingembryo, or pass out into the body and coats of the ovule, or even into the placenta. In some cases the embryoor the embryo-sac sends out suckers into the nucellus and ovular integument. As the embryo develops it mayabsorb all the food material available, and store, either in its cotyledons or in its hypocotyl, what is notimmediately required for growth, as reserve-food for use in germination, and by so doing it increases in sizeuntil it may fill entirely the embryo-sac; or its absorptive power at this stage may be limited to what isnecessary for growth and it remains of relatively small size, occupying but a small area of the embryo-sac,which is otherwise filled with endosperm in which the reserve-food is stored. There are also intermediatestates. The position of the embryo in relation to the endosperm varies, sometimes it is internal, sometimesexternal, but the significance of this has not yet been established.

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The formation of endosperm starts, as has been stated, from the endosperm nucleus. Its segmentation alwaysbegins before that of the egg, and thus there is timely preparation for the nursing of the young embryo. If in itsextension to contain the new formations within it the embryo-sac remains narrow, endosperm formationproceeds upon the lines of a cell-division, but in wide embryo-sacs the endosperm is first of all formed as alayer of naked cells around the wall of the sac, and only gradually acquires a pluricellular character, forming a


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tissue filling the sac. The function of the endosperm is primarily that of nourishing the embryo, and its basalposition in the embryo-sac places it favourably for the absorption of food material entering the ovule. Itsduration varies with the precocity of the embryo. It may be wholly absorbed by the progressive growth of theembryo within the embryo-sac, or it may persist as a definite and more or less conspicuous constituent of theseed. When it persists as a massive element of the seed its nutritive function is usually apparent, for there isaccumulated within its cells reserve-food, and according to the dominant substance it is starchy, oily, or richin cellulose, mucilage or proteid. In cases where the embryo has stored reserve food within itself and thusprovided for self-nutrition, such endosperm as remains in the seed may take on other functions, for instance,that of water-absorption.

Some deviations from the usual course of development may be noted. Parthenogenesis, or the development ofan embryo from an egg-cell without the latter having been fertilized, has been described in species of_Thalictrum_, Antennaria and Alchemilla. Polyembryony is generally associated with the development ofcells other than the egg-cell. Thus in Erythronium and Limnocharis the fertilized egg may form a mass oftissue on which several embryos are produced. Isolated cases show that any of the cells within the embryo-sacmay exceptionally form an embryo, _e.g._ the synergidae in species of _Mimosa_, Iris and _Allium_, and inthe last-mentioned the antipodal cells also. In Coelebogyne (Euphorbiaceae) and in Funkia (Liliaceae)polyembryony results from an adventitious production of embryos from the cells of the nucellus around thetop of the embryo-sac. In a species of _Allium_, embryos have been found developing in the same individualfrom the egg-cell, synergids, antipodal cells and cells of the nucellus. In two Malayan species of_Balanophora_, the embryo is developed from a cell of the endosperm, which is formed from the upper polarnucleus only, the egg apparatus becoming disorganized. The last-mentioned case has been regarded asrepresenting an apogamous development of the sporophyte from the gametophyte comparable to the cases ofapogamy described in Ferns. But the great diversity of these abnormal cases as shown in the examples citedabove suggests the use of great caution in formulating definite morphological theories upon them.

_Fruit and seed._

As the development of embryo and endosperm proceeds within the embryo-sac, its wall enlarges andcommonly absorbs the substance of the nucellus (which is likewise enlarging) to near its outer limit, andcombines with it and the integument to form the _seed-coat_; or the whole nucellus and even the integumentmay be absorbed. In some plants the nucellus is not thus absorbed, but itself becomes a seat of deposit ofreserve-food constituting the perisperm which may coexist with endosperm, as in the water-lily order, or mayalone form a food-reserve for the embryo, as in Canna. Endospermic food-reserve has evident advantagesover perispermic, and the latter is comparatively rarely found and only in non-progressive series. Seeds inwhich endosperm or perisperm or both exist are commonly called albuminous or _endospermic_, those inwhich neither is found are termed exalbuminous or exendospermic. These terms, extensively used bysystematists, only refer, however, to the grosser features of the seed, and indicate the more or less evidentoccurrence of a food-reserve; many so-called exalbuminous seeds show to microscopic examination a distinctendosperm which may have other than a nutritive function. The presence or absence of endosperm, its relativeamount when present, and the position of the embryo within it, are valuable characters for the distinction oforders and groups of orders. Meanwhile the ovary wall has developed to form the fruit or pericarp, thestructure of which is closely associated with the manner of distribution of the seed. Frequently the influence offertilization is felt beyond the ovary, and other parts of the flower take part in the formation of the fruit, as thefloral receptacle in the apple, strawberry and others. The character of the seed-coat bears a definite relation tothat of the fruit. Their function is the twofold one of protecting the embryo and of aiding in dissemination;they may also directly promote germination. If the fruit is a dehiscent one and the seed is therefore soonexposed, the seed-coat has to provide for the protection of the embryo and may also have to securedissemination. On the other hand, indehiscent fruits discharge these functions for the embryo, and theseed-coat is only slightly developed.



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Dissemination is effected by the agency of water, of air, of animals--and fruits and seeds are thereforegrouped in respect of this as hydrophilous, anemophilous and zooidiophilous. The needs for these areobvious--buoyancy in water and resistance to wetting for the first, some form of parachute for the second, andsome attaching mechanism or attractive structure for the third. The methods in which these are provided are ofinfinite variety, and any and every part of the flower and of the inflorescence may be called into requisition tosupply the adaptation (see FRUIT). Special outgrowths, arils, of the seed-coat are of frequent occurrence. Inthe feature of fruit and seed, by which the distribution of Angiosperms is effected, we have a distinctivecharacter of the class. In Gymnosperms we have seeds, and the carpels may become modified and closearound these, as in _Pinus_, during the process of ripening to form an imitation of a box-like fruit whichsubsequently opening allows the seeds to escape; but there is never in them the closed ovary investing fromthe outset the ovules, and ultimately forming the ground-work of the fruit.

_Germination of Seed._

Their fortuitous dissemination does not always bring seeds upon a suitable nidus for germination, the primaryessential of which is a sufficiency of moisture, and the duration of vitality of the embryo is a point of interest.Some seeds retain vitality for a period of many years, though there is no warrant for the popular notion thatgenuine "mummy wheat" will germinate; on the other hand some seeds lose vitality in little more than a year.Further, the older the seed the more slow as a general rule will germination be in starting, but there are notableexceptions. This pause, often of so long duration, in the growth of the embryo between the time of its perfectdevelopment within the seed and the moment of germination, is one of the remarkable and distinctive featuresof the life of Spermatophytes. The aim of germination is the fixing of the embryo in the soil, effected usuallyby means of the root, which is the first part of the embryo to appear, in preparation for the elongation of theepicotyledonary portion of the shoot, and there is infinite variety in the details of the process. In albuminousDicotyledons the cotyledons act as the absorbents of the reserve-food of the seed and are commonly broughtabove ground (_epigeal_), either withdrawn from the seed-coat or carrying it upon them, and then they serveas the first green organs of the plant. The part of the stem below the cotyledons (_hypocotyl_) commonlyplays the greater part in bringing this about. Exalbuminous Dicotyledons usually store reserve-food in theircotyledons, which may in germination remain below ground (_hypogeal_). In albuminous Monocotyledonsthe cotyledon itself, probably in consequence of its terminal position, is commonly the agent by which theembryo is thrust out of the seed, and it may function solely as a feeder, its extremity developing as a suckerthrough which the endosperm is absorbed, or it may become the first green organ, the terminal suckerdropping off with the seed-coat when the endosperm is exhausted. Exalbuminous Monocotyledons are eitherhydrophytes or strongly hygrophilous plants and have often peculiar features in germination.

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_Vegetative reproduction._

Distribution by seed appears to satisfy so well the requirements of Angiosperms that distribution by vegetativebuds is only an occasional process. At the same time every bud on a shoot has the capacity to form a newplant if placed in suitable conditions, as the horticultural practice of propagation by cuttings shows; in naturewe see plants spreading by the rooting of their shoots, and buds we know may be freely formed not only onstems but on leaves and on roots. Where detachable buds are produced, which can be transported through theair to a distance, each of them is an incipient shoot which may have a root, and there is always reserve-foodstored in some part of it. In essentials such a bud resembles a seed. A relation between such vegetativedistribution buds and production of flower is usually marked. Where there is free formation of buds there islittle flower and commonly no seed, and the converse is also the case. Viviparous plants are an illustration ofsubstitution of vegetative buds for flower.

_Phylogeny and taxonomy._


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The position of Angiosperms as the highest plant-group is unassailable, but of the point or points of theirorigin from the general stem of the plant kingdom, and of the path or paths of their evolution, we can as yetsay little.

Until well on in the Mesozoic period geological history tells us nothing about Angiosperms, and then only bytheir vegetative organs. We readily recognize in them now-a-days the natural classes of Dicotyledons andMonocotyledons distinguished alike in vegetative and in reproductive construction, yet showing remarkableparallel sequences in development; and we see that the Dicotyledons are the more advanced and show thegreater capacity for further progressive evolution. But there is no sound basis for the assumption that theDicotyledons are derived from Monocotyledons; indeed, the palaeontological evidence seems to point to theDicotyledons being the older. This, however, does not entitle us to assume the origin of Monocotyledons fromDicotyledons, although there is manifestly a temptation to connect helobic forms of the former with ranal onesof the latter. There is no doubt that the phylum of Angiosperms has not sprung from that of Gymnosperms.

Within each class the flower-characters as the essential feature of Angiosperms supply the clue to phylogeny,but the uncertainty regarding the construction of the primitive angiospermous flower gives a fundamentalpoint of divergence in attempts to construct progressive sequences of the families. Simplicity offlower-structure has appeared to some to be always primitive, whilst by others it has been taken to be alwaysderived. There is, however, abundant evidence that it may have the one or the other character in differentcases. Apart from this, botanists are generally agreed that the concrescence of parts of the flower-whorls--inthe gynaeceum as the seed-covering, and in the corolla as the seat of attraction, more than in the androeciumand the calyx--is an indication of advance, as is also the concrescence that gives the condition of epigyny.Dorsiventrality is also clearly derived from radial construction, and anatropy of the ovule has followed atropy.We should expect the albuminous state of the seed to be an antecedent one to the exalbuminous condition, andthe recent discoveries in fertilization tend to confirm this view. Amongst Dicotyledons the gamopetalousforms are admitted to be the highest development and a dominant one of our epoch. Advance has been alongtwo lines, markedly in relation to insect-pollination, one of which has culminated in the hypogynousepipetalous bicarpellate forms with dorsiventral often large and loosely arranged flowers such as occur inScrophulariaceae, and the other in the epigynous bicarpellate small-flowered families of which theCompositae represent the most elaborate type. In the polypetalous forms progression from hypogyny toepigyny is generally recognized, and where dorsiventrality with insect-pollination has been established, adominant group has been developed as in the Leguminosae. The starting-point of the class, however, and theposition within it of apetalous families with frequently unisexual flowers, have provoked much discussion. InMonocotyledons a similar advance from hypogyny to epigyny is observed, and from the dorsiventral to theradial type of flower. In this connexion it is noteworthy that so many of the higher forms are adapted asbulbous geophytes, or as aerophytes to special xerophilous conditions. The Gramineae offer a prominentexample of a dominant self-pollinated or wind-pollinated family, and this may find explanation in amultiplicity of factors.

Though best known for his artificial (or sexual) system, Linnaeus was impressed with the importance ofelaborating a natural system of arrangement in which plants should be arranged according to their trueaffinities. In his Philosophia Botanica (1751) Linnaeus grouped the genera then known into sixty-sevenorders (_fragmenta_), all except five of which are Angiosperms. He gave names to these but did notcharacterize them or attempt to arrange them in larger groups. Some represent natural groups and had inseveral cases been already recognized by Ray and others, but the majority are, in the light of modernknowledge, very mixed. Well-defined polypetalous and gamopetalous genera sometimes occur in the sameorder, and even Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons are classed together where they have some strikingphysiological character in common.

Work on the lines suggested by the Linnaean fragmenta was continued in France by Bernard de Jussieu andhis nephew, Antoine Laurent, and the arrangement suggested by the latter in his Genera Plantarum secundumOrdines Naturales disposita (1789) is the first which can claim to be a natural system. The orders are


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carefully characterized, and those of Angiosperms are grouped in fourteen classes under the two maindivisions Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons. The former comprise three classes, which are distinguished bythe relative position of the stamens and ovary; the eleven classes of the latter are based on the same set ofcharacters and fall into the larger subdivisions Apetalae, Monopetalae and Polypetalae, characterizedrespectively by absence, union or freedom of the petals, and a subdivision, _Diclines Irregulares_, a veryunnatural group, including one class only. A.P. de Candolle introduced several improvements into the system.In his arrangement the last subdivision disappears, and the Dicotyledons fall into two groups, a largercontaining those in which both calyx and corolla are present in the flower, and a smaller, Monochlamydeae,representing the Apetalae and Diclines Irregulares of Jussieu. The dichlamydeous group is subdivided intothree, Thalamiflorae, Calyciflorae and Corolliflorae, depending on the position and union of the petals. This,which we may distinguish as the French system, finds its most perfect expression in the classic GeneraPlantarum (1862-1883) of Bentham and Hooker, a work containing a description, based on carefulexamination of specimens, of all known genera of flowering plants. The subdivision is as follows:--


Polypetalae: Thalamiflorae. Disciflorae. Calyciflorae.

Gamopetalae: Inferae. Heteromerae. Bicarpellatae.

Monochlamydeae in eight series. Monocotyledons in seven series.

Of the Polypetalae, series 1, Thalamiflorae, is characterized by hypogynous petals and stamens, and contains34 orders distributed in 6 larger groups or cohorts. Series 2, Disciflorae, takes its name from a development ofthe floral axis which forms a ring or cushion at the base of the ovary or is broken up into glands; the ovary issuperior. It contains 23 orders in 4 cohorts. Series 3, Calyciflorae, has petals and stamens perigynous, orsometimes superior. It contains 27 orders in 5 cohorts.

Of the Gamopetalae, series 1, Inferae, has an interior ovary and stamens usually as many as the corolla-lobes.It contains 9 orders in 3 cohorts. Series 2, Heteromerae, has generally a superior ovary, stamens as many asthe corolla-lobes or more, and more than two carpels. It contains 12 orders in 3 cohorts. Series 3,Bicarpellatae, has generally a superior ovary and usually two carpels. It contains 24 orders in 4 cohorts.

The eight series of Monochlamydeae, containing 36 orders, form groups characterized mainly by differencesin the ovary and ovules, and are now recognized as of unequal value.

The seven series of Monocotyledons represent a sequence beginning with the most complicated epigynousorders, such as Orchideae and Scitamineae, and passing through the petaloid hypogynous orders (seriesCoronarieae) of which Liliaceae is the representative to Juncaceae and the palms (series Calycinae) where theperianth loses its petaloid character and thence to the Aroids, screw-pines and others where it is more or lessaborted (series Nudiflorae). Series 6, Apocarpeae, is characterized by 5 carpels, and in the last seriesGlumaceae, great simplification in the flower is associated with a grass-like habit.

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The sequence of orders in the polypetalous subdivision of Dicotyledons undoubtedly represents a progressionfrom simpler to more elaborate forms, but a great drawback to the value of the system is the inclusion amongthe Monochlamydeae of a number of orders which are closely allied with orders of Polypetalae thoughdiffering in absence of a corolla. The German systematist, A.W. Eichler, attempted to remove thisdisadvantage which since the time of Jussieu had characterized the French system, and in 1883 grouped theDicotyledons in two subclasses. The earlier Choripetalae embraces the Polypetalae and Monochlamydae ofthe French systems. It includes 21 series, and is an attempt to arrange as far as possible in a linear series those


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orders which are characterized by absence or freedom of petals. The second subclass, Gamopetalae, includes 9series and culminates in those which show the most elaborate type of flower, the series Aggregatae, the chiefrepresentative of which is the great and wide-spread order Compositae. A modification of Eichler's system,embracing the most recent views of the affinities of the orders of Angiosperms, has been put forward by Dr.Adolf Engler of Berlin, who adopts the suggestive names Archichlamydeae and Metachlamydeae for the twosubdivisions of Dicotyledons. Dr. Engler is the principal editor of a large series of volumes which, under thetitle _Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien_, is a systematic account of all the known genera of plants andrepresents the work of many botanists. More recently in Das Pflanzenreich the same author organized a seriesof complete monographs of the families of seed-plants.

As an attempt at a phylogenetic arrangement, Engler's system is now preferred by many botanists. Morerecently a startling novelty in the way of system has been produced by van Tieghem, as follows:

Monocotyledons. Liorhizal Dicotyledons. Dicotyledons. INSEMINEAE. SEMINEAE. _Unitegmineae.Bitegmineae_.

The most remarkable feature here is the class of Liorhizal Dicotyledons, which includes only the families ofNymphaeaceae and Gramineae. It is based upon the fact that the histological differentiation of the epidermisof their root is that generally characteristic of Monocotyledons, whilst they have two cotyledons--the old viewof the epiblast as a second cotyledon in Gramineae being adopted. But the presence of a second cotyledon ingrasses is extremely doubtful, and though there may be ground for reconsidering the position ofNymphaeaceae, their association with the grasses as a distinct class is not warranted by a comparativeexamination of the members of the two orders. Ovular characters determine the grouping in the Dicotyledons,van Tieghem supporting the view that the integument, the outer if there be two, is the lamina of a leaf ofwhich the funicle is the petiole, whilst the nucellus is an outgrowth of this leaf, and the inner integument, ifpresent, an indusium. The Insemineae include forms in which the nucellus is not developed, and thereforethere can be no seed. The plants included are, however, mainly well-established parasites, and the absence ofnucellus is only one of those characters of reduction to which parasites are liable. Even if we admit vanTieghem's interpretation of the integuments to be correct, the diagnostic mark of his unitegminous andbitegminous groups is simply that of the absence or presence of an indusium, not a character of great valueelsewhere, and, as we know, the number of the ovular coats is inconstant within the same family. At the sametime the groups based upon the integuments are of much the same extent as the Polypetalae and Gamopetalaeof other systems. We do not yet know the significance of this correlation, which, however, is not an invariableone, between number of integuments and union of petals.

Within the last few years Prof. John Coulter and Dr. C.J. Chamberlain of Chicago University have given avaluable general account of the morphology of Angiosperms as far as concerns the flower, and the series ofevents which ends in the formation of the seed (_Morphology of Angiosperms_, Chicago, 1903).

AUTHORITIES.--The reader will find in the following works details of the subject and references to theliterature: Bentham and Hooker, Genera Plantarum (London, 1862-1883); Eichler, Bluthendiagramme(Leipzig, 1875-1878); Engler and Prantl, Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien (Leipzig, 1887-1899); Engler,_Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien_, 3rd ed. (Berlin, 1903); Knuth, Handbuch der Blutenbiologie (Leipzig, 1898,1899); Sachs, _History of Botany_, English ed. (Oxford, 1890); Solereder, Systematische Anatomie derDicotyledonen (Stuttgart, 1899); van Tieghem, _Elements de botanique_; Coulter and Chamberlain,Morphology of Angiosperms (New York, 1903).

(I.B.B.; A.B.R.)

ANGKOR, an assemblage of ruins in Cambodia, the relic of the ancient Khmer civilization. They are situatedin forests to the north of the Great Lake (Tonle-Sap), the most conspicuous of the remains being the town ofAngkor-Thom and the temple of Angkor-Vat, both of which lie on the right bank of the river Siem-Reap, a


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tributary of Tonle-Sap. Other remains of the same form and character lie scattered about the vicinity on bothbanks of the river, which is crossed by an ancient stone bridge.

Angkor-Thom lies about a quarter of a mile from the river. According to Aymonier it was begun about A.D.860, in the reign of the Khmer sovereign Jayavarman III., and finished towards A.D. 900. It consists of arectangular enclosure, nearly 2 m. in each direction, surrounded by a wall from 20 to 30 ft. in height. Withinthe enclosure, which is entered by five monumental gates, are the remains of palaces and temples, overgrownby the forest. The chief of these are:--

(1) The vestiges of the royal palace, which stood within an enclosure containing also the pyramidal religiousstructure known as the Phimeanakas. To the east of this enclosure there extends a terrace decorated withmagnificent reliefs.

(2) The temple of Bayon, a square enclosure formed by galleries with colonnades, within which is another andmore elaborate system of galleries, rectangular in arrangement and enclosing a cruciform structure, at thecentre of which rises a huge tower with a circular base. Fifty towers, decorated with quadruple faces ofBrahma, are built at intervals upon the galleries, the whole temple ranking as perhaps the most remarkable ofthe Khmer remains.

Angkor-Vat, the best preserved example of Khmer architecture, lies less than a mile to the south of the royalcity, within a rectangular park surrounded by a moat, the outer perimeter of which measures 6060 yds. On thewest side of the park a paved causeway, leading over the moat and under a magnificent portico, extends for adistance of a quarter of a mile to the chief entrance of the main building. The temple was originally devoted tothe worship of Brahma, but afterwards to that of Buddha; its construction is assigned by Aymonier to the firsthalf of the 12th century A.D. It consists of three stages, connected by numerous exterior staircases anddecreasing in dimensions as they rise, culminating in the sanctuary, a great central tower pyramidal in form.Towers also surmount the angles of the terraces of the two upper stages. Three galleries with vaultingsupported on columns lead from the three western portals to the second stage. They are connected by atransverse gallery, thus forming four square basins. Khmer decoration, profuse but harmonious, consistschiefly in the representation of gods, men and animals, which are displayed on every flat surface. Combatsand legendary episodes are often depicted; floral decoration is reserved chiefly for borders, mouldings andcapitals. Sandstone of various colours was the chief material employed by the Khmers; limonite was alsoused. The stone was cut into huge blocks which are fitted together with great accuracy without the use ofcement.

See E. Aymonier, Le Cambodge (3 vols., 1900-1904); Doudart de Lagrée, _Voyage d'exploration enIndo-Chine_ (1872-1873); A.H. Mouhot, _Travels in Indo-China, Cambodia and Laos_ (2 vols., 1864);Fournereau and Porcher, _Les Ruines d'Angkor_ (1890); L. Delaporte, _Voyage au Cambodge: l'architectureKhmer_ (1880); J. Moura, Le Royaume de Cambodge (2 vols., 1883).

ANGLE (from the Lat. _angulus_, a corner, a diminutive, of which the primitive form, _angus_, does notoccur in Latin; cognate are the Lat. _angere_, to compress into a bend or to strangle, and the Gr. [Greek:ankos], a bend; both connected with the Aryan root _ank_-, to bend: see ANGLING), in geometry, theinclination of one line or plane to another. Euclid (_Elements_, book I) defines a plane angle as the inclinationto each other, in a plane, of two lines which meet each other, and do not lie straight with respect to each other(see GEOMETRY, EUCLIDEAN). According to Proclus an angle must be either a quality or a quantity, or arelationship. The first concept was utilized by Eudemus, who regarded an angle as a deviation from a straightline; the second by Carpus of Antioch, who regarded it as the interval or space between the intersecting lines;Euclid adopted the third concept, although his definitions of right, acute, and obtuse angles are certainlyquantitative. A discussion of these concepts and the various definitions of angles in Euclidean geometry is tobe found in W.B. Frankland, _The First Book of Euclid's Elements_ (1905). Following Euclid, a right angle isformed by a straight line standing upon another straight line so as to make the adjacent angles equal; any


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angle less than a right angle is termed an acute angle, and any angle greater than a right angle an obtuse angle.The difference between an acute angle and a right angle is termed the complement of the angle, and betweenan angle and two right angles the supplement of the angle. The generalized view of angles and theirmeasurement is treated in the article TRIGONOMETRY. A solid angle is definable as the space contained bythree or more planes intersecting in a common point; it is familiarly represented by a corner. The anglebetween two planes is termed dihedral, between three trihedral, between any number more than threepolyhedral. A spherical angle is a particular dihedral angle; it is the angle between two intersecting arcs on asphere, and is measured by the angle between the planes containing the arcs and the centre of the sphere.

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The angle between a line and a curve (mixed angle) or between two curves (curvilinear angle) is measured bythe angle between the line and the tangent at the point of intersection, or between the tangents to both curvesat their common point. Various names (now rarely, if ever, used) have been given to particularcases:--amphicyrtic (Gr. [Greek: amphi], on both sides, [Greek: kyrtos], convex) or cissoidal (Gr. [Greek:kissos], ivy), biconvex; xystroidal or sistroidal (Gr. [Greek: xystris], a tool for scraping), concavo-convex;amphicoelic (Gr. [Greek: koilae], a hollow) or _angulus lunularis_, biconcave.

[Illustration: The Angler (_Lophius piscatorius_).]

ANGLER, also sometimes called fishing-frog, frog-fish, sea-devil (_Lophius piscatorius_), a fish well knownoff the coasts of Great Britain and Europe generally, the grotesque shape of its body and its singular habitshaving attracted the attention of naturalists of all ages. To the North Sea fishermen this fish is known as the"monk," a name which more properly belongs to _Rhina squatina_, a fish allied to the skates. Its head is ofenormous size, broad, flat and depressed, the remainder of the body appearing merely like an appendage. Thewide mouth extends all round the anterior circumference of the head; and both jaws are armed with bands oflong pointed teeth, which are inclined inwards, and can be depressed so as to offer no impediment to an objectgliding towards the stomach, but to prevent its escape from the mouth. The pectoral and ventral fins are soarticulated as to perform the functions of feet, the fish being enabled to move, or rather to walk, on the bottomof the sea, where it generally hides itself in the sand or amongst sea-weed. All round its head and also alongthe body the skin bears fringed appendages resembling short fronds of sea-weed, a structure which, combinedwith the extraordinary faculty of assimilating the colour of the body to its surroundings, assists this fishgreatly in concealing itself in places which it selects on account of the abundance of prey. To render theorganization of this creature perfect in relation to its wants, it is provided with three long filaments insertedalong the middle of the head, which are, in fact, the detached and modified three first spines of the anteriordorsal fin. The filament most important in the economy of the angler is the first, which is the longest,terminates in a lappet, and is movable in every direction. The angler is believed to attract other fishes bymeans of its lure, and then to seize them with its enormous jaws. It is probable enough that smaller fishes areattracted in this way, but experiments have shown that the action of the jaws is automatic and depends oncontact of the prey with the tentacle. Its stomach is distensible in an extraordinary degree, and not rarely fisheshave been taken out quite as large and heavy as their destroyer. It grows to a length of more than 5 ft.;specimens of 3 ft. are common. The spawn of the angler is very remarkable. It consists of a thin sheet oftransparent gelatinous material 2 or 3 ft. broad and 25 to 30 ft. in length. The eggs in this sheet are in a singlelayer, each in its own little cavity. The spawn is free in the sea. The larvae are free-swimming and have thepelvic fins elongated into filaments. The British species is found all round the coasts of Europe and westernNorth America, but becomes scarce beyond 60° N. lat.; it occurs also on the coasts of the Cape of Good Hope.A second species (_Lophius budegassa_) inhabits the Mediterranean, and a third (_L. setigerus_) the coasts ofChina and Japan.

ANGLESEY, ARTHUR ANNESLEY, 1st EARL OF (1614-1686), British statesman, son of the 1st ViscountValentia (cr. 1621) and Baron Mountnorris (cr. 1628), and of Dorothy, daughter of Sir John Philipps of PictonCastle, Pembrokeshire, was born at Dublin on the 10th of July 1614, was educated at Magdalen College,


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Oxford, and was admitted to Lincoln's Inn in 1634. Having made the grand tour he returned to Ireland; andbeing employed by the parliament in a mission to the duke of Ormonde, now reduced to the last extremities,he succeeded in concluding a treaty with him on the 19th of June 1647, thus securing the country fromcomplete subjection to the rebels. In April 1647 he was returned for Radnorshire to the House of Commons.He supported the parliamentary as against the republican or army party, and appears to have been one of themembers excluded in 1648. He sat in Richard Cromwell's parliament for Dublin city, and endeavoured to takehis seat in the restored Rump Parliament of 1659. He was made president of the council in February 1660, andin the Convention Parliament sat for Carmarthen borough. The anarchy of the last months of thecommonwealth converted him to royalism, and he showed great activity in bringing about the Restoration. Heused his influence in moderating measures of revenge and violence, and while sitting in judgment on theregicides was on the side of leniency. In November 1660 by his father's death he had become ViscountValentia and Baron Mountnorris in the Irish peerage, and on the 20th April 1661 he was created BaronAnnesley of Newport Pagnell in Buckinghamshire and earl of Anglesey in the peerage of Great Britain. Hesupported the king's administration in parliament, but opposed strongly the unjust measure which, on theabolition of the court of wards, placed the extra burden of taxation thus rendered necessary on the excise. Hisservices in the administration of Ireland were especially valuable. He filled the office of vice-treasurer from1660 till 1667, served on the committee for carrying out the declaration for the settlement of Ireland and onthe committee for Irish affairs, while later, in 1671 and 1672, he was a leading member of variouscommissions appointed to investigate the working of the Acts of Settlement. In February 1661 he hadobtained a captaincy of horse, and in 1667 he exchanged his vice-treasuryship of Ireland for the treasuryshipof the navy. His public career was marked by great independence and fidelity to principle. On the 24th of July1663 he alone signed a protest against the bill "for the encouragement of trade," on the plea that owing to thefree export of coin and bullion allowed by the act, and to the importation of foreign commodities being greaterthan the export of home goods, "it must necessarily follow ... that our silver will also be carried away intoforeign parts and all trade fail for want of money."[1] He especially disapproved of another clause in the samebill forbidding the importation of Irish cattle into England, a mischievous measure promoted by the duke ofBuckingham, and he opposed again the bill brought in with that object in January 1667. This same year hisnaval accounts were subjected to an examination in consequence of his indignant refusal to take part in theattack upon Ormonde;[2] and he was suspended from his office in 1668, no charge, however, against himbeing substantiated. He took a prominent part in the dispute in 1671 between the two Houses concerning theright of the Lords to amend money bills, and wrote a learned pamphlet on the question entitled The Privilegesof the House of Lords and Commons (1702), in which the right of the Lords was asserted. In April 1673 hewas appointed lord privy seal, and was disappointed at not obtaining the great seal the same year on theremoval of Shaftesbury. In 1679 he was included in Sir W. Temple's new-modelled council.

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In the bitter religious controversies of the time Anglesey showed great moderation and toleration. In 1674 heis mentioned as endeavouring to prevent the justices putting into force the laws against the Roman Catholicsand Nonconformists.[3] In the panic of the "Popish Plot" in 1678 he exhibited a saner judgment than most ofhis contemporaries and a conspicuous courage. On the 6th of December he protested with three other peersagainst the measure sent up from the Commons enforcing the disarming of all convicted recusants and takingbail from them to keep the peace; he was the only peer to dissent from the motion declaring the existence ofan Irish plot; and though believing in the guilt and voting for the death of Lord Stafford, he interceded,according to his own account,[4] with the king for him as well as for Langhorne and Plunket. His independentattitude drew upon him an attack by Dangerfield, and in the Commons by the attorney-general, Sir W. Jones,who accused him of endeavouring to stifle the evidence against the Romanists. In March 1679 he protestedagainst the second reading of the bill for disabling Danby. In 1681 Anglesey wrote _A Letter from a Person ofHonour in the Country_, as a rejoinder to the earl of Castlehaven, who had published memoirs on the Irishrebellion defending the action of the Irish and the Roman Catholics. In so doing Anglesey was held byOrmonde to have censured his conduct and that of Charles I. in concluding the "Cessation," and the dukebrought the matter before the council. In 1682 he wrote _The Account of Arthur, Earl of Anglesey ... of the


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true state of Your Majesty's Government and Kingdom_, which was addressed to the king in a tone of censureand remonstrance, but appears not to have been printed till 1694.[5] In consequence he was dismissed on the9th of August 1682 from the office of lord privy seal. In 1683 he appeared at the Old Bailey as a witness indefence of Lord Russell, and in June 1685 he protested alone against the revision of Stafford's attainder. Hedied at his home at Blechingdon in Oxfordshire on the 26th of April 1686, closing a career marked by greatability, statesmanship and business capacity, and by conspicuous courage and independence of judgment. Heamassed a large fortune in Ireland, in which country he had been allotted lands by Cromwell.

The unfavourable character drawn of him by Burnet is certainly unjust and not supported by any evidence.Pepys, a far more trustworthy judge, speaks of him invariably in terms of respect and approval as a "grave,serious man," and commends his appointment as treasurer of the navy as that of "a very notable man andunderstanding and will do things regular and understand them himself."[6] He was a learned and cultivatedman and collected a celebrated library, which was dispersed at his death. Besides the pamphlets alreadymentioned, he wrote:--_A True Account of the Whole Proceedings betwixt ... the Duke of Ormond and ... theEarl of Anglesey_ (1682); A Letter of Remarks upon Jovian (1683); other works ascribed to him being _TheKing's Right of Indulgence in Matters Spiritual ... asserted_ (1688); _Truth Unveiled, to which is added ashort Treatise on ... Transubstantiation_ (1676); The Obligation resulting from the Oath of Supremacy (1688);and _England's Confusion_ (1659). Memoirs of Lord Anglesey were published by Sir P. Pett in 1693, butcontain little biographical information and were repudiated as a mere imposture by Sir John Thompson (LordHaversham), his son-in-law, in his preface to Lord Anglesey's State of the Government in 1694. The authorhowever of the preface to The Rights of the Lords asserted (1702), while blaming their publication as"scattered and unfinished papers," admits their genuineness.

Lord Anglesey married Elizabeth, daughter and co-heiress of Sir James Altham of Oxey, Hertfordshire, bywhom, besides other children, he had James, who succeeded him, Altham, created Baron Altham, andRichard, afterwards 3rd Baron Altham. His descendant Richard, the 6th earl (d. 1761), left a son Arthur,whose legitimacy was doubted, and the peerage became extinct. He was summoned to the Irish House ofPeers as Viscount Valentia, but was denied his writ to the parliament of Great Britain by a majority of onevote. He was created in 1793 earl of Mountnorris in the peerage of Ireland. All the male descendants of the 1stearl of Anglesey became extinct in the person of George, 2nd earl of Mountnorris, in 1844, when the titles ofViscount Valentia and Baron Mountnorris passed to his cousin Arthur Annesley (1785-1863), who thusbecame 10th Viscount Valentia, being descended from the 1st Viscount Valentia the father of the 1st earl ofAnglesey in the Annesley family. The 1st viscount was also the ancestor of the Earls Annesley in the Irishpeerage.

[Footnote 1: _Protests of the Lords_, by J.E. Thorold Rogers (1875), i. 27: Carti's Life of Ormonde (1851), iv.234; _Parl. Hist._ iv. 284.]

[Footnote 2: Carti's _Ormonde_, iv. 330, 340.]

[Footnote 3: _Cal. of State Pap. Dom._ (1673-1675), p. 152.]

[Footnote 4: _Memoirs_, 8, 9.]

[Footnote 5: By Sir J. Thompson, his son-in-law. Reprinted in Somers Tracts (Scott, 1812), viii. 344, and in_Parl. Hist._ iv. app. xvi.]

[Footnote 6: Diary (ed. Wheatley, 1904), iv. 298, vii. 14.]

AUTHORITIES.--_Dict. of Nat. Biography_, with authorities there collected; lives in Wood's AthenaeOxonienses (Bliss), iv. 181, _Biographia Britannica_, and H. Walpole's Royal and Noble Authors (1806), iii.288 (the latter a very inadequate review of Anglesey's character and career); also Bibliotheca Anglesiana ...


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per Thomam Philippum (1686); _The Happy Future State of England_, by Sir Peter Pett (1688); Great Newsfrom Poland (1683), where his religious tolerance is ridiculed; Somers Tracts (Scott, 1812), viii. 344; Notes ofthe Privy Council (Roxburghe Club, 1896); _Cal. of State Papers, Dom._; _State Trials_, viii. and ix. 619.


ANGLESEY, HENRY WILLIAM PAGET, 1st MARQUESS OF (1768-1854), British field-marshal, wasborn on the 17th of May 1768. He was the eldest son of Henry Paget, 1st earl of Uxbridge (d. 1812), and waseducated at Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford, afterwards entering parliament in 1790 asmember for Carnarvon, for which he sat for six years. At the outbreak of the French Revolutionary wars LordPaget (as he was then styled), who had already served in the militia, raised on his father's estate the regimentof Staffordshire volunteers, in which he was given the temporary rank of lieutenant-colonel (1793). The corpssoon became part of the regular army as the 80th Foot, and it took part, under Lord Paget's command, in theFlanders campaign of 1794. In spite of his youth he held a brigade command for a time, and gained also,during the campaign, his first experience of the cavalry arm, with which he was thenceforward associated. Hissubstantive commission as lieutenant-colonel of the 16th Light Dragoons bore the date of the 15th of June1795, and in 1796 he was made a colonel in the army. In 1795 he married Lady Caroline Elizabeth Villiers,daughter of the earl of Jersey. In April 1797 Lord Paget was transferred to a lieut.-colonelcy in the 7th LightDragoons, of which regiment he became colonel in 1801. From the first he applied himself strenuously to theimprovement of discipline, and to the perfection of a new system of cavalry evolutions. In the short campaignof 1799 in Holland, Paget commanded the cavalry brigade, and in spite of the unsuitable character of theground, he made, on several occasions, brilliant and successful charges. After the return of the expedition, hedevoted himself zealously to his regiment, which under his command became one of the best corps in theservice. In 1802 he was promoted major-general, and six years later lieutenant-general. In command of thecavalry of Sir John Moore's army during the Corunna campaign, Lord Paget won the greatest distinction. AtSahagun, Mayorga and Benavente, the British cavalry behaved so well under his leadership that Moorewrote:--"It is impossible for me to say too much in its praise.... Our cavalry is very superior in quality to anythe French have, and the right spirit has been infused into them by the example and instruction of their ...leaders...." At Benavente one of Napoleon's best cavalry leaders, General Lefebvre Desnoëttes, was takenprisoner. Corunna was Paget's last service in the Peninsula. His liaison with the wife of Henry Wellesley,afterwards Lord Cowley, made it impossible at that time for him to serve with Wellington, whose cavalry, onmany occasions during the succeeding campaigns, felt the want of the true cavalry leader to direct them. Hisonly war service from 1809 to 1815 was in the disastrous Walcheren expedition (1809) in which hecommanded a division. During these years he occupied himself with his parliamentary duties as member forMilborne Port, which he represented almost continuously up to his father's death in 1812, when he took hisseat in the House of Lords as earl of Uxbridge. In 1810 he was divorced and married Mrs Wellesley, who hadabout the same time been divorced from her husband. Lady Paget was soon afterwards married to the duke ofArgyll. In 1815 Lord Uxbridge received command of the British cavalry in Flanders. At a moment of dangersuch as that of Napoleon's return from Elba, the services of the best cavalry general in the British army couldnot be neglected. Wellington placed the greatest confidence in him, and on the eve of Waterloo extended hiscommand so as to include the whole of the allied cavalry and horse artillery. He covered the retirement of theallies from Quatre Bras to Waterloo on the 17th of June, and on the 18th gained the crowning distinction ofhis military career in leading the great cavalry charge of the British centre, which checked and in part routedD'Erlon's _corps d'armée_ (see WATERLOO CAMPAIGN). Freely exposing his own life throughout, the earlreceived, by one of the last cannon shots fired, a severe wound in the leg, necessitating amputation. Five dayslater the prince regent created him marquess of Anglesey in recognition of his brilliant services, which wereregarded universally as second only to those of the duke himself. He was made a G.C.B. and he was alsodecorated by many of the allied sovereigns.

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In 1818 the marquess was made a knight of the Garter, in 1819 he became full general, and at the coronationof George IV. he acted as lord high steward of England. His support of the proceedings against QueenCaroline made him for a time unpopular, and when he was on one occasion beset by a crowd, who compelledhim to shout "The Queen," he added the wish, "May all your wives be like her." At the close of April 1827 hebecame a member of the Canning administration, taking the post of master-general of the ordnance,previously held by Wellington. He was at the same time sworn a member of the privy council. Under theWellington administration he accepted the appointment of lord-lieutenant of Ireland (March 1828), and in thedischarge of his important duties he greatly endeared himself to the Irish people. The spirit in which he actedand the aims which he steadily set before himself contributed to the allaying of party animosities, to thepromotion of a willing submission to the laws, to the prosperity of trade and to the extension andimprovement of education. On the great question of the time his views were opposed to those of thegovernment. He saw clearly that the time was come when the relief of the Catholics from the penal legislationof the past was an indispensable measure, and in December 1828 he addressed a letter to the Roman Catholicprimate of Ireland distinctly announcing his view. This led to his recall by the government, a step sincerelylamented by the Irish. He pleaded for Catholic emancipation in parliament, and on the formation of EarlGrey's administration in November 1830, he again became lord-lieutenant of Ireland. The times werechanged; the act of emancipation had been passed, and the task of viceroy in his second tenure of office wasto resist the agitation for repeal of the union carried on by O'Connell. He felt it his duty now to demandCoercion Acts for the security of the public peace; his popularity was diminished, differences appeared in thecabinet on the difficult subject, and in July 1833 the ministry resigned. To the marquess of Anglesey Ireland isindebted for the board of education, the origination of which may perhaps be reckoned as the most memorableact of his viceroyalty. For thirteen years after his retirement he remained out of office, and took little part inthe affairs of government. He joined the Russell administration in July 1846 as master-general of theordnance, finally retiring with his chief in March 1852. His promotion in the army was completed by hisadvancement to the rank of field-marshal in 1846. Four years before, he exchanged his colonelcy of the 7thLight Dragoons which he had held over forty years, for that of the Royal Horse Guards. He died on the 29thof April 1854.

The marquess had a large family by each of his two wives, two sons and six daughters by the first and six sonsand four daughters by the second. His eldest son, Henry, succeeded him in the marquessate; but the titlepassed rapidly in succession to the 3rd, 4th and 5th marquesses. The latter, whose extravagances werenotorious, died in 1905, when the title passed to his cousin.

Other members of the Paget family distinguished themselves in the army and the navy. Of the first marquess'sbrothers one, SIR CHARLES PAGET (1778-1839), rose to the rank of vice-admiral in the Royal Navy;another, General SIR EDWARD PAGET (1775-1849), won great distinction by his skilful and resolutehandling of a division at Corunna, and from 1822 to 1825 was commander-in-chief in India. One of themarquess's sons by his second marriage, LORD CLARENCE EDWARD PAGET (1811-1895), became anadmiral; another, LORD GEORGE AUGUSTUS FREDERICK PAGET (1818-1880), led the 4th LightDragoons in the charge of the Light Brigade at Balaklava, and subsequently commanded the brigade, and, fora short time, the cavalry division in the Crimea. In 1865 he was made inspector-general of cavalry, in 1871lieutenant-general and K.C.B., and in 1877 full general. His Crimean journals were published in 1881.

ANGLESEY, or ANGLESEA, an insular northern county of Wales. Its area is 176,630 acres or about 276 sq.m. Anglesey, in the see of Bangor, is separated from the mainland by the Menai Straits (Afon Menai), overwhich were thrown Telford's suspension bridge, in 1826, and the Stephenson tubular railway bridge in 1850.The county is flat, with slight risings such as Parys, Cadair Mynachdy (or Monachdy, _i.e._. "chair of themonastery"; there is a Nanner, "convent," not far away) and Holyhead Mountain. There are a few lakes, suchas Cors cerrig y daran, but rising water is generally scarce. The climate is humid, the land poor for the mostpart compared with its old state of fertility, and there are few industries.


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As regards geology, the younger strata in Anglesey rest upon a foundation of very old pre-Cambrian rockswhich appear at the surface in three areas:--(1) a western region including Holyhead and Llanfaethlu, (2) acentral area about Aberffraw and Trefdraeth, and (3) an eastern region which includes Newborough, Caerwenand Pentraeth. These pre-Cambrian rocks are schists and slates, often much contorted and disturbed. Thegeneral line of strike of the formations in the island is from N.E. to S.W. A belt of granitic rocks liesimmediately north-west of the central pre-Cambrian mass, reaching from Llanfaelog near the coast to thevicinity of Llanerchymedd. Between this granite and the pre-Cambrian of Holyhead is a narrow tract ofOrdovician slates and grits with Llandovery beds in places; this tract spreads out in the N. of the islandbetween Dulas Bay and Carmel Point. A small patch of Ordovician strata lies on the northern side ofBeaumaris. In parts, these Ordovician rocks are much folded, crushed and metamorphosed, and they areassociated with schists and altered volcanic rocks which are probably pre-Cambrian. Between the eastern andcentral pre-Cambrian masses carboniferous rocks are found. The carboniferous limestone occupies a broadarea S. of Ligwy Bay and Pentraeth, and sends a narrow spur in a south-westerly direction by Llangefni toMalldraeth sands. The limestone is underlain on the N.W. by a red basem*nt conglomerate and yellowsandstone (sometimes considered to be of Old Red Sandstone age). Limestone occurs again on the N. coastabout Llanfihangel and Llangoed; and in the S.W. round Llanidan on the border of the Menai Strait. PuffinIsland is made of carboniferous limestone. Malldraeth Marsh is occupied by coal measures, and a small patchof the same formation appears near Tall-y-foel Ferry on the Menai Straits. A patch of granitic and felsiticrocks form Parys Mountain, where copper and iron ochre have been worked. Serpentine (Mona Marble) isfound near Llanfaerynneubwll and upon the opposite shore in Holyhead. There are abundant evidences ofglaciation, and much boulder clay and drift sand covers the older rocks. Patches of blown sand occur on theS.W. coast.

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The London & North-Western railway (Chester and Holyhead branch) crosses Anglesey fromLlanfairpwllgwyngyll to Gaerwen and Holyhead (Caer Gybi), also from Gaerwen to Amlwch. The staple ofthe island is farming, the chief crops being turnips, oats, potatoes, with flax in the centre. Copper (nearAmlwch), lead, silver, marble, asbestos, lime and sandstone, marl, zinc and coal have all been worked inAnglesey, coal especially at Malldraeth and Trefdraeth. The population of the county in 1901 was 50,606.There is no parliamentary borough, but one member is returned for the county. It is in the north-westerncircuit, and assizes are held at Beaumaris, the only municipal borough (pop. 2326). Amlwch (2994), Holyhead(10,079), Llangefni (1751) and Menai Bridge (Pont y Borth, 1700) are urban districts. There are six hundredsand seventy-eight parishes.

Môn (a cow) is the Welsh name of Anglesey, itself a corrupted form of O.E., meaning the Isle of the Angles.Old Welsh names are Ynys Dywyll ("Dark Isle") and Ynys y cedairn (cedyrn or kedyrn; "Isle of brave folk").It is the Mona of Tacitus (_Ann._ xiv. 29, _Agr._ xiv. 18), Pliny the Elder (iv. 16) and Dio Cassius (62). It iscalled Mam Cymru by Giraldus Cambrensis. Clas Merddin, Y vel Ynys (honey isle), Ynys Prydein, YnysBrut are other names. According to the Triads (67), Anglesey was once part of the mainland, as geologyproves. The island was the seat of the Druids, of whom 28 cromlechs remain, on uplands overlooking the sea,_e.g._ at Plâs Newydd. The Druids were attacked in A.D. 61 by Suetonius Paulinus, and by Agricola in A.D.78. In the 5th century Caswallon lived here, and here, at Aberffraw, the princes of Gwynedd lived till 1277.The present road from Holyhead to Llanfairpwllgwyngyll is originally Roman. British and Roman camps,coins and ornaments have been dug up and discussed, especially by the Hon. Mr. Stanley of Penrhos. PenCaer Gybi is Roman. The island was devastated by the Danes (Dub Gint or black nations, _gentes_),especially in A.D. 853.

See Edw. Breese, Kalendar of Gwynedd (Venedocia), on Anglesey, Carnarvon and Merioneth (London,1873); and The History of Powys Fadog.


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ANGLESITE, a mineral consisting of lead sulphate, PbSO_{4}, crystallizing in the orthorhombic system, andisomorphous with barytes and celestite. It was first recognized as a mineral species by Dr. Withering in 1783,who discovered it in the Parys copper-mine in Anglesey; the name anglesite, from this locality, was given byF.S. Beudant in 1832. The crystals from Anglesey, which were formerly found abundantly on a matrix of dulllimonite, are small in size and simple in form, being usually bounded by four faces of a prism and four facesof a dome; they are brownish-yellow in colour owing to a stain of limonite. Crystals from some otherlocalities, notably from Monteponi in Sardinia, are transparent and colourless, possessed of a brilliantadamantine lustre, and usually modified by numerous bright faces. The variety of combinations and habitspresented by the crystals is very extensive, nearly two hundred distinct forms being figured by V. von Lang inhis monograph of the species; without measurement of the angles the crystals are frequently difficult todecipher. The hardness is 3 and the specific gravity 6.3. There are distinct cleavages parallel to the faces of theprism (110) and the basal plane (001), but these are not so well developed as in the isomorphous mineralsbarytes and celestite.

[Illustration: Anglesite specimen.]

Anglesite is a mineral of secondary origin, having been formed by the oxidation of galena in the upper parts ofmineral lodes where these have been affected by weathering processes. At Monteponi the crystals encrustcavities in glistening granular galena; and from Leadhills, in Scotland, pseudomorphs of anglesite after galenaare known. At most localities it is found as isolated crystals in the lead-bearing lodes, but at some places, inAustralia and Mexico, it occurs as large masses, and is then mined as an ore of lead, of which the pure mineralcontains 68%.

ANGLI, ANGLII or ANGLES, a Teutonic people mentioned by Tacitus in his Germania (cap. 40) at the endof the 1st century. He gives no precise indication of their geographical position, but states that, together withsix other tribes, including the Varini (the Warni of later times), they worshipped a goddess named Nerthus,whose sanctuary was situated on "an island in the Ocean." Ptolemy in his Geography (ii. 11. § 15), half acentury later, locates them with more precision between the Rhine, or rather perhaps the Ems, and the Elbe,and speaks of them as one of the chief tribes of the interior. Unfortunately, however, it is clear from acomparison of his map with the evidence furnished by Tacitus and other Roman writers that the indicationswhich he gives cannot be correct. Owing to the uncertainty of these passages there has been much speculationregarding the original home of the Angli. One theory, which however has little to recommend it, is that theydwelt in the basin of the Saale (in the neighbourhood of the canton Engilin), from which region the LexAngliorum et Werinorum hoc est Thuringorum is believed by many to have come. At the present time themajority of scholars believe that the Angli had lived from the beginning on the coasts of the Baltic, probablyin the southern part of the Jutish peninsula. The evidence for this view is derived partly from English andDanish traditions dealing with persons and events of the 4th century (see below), and partly from the fact thatstriking affinities to the cult of Nerthus as described by Tacitus are to be found in Scandinavian, especiallySwedish and Danish, religion. Investigations in this subject have rendered it very probable that the island ofNerthus was Sjaelland (Zealand), and it is further to be observed that the kings of Wessex traced their ancestryultimately to a certain Scyld, who is clearly to be identified with Skiöldr, the mythical founder of the Danishroyal family (Skiöldungar). In English tradition this person is connected with "Scedeland" (pl.), a name whichmay have been applied to Sjaelland as well as Skåne, while in Scandinavian tradition he is speciallyassociated with the ancient royal residence at Leire in Sjaelland.

Bede states that the Angli before they came to Britain dwelt in a land called Angulus, and similar evidence isgiven by the Historia Brittonum. King Alfred and the chronicler Æthelweard identified this place with thedistrict which is now called Angel in the province of Schleswig (Slesvig), though it may then have been ofgreater extent, and this identification agrees very well with the indications given by Bede. Full confirmation isafforded by English and Danish traditions relating to two kings named Wermund (_q.v._) and Offa (_q.v._),from whom the Mercian royal family were descended, and whose exploits are connected with Angel,Schleswig and Rendsburg. Danish tradition has preserved record of two governors of Schleswig, father and


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son, in their service, Frowinus (Freawine) and Wigo (Wig), from whom the royal family of Wessex claimeddescent. During the 5th century the Angli invaded this country (see BRITAIN, _Anglo-Saxon_), after whichtime their name does not recur on the continent except in the title of the code mentioned above.

The province of Schleswig has proved exceptionally rich in prehistoric antiquities which date apparently fromthe 4th and 5th centuries. Among the places where these have been found, special mention should be made ofthe large cremation cemetery at Borgstedterfeld, between Rendsburg and Eckernförde, which has yieldedmany urns and brooches closely resembling those found in heathen graves in England. Of still greaterimportance are the great deposits at Thorsbjaerg (in Angel) and Nydam, which contained large quantities ofarms, ornaments, articles of clothing, agricultural implements, &c., and in the latter case even ships. By thehelp of these discoveries we are able to reconstruct a fairly detailed picture of English civilization in the agepreceding the invasion of Britain.

AUTHORITIES.--Bede, _Hist. Ecc._ i. 15: King Alfred's version of _Orosius_, i. 1. §§ 12, 19; Æthelweard's_Chronicle_, lib. i. For traditions concerning the kings of Angel, see under OFFA (1). L. Weiland, Die Angeln(1889); A. Erdmann, _Über die Heimat und den Namen der Angeln_ (Upsala, 1890--cf. H. Möller in the_Anzeiger für deutsches Altertum und deutsche Litteratur_, xxii. 129 ff.); A. Kock in the Historisk Tidskrift(Stockholm), 1895, xv. p. 163 ff.; G. Schütte, _Var Anglerne Tyskere?_ (Flensborg, 1900); R. MunroChadwick, The Origin of the English Nation (Cambridge, 1907); C. Engelhardt, Denmark in the Early IronAge (London, 1866); J. Mestorf, _Urnenfriedhofe in Schleswig-Holstein_ (Hamburg, 1886); S. Müller,Nordische Altertumskunde (Ger. trans., Strassburg, 1898), ii. p. 122 ff.; see further ANGLO-SAXONS andBRITAIN, _Anglo-Saxon_.


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ANGLICAN COMMUNION, the name used to denote that great branch of the Christian Church consisting ofthe various churches in communion with the Church of England. The necessity for such a phrase as "AnglicanCommunion," first used in the 19th century, marked at once the immense development of the AnglicanChurch in modern times and the change which has taken place in the traditional conceptions of its characterand sphere. The Church of England itself is the subject of a separate article (see ENGLAND, CHURCH OF);and it is not without significance that for more than two centuries after the Reformation the history ofAnglicanism is practically confined to its developments within the limits of the British Isles. Even in Ireland,where it was for over three centuries the established religion, and in Scotland, where it early gave way to thedominant Presbyterianism, its religious was long overshadowed by its political significance. The Church, infact, while still claiming to be Catholic in its creeds and in its religious practice, had ceased to be Catholic inits institutional conception, which was now bound up with a particular state and also with a particularconception of that state. To the native Irishman and the Scotsman, as indeed to most Englishmen, theAnglican Church was one of the main buttresses of the supremacy of the English crown and nation. Thisconception of the relations of church and state was hardly favourable to missionary zeal; and in the agesucceeding the Reformation there was no disposition on the part of the English Church to emulate thewonderful activity of the Jesuits, which, in the 16th and 17th centuries, brought to the Church of Rome incountries beyond the ocean compensation for what she had lost in Europe through the Protestant reformation.Even when English churchmen passed beyond the seas, they carried with them their creed, but not theirecclesiastical organization. Prejudice and real or imaginary legal obstacles stood in the way of the erection ofepiscopal sees in the colonies; and though in the 17th century Archbishop Laud had attempted to obtain abishop for Virginia, up to the time of the American revolution the churchmen of the colonies had to make thebest of the legal fiction that their spiritual needs were looked after by the bishop of London, who occasionallysent commissaries to visit them and ordained candidates for the ministry sent to England for the purpose.


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The change which has made it possible for Anglican churchmen to claim that their communion ranks withthose of Rome and the Orthodox East as one of the three great historical divisions of the Catholic Church, wasdue, in the first instance, to the American revolution. The severance of the colonies from their allegiance tothe crown brought the English bishops for the first time face to face with the idea of an Anglican Churchwhich should have nothing to do either with the royal supremacy or with British nationality. When, on theconclusion of peace, the church-people of Connecticut sent Dr. Samuel Seabury to England, with a request tothe archbishop of Canterbury to consecrate him, it is not surprising that Archbishop Moore refused. In theopinion of prelates and lawyers alike, an act of parliament was necessary before a bishop could be consecratedfor a see abroad; to consecrate one for a foreign country seemed impossible, since, though the bestowal of thepotestas ordinis would be valid, the crown, which, according to the law, was the source of the episcopal_jurisdiction_, could hardly issue the necessary mandate for the consecration of a bishop to a see outside therealm (see BISHOP). The Scottish bishops, however, being hampered by no such legal restrictions, were moreamenable; and on the 11th of November 1784 Seabury was consecrated by them to the see of Connecticut. In1786, on the initiative of the archbishop, the legal difficulties in England were removed by the act for theconsecration of bishops abroad; and, on being satisfied as to the orthodoxy of the church in America and thenature of certain liturgical changes in contemplation, the two English archbishops proceeded, on the 14th ofFebruary 1787, to consecrate William White and Samuel Prevoost to the sees of Pennsylvania and New York(see PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH).

This act had a significance beyond the fact that it established in the United States of America a flourishingchurch, which, while completely loyal to its own country, is bound by special ties to the religious life ofEngland. It marked the emergence of the Church of England from that insularity to which what may be calledthe territorial principles of the Reformation had condemned her. The change was slow, and it is not yet by anymeans complete.

Since the Church of England, whatever her attitude towards the traditional Catholic doctrines, never disputedthe validity of Catholic orders whether Roman or Orthodox, nor the jurisdiction of Catholic bishops in foreigncountries, the expansion of the Anglican Church has been in no sense conceived as a Protestant aggressivemovement against Rome. Occasional exceptions, such as the consecration by Archbishop Plunket of Dublin ofa bishop for the reformed church in Spain, raised so strong a protest as to prove the rule. In the main, then, theexpansion of the Anglican Church has followed that of the British empire, or, as in America, of its daughterstates; its claim, so far as rights of jurisdiction are concerned, is to be the Church of England and the Englishrace, while recognizing its special duties towards the non-Christian populations subject to the empire orbrought within the reach of its influence. As against the Church of Rome, with its system of rigidcentralization, the Anglican Church represents the principle of local autonomy, which it holds to be once moreprimitive and more catholic. In this respect the Anglican communion has developed on the lines defined in herarticles at the Reformation; but, though in principle there is no great difference between a church defined bynational, and a church defined by racial boundaries, there is an immense difference in effect, especially whenthe race--as in the case of the English--is itself ecumenical.

The realization of what may be called this catholic mission of the English church, in the extension of itsorganization to the colonies, was but a slow process.

_The Church in the Colonies._

On the 12th of August 1787 Dr. Charles Inglis was consecrated bishop of Nova Scotia, with jurisdiction overall the British possessions in North America. In 1793 the see of the Québec was founded; Jamaica andBarbados followed in 1824, and Toronto and Newfoundland in 1839. Meanwhile the needs of India has beentardily met, on the urgent representations in parliament of William Wilberforce and others, by theconsecration of Dr. T.F. Middleton as bishop of Calcutta, with three archdeacons to assist him. In 1817Ceylon was added to his charge; in 1823 all British subjects in the East Indies and the islands of the IndianOcean; and in 1824 "New South Wales and its dependencies"! Some five years later, on the nomination of the


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duke of Wellington, William Broughton was sent out to work in this enormous jurisdiction as archdeacon ofAustralia. Soon afterwards, in 1835 and 1837, the sees of Madras and Bombay were founded; whilst in 1836Broughton himself was consecrated as first bishop of Australia. Thus down to 1840 there were but tencolonial bishops; and of these several were so hampered by civil regulations that they were little more thangovernment chaplains in episcopal orders. In April of that year, however, Bishop Blomfield of Londonpublished his famous letter to the archbishop of Canterbury, declaring that "an episcopal church without abishop is a contradiction in terms," and strenuously advocating a great effort for the extension of theepiscopate. It was not in vain. The plan was taken up with enthusiasm, and on Whitsun Tuesday of 1841 thebishops of the United Kingdom met and issued a declaration which inaugurated the Colonial BishopricsCouncil. Subsequent declarations in 1872 and 1891 have served both to record progress and to stimulate tonew effort. The diocese of New Zealand was founded in 1841, being endowed by the Church MissionarySociety through the council, and George Augustus Selwyn was chosen as the first bishop. Since then theincrease has gone on, as the result both of home effort and of the action of the colonial churches. Moreover, inmany cases bishops have been sent to inaugurate new missions, as in the cases of the Universities' Mission toCentral Africa, Lebombo, Corea and New Guinea; and the missionary jurisdictions so founded develop intime into dioceses. Thus, instead of the ten colonial jurisdictions of 1841, there are now about a hundredforeign and colonial jurisdictions, in addition to those of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States.

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It was only very gradually that these dioceses acquired legislative independence and a determinateorganization. At first, sees were created and bishops were nominated by the crown by means of letters patent;and in some cases an income was assigned out of public funds. Moreover, for many years all bishops alikewere consecrated in England, took the customary "oath of due obedience" to the archbishop of Canterbury,and were regarded as his extra-territorial suffragans. But by degrees changes have been made on all thesepoints.

_Provincial Organization._

(1) Local conditions soon made a provincial organization necessary, and it was gradually introduced. Thebishop of Calcutta received letters patent as metropolitan of India when the sees of Madras and Bombay werefounded; and fresh patents were issued to Bishop Broughton in 1847 and Bishop Gray in 1853, asmetropolitans of Australia and South Africa respectively. Similar action was taken in 1858, when BishopSelwyn became metropolitan of New Zealand; and again in 1860, when, on the petition of the Canadianbishops to the crown and the colonial legislature for permission to elect a metropolitan, letters patent wereissued appointing Bishop Fulford of Montreal to that office. Since then metropolitans have been chosen andprovinces formed by regular synodical action, a process greatly encouraged by the resolutions of the Lambethconferences on the subject. The constitution of these provinces is not uniform. In some cases, as South Africa,New South Wales, and Queensland, the metropolitan see is fixed. Elsewhere, as in New Zealand, where nosingle city can claim pre-eminence, the metropolitan is either elected or else is the senior bishop byconsecration. Two further developments must be mentioned: (a) The creation of diocesan and provincialsynods, the first diocesan synod to meet being that of New Zealand in 1844, whilst the formation of aprovincial synod was foreshadowed by a conference of Australasian bishops at Sydney in 1850; (b) towardsthe close of the 19th century the title of archbishop began to be assumed by the metropolitans of severalprovinces. It was first assumed by the metropolitans of Canada and Rupert's Land, at the desire of theCanadian general synod in 1893; and subsequently, in accordance with a resolution of the Lambethconference of 1897, it was given by their synods to the bishop of Sydney as metropolitan of New South Walesand to the bishop of Cape Town as metropolitan of South Africa. Civil obstacles have hitherto delayed itsadoption by the metropolitan of India.

_Freedom from state control._


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(2) By degrees, also, the colonial churches have been freed from their rather burdensome relations with thestate. The church of the West Indies was disestablished and disendowed in 1868. In 1857 it was decided, inRegina v. _Eton College_, that the crown could not claim the presentation to a living when it had appointedthe former incumbent to a colonial bishopric, as it does in the case of an English bishopric. In 1861, aftersome protest from the crown lawyers, two missionary bishops were consecrated without letters patent forregions outside British territory: C.F. Mackenzie for the Zambezi region and J.C. Patteson for Melanesia, bythe metropolitans of Cape Town and New Zealand respectively. In 1863 the privy council declared, in Long v._The Bishop of Cape Town_, that "the Church of England, in places where there is no church established bylaw, is in the same situation with any other religious body." In 1865 it adjudged Bishop Gray's letters patent,as metropolitan of Cape Town, to be powerless to enable him "to exercise any coercive jurisdiction, or holdany court or tribunal for that purpose," since the Cape colony already possessed legislative institutions whenthey were issued; and his deposition of Bishop Colenso was declared to be "null and void in law" (_re TheBishop of Natal_). With the exception of Colenso the South African bishops forthwith surrendered theirpatents, and formally accepted Bishop Gray as their metropolitan, an example followed in 1865 in theprovince of New Zealand. In 1862, when the diocese of Ontario was formed, the bishop was elected inCanada, and consecrated under a royal mandate, letters patent being by this time entirely discredited. Andwhen, in 1867, a coadjutor was chosen for the bishop of Toronto, an application for a royal mandate producedthe reply from the colonial secretary that "it was not the part of the crown to interfere in the creation of a newbishop or bishopric, and not consistent with the dignity of the crown that he should advise Her Majesty toissue a mandate which would not be worth the paper on which it was written, and which, having been sent outto Canada, might be disregarded in the most complete manner." And at the present day the colonial churchesare entirely free in this matter. This, however, is not the case with the church in India. Here the bishops of seesfounded down to 1879 receive a stipend from the revenue (with the exception of the bishop of Ceylon, who nolonger does so). They are not only nominated by the crown and consecrated under letters patent, but theappointment is expressly subjected "to such power of revocation and recall as is by law vested" in the crown;and where additional oversight was necessary for the church in Tinnevelly, it could only be secured by theconsecration of two assistant bishops, who worked under a commission for the archbishop of Canterburywhich was to expire on the death of the bishop of Madras. Since then, however, new sees have been foundedwhich are under no such restrictions: by the creation of dioceses either in native states (Travancore andCochin), or out of the existing dioceses (Chota Nagpur, Lucknow, &c.). In the latter case there is no legalsubdivision of the older diocese, the new bishop administering such districts as belonged to it undercommission from its bishop, provision being made, however, that in all matters ecclesiastical there shall be noappeal but to the metropolitan of India.

_Spiritual autonomy._

(3) By degrees, also, the relations of colonial churches to the archbishop of Canterbury have changed. Until1855 no colonial bishop was consecrated outside the British Isles, the first instance being Dr. MacDougall ofLabuan, consecrated in India under a commission from the archbishop of Canterbury; and until 1874 it washeld to be unlawful for a bishop to be consecrated in England without taking the suffragan's oath of dueobedience. This necessity was removed by the Colonial Clergy Act of 1874, which permits the archbishop athis discretion to dispense with the oath. This, however, has not been done in all cases; and as late as 1890 itwas taken by the metropolitan of Sydney at his consecration. Thus the constituent parts of the Anglicancommunion gradually acquire autonomy: missionary jurisdictions develop into organized dioceses, anddioceses are grouped into provinces with canons of their own. But the most complete autonomy does notinvolve isolation. The churches are in full communion with one another, and act together in many ways;missionary jurisdictions and dioceses are mapped out by common arrangement, and even transferred if itseems advisable; _e.g._ the diocese Honolulu (Hawaii), previously under the jurisdiction of the archbishop ofCanterbury, was transferred in 1900 to the Episcopal Church in the United States on account of politicalchanges. Though the see of Canterbury claims no primacy over the Anglican communion analogous to thatexercised over the Roman Church by the popes, it is regarded with a strong affection and deference, whichshows itself by frequent consultation and interchange of greetings. There is also a strong common life


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emphasized by common action.

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_Pan-Anglican Congress._

The conference of Anglican bishops from all parts of the world, instituted by Archbishop Longley in 1867,and known as the Lambeth Conferences (_q.v._), though even for the Anglican communion they have not theauthority of an ecumenical synod, and their decisions are rather of the nature of counsels than commands,have done much to promote the harmony and co-operation of the various branches of the Church. An evenmore imposing manifestation of this common life was given by the great pan-Anglican congress held inLondon between the 12th and 24th of June 1908, which preceded the Lambeth conference opened on the 5thof July. The idea of this originated with Bishop Montgomery, secretary to the Society for the Propagation ofthe Gospel, and was endorsed by a resolution of the United Boards of Mission in 1903. As the result ofnegotiations and preparations extending over five years, 250 bishops, together with delegates, clerical and lay,from every diocese in the Anglican communion, met in London, the opening service of intercession beingheld in Westminster Abbey. In its general character, the meeting was but a Church congress on an enlargedscale, and the subjects discussed, _e.g._. the attitude of churchmen towards the question of the marriage lawsor that of socialism, followed much the same lines. The congress, of course, had no power to decide or tolegislate for the Church, its main value being in drawing its scattered members closer together, in bringing thenewer and more isolated branches into consciousness of their contact with the parent stem, and in opening theeyes of the Church of England to the point of view and the peculiar problems of the daughter-churches.

The Anglican communion consists of the following:--(1) The Church of England, 2 provinces, Canterbury andYork, with 24 and 11 dioceses respectively. (2) The Church of Ireland, 2 provinces, Armagh and Dublin, with7 and 6 dioceses respectively. (3) The Scottish Episcopal Church, with 7 dioceses. (4) The ProtestantEpiscopal Church of the United States, with 89 dioceses and missionary jurisdictions, including North Tokyo,Kyoto, Shanghai, Cape Palmas, and the independent dioceses of Hayti and Brazil. (5) The Canadian Church,consisting of (a) the province of Canada, with 10 dioceses; (b) the province of Rupert's Land, with 8 dioceses.(6) The Church in India and Ceylon, 1 province of 11 dioceses. (7) The Church of the West Indies, 1 provinceof 8 dioceses, of which Barbados and the Windward Islands are at present united. (8) The Australian Church,consisting of (a) the province of New South Wales, with 10 dioceses; (b) the province of Queensland, with 5dioceses; (c) the province of Victoria, with 5 dioceses. (9) The Church of New Zealand, 1 province of 7dioceses, together with the missionary jurisdiction of Melanesia. (10) The South African Church, 1 provinceof 10 dioceses, with the 2 missionary jurisdictions of Masbonaland and Lebombo. (11) Nearly 30 isolateddioceses and missionary jurisdictions holding mission from the see of Canterbury.

AUTHORITIES.--_Official Year-book of the Church of England_; Phillimore, _Ecclesiastical Law_, vol. ii.(London, 1895); _Digest of S.P.G. Records_ (London, 1893); E. Stock, _History of the Church MissionarySociety_, 3 vols. (London, 1899); H.W. Tucker, The English Church in Other Lands (London, 1886); A.T.Wirgman, The Church and the Civil Power (London, 1893).

ANGLING, the art or practice of the sport of catching fish by means of a baited hook or "angle" (from theIndo-European root _ank-_, meaning "bend").[1] It is among the most ancient of human activities, and may besaid to date from the time when man was in the infancy of the Stone Age, eking out a precarious existence bythe slaughter of any living thing which he could reach with the rude weapons at his command. It is probablethat attack on fishes was at first much the same as attack on animals, a matter of force rather than of guile, andconducted by means of a rude spear with a flint head. It is probable, too, that the primitive harpooners werenot signally successful in their efforts, and so set their wits to work to devise other means of getting at theabundant food which waited for them in every piece of water near their caves. Observation would soon showthem that fish fed greedily on each other and on other inhabitants of the water or living things that fell into it,and so, no doubt, arose the idea of entangling the prey by means of its appetite. Hence came the notion of the


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first hook, which, it seems certain, was not a hook at all but a "gorge," a piece of flint or stone which the fishcould swallow with the bait but which it could not eject afterwards. From remains found in cave-dwellingsand their neighbourhood in different parts of the world it is obvious that these gorges varied in shape, but ingeneral the idea was the same, a narrow strip of stone or flake of flint, either straight or slightly curved at theends, with a groove in the middle round which the line could be fastened. Buried in the bait it would beswallowed end first; then the tightening of the line would fix it cross-wise in the quarry's, stomach or gulletand so the capture would be assured. The device still lingers in France and in a few remote parts of England inthe method of catching eels which is known as "sniggling." In this a needle buried in a worm plays the part ofthe prehistoric gorge.

The evolution of the fish-hook from the slightly curved gorge is easily intelligible. The ends became more andmore curved, until eventually an object not unlike a double hook was attained. This development would bematerially assisted by man's discovery of the uses of bronze and its adaptability to his requirements. Thesingle hook, of the pattern more or less familiar to us, was possibly a concession of the lake-dweller to whatmay even then have been a problem--the "education" of fish, and to a recognition of the fact that sport withthe crude old methods was falling off. But it is also not improbable that in some parts of the world the singlehook developed pari passu with the double, and that, on the sea-shore for instance, where man was able toemploy so adaptable a substance as shell, the first hook was a curved fragment of shell lashed with fibre to apiece of wood or bone, in such a way that the shell formed the bend of the hook while the wood or boneformed the shank. Both early remains and recent hooks from the Fiji Islands bear out this supposition. It isalso likely that flint, horn and bone were pressed into service in a similar manner. The nature of the line or therod that may have been used with these early hooks is largely a matter of conjecture. The first line wasperhaps the tendril of a plant, the first rod possibly a sapling tree. But it is fairly obvious that the rod musthave been suggested by the necessity of getting the bait out over obstacles which lay between the fishermanand the water, and that it was a device for increasing both the reach of the arm and the length of the line. Itseems not improbable that the rod very early formed a part of the fisherman's equipment.

[Footnote 1: As to whether "angling" necessarily implies a rod as well as a line and hook, see the discussion inthe law case of Barnard v. Roberts (_Times L.R._, April 13, 1907), when the question arose as to the use ofnight-lines being angling; but the decision against night-lines went on the ground of the absence of thepersonal element rather than on the absence of a rod. The various dictionaries are blind guides on this point,and the authorities cited are inconclusive; but, broadly speaking, angling now implies three necessaryfactors--a personal angler, the sporting element, and the use of recognized fishing-tackle.]

Literary History.--From prehistoric times down to comparatively late in the days of chronicles, anglingappears to have remained a practice; its development into an art or sport is a modern idea. In the earliestliterature references to angling are not very numerous, but there are passages in the Old Testament whichshow that fish-taking with hook as well as net was one of the common industries in the East, and that fish,where it was obtainable, formed an important article of diet. In Numbers (xi. 5) the children of Israel mournfor the fish which they "did eat in Egypt freely." So much too is proved by the monuments of Egypt; indeedmore, for the figures found in some of the Egyptian fishing pictures using short rods and stout lines aresometimes attired after the manner of those who were great in the land. This indicates that angling hadalready, in a highly civilized country, taken its place among the methods of diversion at the disposal of thewealthy, though from the uncompromising nature of the tackle depicted and the apparent simplicity of the fish*t would scarcely be safe to assume that in Egypt angling arrived at the dignity of becoming an "art." InEurope it took very much longer for the taking of fish to be regarded even as an amusem*nt, and the earliestreferences to it in the Greek and Latin classics are not very satisfying to the sportsman.

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There is, however, a passage in the Odyssey (xii. 247) which is of considerable importance, as it shows thatfishing with rod and line was well enough understood in early Greece to be used as a popular illustration. It


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occurs in the well-known scene where Scylla seizes the companions of Odysseus out of the ship and bearsthem upwards, just as "some fisher on a headland with a long rod" brings small fishes gasping to the shore.Another important, though comparatively late, passage in Greek poetry is the twenty-first idyll of Theocritus.In this the fisherman Asphalion relates how in a dream he hooked a large golden fish and describesgraphically, albeit with some obscurity of language, how he "played" it. Asphalion used a rod and fished froma rock, much after the manner of the Homeric angler. Among other Greek writers, Herodotus has a good manyreferences to fish and fishing; the capture of fish is once or twice mentioned or implied by Plato, notably inthe Laws (vii. 823); Aristotle deals with fishes in his _Natural History_, and there are one or two fishingpassages in the anthology. But in Greek literature, as a whole the subject of angling is not at all prominent. Inwriters of late Greek, however, there is more material. Plutarch, for instance, gives us the famous story of thefishing match between Antony and Cleopatra, which has been utilized by Shakespeare. Moreover, it is inGreek that the first complete treatise on fishing which has come down to us is written, the Halieutica ofOppian (c. A.D. 169). It is a hexameter poem in five books with perhaps more technical than sporting interest,and not so much even of that as the length of the work would suggest. Still it contains some information abouttackle and methods, and some passages describing battles with big fish, in the right spirit of enthusiasm. Alsoin Greek is what is famous as the first reference in literature to fly-fishing, in the fifteenth book of Aelian'sNatural History (3rd century A.D.). It is there described how the Macedonians captured a certain spotted fishin the river Astraeus by means of a lure composed of coloured wool and feathers, which was presumably usedin the manner now known as "dapping." That there were other Greek writers who dealt with fish and fishingand composed "halieutics" we know from Athenaeus. In the first book of his Deipnosophistae he gives a listof them. But he compares their work unfavourably with the passage of Homer already cited, in a way whichsuggests that their knowledge of angling was not a great advance upon the knowledge of their remote literaryancestors. In Latin literature allusions to angling are rather more numerous than in Greek, but on the wholethey are unimportant. Part of a poem by Ovid, the _Halieuticon_, composed during the poet's exile at Tomiafter A.D. 9, still survives. In other Roman writers the subject is only treated by way of allusion or illustration.Martial, however, provides, among other passages, what may perhaps be entitled to rank as the earliest noticeof private fishery rights--the epigram _Ad Piscatorem_, which warns would-be poachers from casting a line inthe Baian lake. Pliny the elder devoted the ninth book of his Natural History to fishes and water-life, andPlautus, Cicero, Catullus, Horace, Juvenal, Pliny the younger and Suetonius all allude to angling here andthere. Agricultural writers, too, such as Varro and Columella, deal with the subject of fish ponds and stewsrather fully. Later than any of these, but still just included in Latin literature, we have Ausonius (c. A.D. 320)and his well-known idyll the _Mosella_, which contains a good deal about the fish of the Moselle and themethods of catching them. In this poem is to be found the first recognizable description of members of thesalmon family, and, though the manner of their application is rather doubtful, the names _salmo, salar_ andfario strike a responsive note in the breast of the modern angler.

_Post-classical Literature_.--As to what happened in the world of angling in the first few centuries of theChristian era we know little. It may be inferred, however, that both fish and fishermen occupied a morehonourable position in Christendom than they ever did before. The prominence of fishermen in the gospelnarratives would in itself have been enough to bring this about, but it also happened that the Greek word forfish, [Greek: ICHTHUS], had an anagrammatic significance which the devout were not slow to perceive. Theinitials of the word resolve into what is practically a confession of faith, [Greek: Iesous Christos Theou UiosSoter](Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour). It is therefore not surprising that we find the fish very prominent asa sacred emblem in the painting and sculpture of the primitive church, or that Clement of Alexandria shouldhave recommended it, among other things, as a device for signet rings or seals. The fisherman too isfrequently represented in early Christian art, and it is worthy of remark that he more often uses a line andhook than a net. The references to fish and fishing scattered about in the writings of the early fathers for themost part reflect the two ideas of the sacredness of the fish and divine authorization of the fisherman; thesecond idea certainly prevailed until the time of Izaak Walton, for he uses it to justify his pastime. It is alsonot unlikely that the practice of fasting (in many cases fish was allowed when meat was forbidden) gave theart of catching fish additional importance. It seems at any rate to have been a consideration of weight whensites were chosen for monasteries in Europe, and in many cases when no fish-producing river was at hand the


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lack was supplied by the construction of fish-ponds. Despite all this, however, save for an occasional allusionin the early fathers, there is hardly a connecting link between the literature of Pagan Rome and the literaturethat sprang up on the invention of printing. One volume, the _Geoponica_, a Greek compilation concerningwhose authorship and date there has been much dispute, is attributed in Bibliotheca Piscatoria to thebeginning of the 10th century. It contains one book on fish, fish-ponds and fishing, with prescriptions forbaits, &c., extracted for the most part from other writers. But it seems doubtful whether its date should not beplaced very much earlier. Tradition makes it a Carthaginian treatise translated into Greek. A more satisfactoryfragment of fishing literature is to be found in the Colloquy of Ælfric, written (_ad pucros linguae latinaelocutionis exercendos_) towards the end of the same century. Ælfric became archbishop of Canterbury in A.D.995, and the passage in the Anglo-Saxon text-book takes honourable rank as the earliest reference to fishing inEnglish writings, though it is not of any great length. It is to be noted that the fisher who takes a share in thecolloquy states that he prefers fishing in the river to fishing in the sea. Ascribed to the 13th or 14th century isa Latin poem _De Vetula_, whose author was apparently Richard de Fournival. It contains a passage onangling, and was placed to the credit of Ovid when first printed (c. 1470). A manuscript in the Britishmuseum, _Comptes des pêcheries de l'église de Troyes_ (A.D. 1349-1413), gives a minute account of thefisheries with the weights of fish captured and the expenses of working. There is, however, practically nothingelse of importance till we come to the first printed book on angling (a translation of Oppian, 1478, excepted),and so to the beginning of the literature proper. This first book was a little volume printed in Antwerpprobably in 1492 at the press of Matthias van der Goes. In size it is little more than a pamphlet, and it treats ofbirds as well as fish:--_Dit Boecxken leert hoe men mach Voghelen ... ende ... visschen vangen mettenkanden. Ende oeck andersins...._ ("This book teaches how one may catch birds ... and ... fish with the hands,and also otherwise"). Only one copy apparently survives, in the Denison library, and a translation privatelyprinted for Mr. Alfred Denison in 1872 was limited to twenty-five copies. At least two other editions of thebook appeared in Flemish, and it also made its way, in 1502, to Germany, where, translated and with certainalterations and additions, it seems to have been re-issued frequently. Next in date comes the famous _Treatyseof Fysshynge wyth an Angle_, printed at Westminster by Wynkyn de Worde in 1496 as a part of the secondedition of _The Book of St. Albans_. The treatise is for this reason associated with the name of Dame JulianaBerners, but that somewhat dubious compiler can have had nothing whatever to do with it. The treatise isalmost certainly a compilation from some earlier work on angling ("bokes of credence" are mentioned in itstext), possibly from a manuscript of the earlier part of the 15th century, of which a portion is preserved in theDenison collection. This was published in 1883 by Mr. Thomas Satchell under the title An Older Form of theTreatyse of Fysshynge wyth an Angle. But it is also possible that a still older work was the parent of bothbooks, for it has been held that the manuscript is an independent version. However this may be, it is certainthat the treatise itself has been the parent of many other works. Many of the instructions contained in it arehanded down from generation to generation with little change except in diction. Especially is this the casewith the list of trout-flies, a meagre twelve, which survives in many fishing books until well into the 18thcentury.

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From the beginning of the 16th century the fisherman's library begins to grow apace, as, though books solelydevoted to fishing are not yet frequent, works on husbandry and country pursuits almost all contain somethingon the subject. In Italy the fisherman and his occupation apparently were considered poetically; the wordpescatore or its cognates are common on Italian 16th and 17th century title-pages, though in many instancesthe fulfilment of the implied promise is not adequate, from an angler's point of view. From the pages ofBibliotheca Piscatoria a fairly long list of Italian writers could be gleaned. Among them may be mentionedSannazaro (_Piscatoria_, &c., Rome, 1526) and Andrea Calmo (_Rime pescatorie_, Venice, 1557). A centurylater was Parthenius, who published a volume of Halieutica at Naples. This writer has an amusing reference tothe art of "tickling" trout as practised in Britain. In Germany, as has been shown, the original little Flemishtreatise had a wide vogue in the 16th century, and fishing played a part in a good many books on husbandrysuch as that of Conrad Heresbach (1570). Fish and fish-ponds formed the main topic of a Latin work byDubravius (1552), while Gesner in the middle of the 16th and Aldrovandi at the beginning of the 17th


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centuries wrote at length on the natural history of fishes. In France the subject is less well represented, but LesPescheries of Chris. de Gamon (Lyons, 1599) and Le Plaisir des champs of Cl. Gauchet (Paris, 1604) deserveto be noted. Les Ruses innocentes by François Fortin, first published at Paris in 1600, and several times inlater editions, is characterized by Messrs Westwood and Satchell as "on the whole the most interestingcontribution made by France to the literature of angling." England during the most part of the 16th centurywas evidently well enough served by the original treatise out of _The Book of St. Albans_. It was republishedtwice by Wynkyn de Worde, six or seven times by Copland, and some five times by other printers. It was alsopractically republished in A Booke of Fishing by L.M. (1590). L.M. (Leonard Mascall) ranks as an anglingauthor, but he did little more than borrow and edit the treatise. The same may be said of another version of_The Book of St. Albans_ "now newly collected by W.G. Faulkener" and issued in 1596.

Modern Literature.--In 1600 appeared John Taverner's _Certaine Experiments concerning Fish and Fruite_,and after this the period of angling literature proper begins. The Secrets of Angling (1613), by J(ohn)D(ennys). Esq., is one of the most important volumes in the angler's library, both on account of the excellenceof the verse in which it is written and also on account of its practical value. Gervase Markham, "the firstjournalist," as he has been called, published his first book of husbandry at the same date, and, as in most of hismany books on the same subject, devoted a certain amount of space to fishing. But Markham gathered hismaterials in a rather shameless manner and his angling passages have little originality. Thomas Barker's TheArt of Angling (1st ed., 1651) takes a more honourable position, and received warm commendation from IzaakWalton himself, who followed it in 1653 with The Compleat Angler. So much has been written about thistreasured classic that it is only necessary to indicate its popularity here by saying that its editions occupy sometwenty pages in Bibliotheca Piscatoria (1883), and that since that work was published at least forty neweditions have to be added to the list. During Walton's life-time the book ran through five editions, and with thefifth (1676) was incorporated Charles Cotton's second part, the "instructions how to angle for a trout orgrayling, in a clear stream." In some cases too there was added a third book, the fourth edition of _TheExperienced Angler_, by Robert Venables (1st ed., 1662). The three books together bore the title of TheUniversal Angler. Venables's portion was dropped later, but it is worth reading, and contained soundinstruction though it has not the literary merit of Walton and Cotton.

A few other notable books of the century call for enumeration, _The Gentleman's Recreation_ by NicholasCox (1674), Gilbert's _The Angler's Delight_ (1676), Chetham's _Vade-Mecum_ (1681), The CompleteTroller by Robert Nobbes (1682), R. Franck's Northern Memoirs (1694), and The True Art of Angling by J.S.(1696). Of these Chetham, Nobbes, Franck and J.S. have the merit of considerable originality. Franck hasgained some notoriety by his round abuse of Walton. In the 18th century among others we find The Secrets ofAngling by C.G. (1705), Robert Hewlett's _The Angler's Sure Guide_ (1706), The Whole Art of Fishing(1714), The Compleat Fisherman by James Saunders (1724), The Art of Angling by R. Brookes (1740),another book with the same title by R. and C. Bowlker (Worcester, c. 1750), The Complete Sportsman byThomas Fairfax (c. 1760), _The Angler's Museum_ by T. Shirley (1784), and A Concise Treatise on the Art ofAngling by Thomas Best (1787). Of these only Saunders's, Bowlker's and Best's books are of muchimportance, the rest being for the most part "borrowed." One volume of verse in the 18th century calls fornotice, Moses Browne's Piscatory Eclogues (1729). Among greater names we get angling passages in Pope,Gay and Thomson; the two last were evidently brothers of the angle.

With the 19th century angling literature becomes too big a subject to be treated in detail, and it is onlypossible to glance at a few of the more important books and writers. Daniel's Rural Sports appeared in 1801; itis a treasure-house of odd facts. In 1828 Sir Humphry Davy published his famous _Salmonia_, which wasreviewed in the Quarterly by Sir Walter Scott. At about this time too were appearing the Noctes Ambrosianaein _Blackwood's Magazine_. Christopher North (Professor Wilson) often touched upon angling in them,besides contributing a good many angling articles to the magazine. In 1835 that excellent angling writerThomas Tod Stoddart began his valuable series of books with The Art of Angling as Practised in Scotland. In1839 he published _Songs and Poems_, among which are pieces of great merit. During this period, too, firstappeared, year by year, the _Newcastle Fishers' Garlands_, collected by Joseph Crawhall afterwards and


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republished in 1864. These border verses, like Stoddart's, have often a genuine ring about them which ismissing from the more polished effusions of Gay and Thomson. Alfred Ronalds's _The Fly-Fisher'sEntomology_ (1st ed., 1836) was a publication of great importance, for it marked the beginning of thescientific spirit among trout-fishers. It ran through many editions and is still a valuable book of reference. Astep in angling history is also marked by George Pulman's _Vade-Mecum of Fly-fishing for Trout_ (1841), forit contains the first definite instructions on fishing with a "dry fly." Another is marked by Hewett Wheatley'sThe Rod and the Line (1849), where is to be found the earliest reference to the "eyed" hook. Yet another ismarked by W.C. Stewart's The Practical Angler (1857), in which is taught the new doctrine of "up-stream"fishing for trout. This is a book of permanent value. Among the many books of this period Charles Kingsley'sMiscellanies (1859) stands out, for it contains the immortal "Chalk-Stream Studies." The work of FrancisFrancis begins at about the same time, though his _A Book on Angling_, which is still one of the mostvaluable text-books, was not first published till 1867. Another well-known and excellent writer, Mr. H.Cholmondeley Pennell, began in the early 'sixties; it is to him that we owe the admirable volumes onfresh-water fishing in the "Badminton Library." Among other English writers mention must be made ofMessrs William Senior, John Bickerdyke and F.M. Halford, who have all performed signal services forangling and its literature. (See further bibliography ad fin.) In America the latter half of the 19th centuryproduced a good deal of fishing literature, much of it of a high standard.

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_I go a-Fishing_ by Dr. W.C. Prime (1873), Fishing with the Fly by C.F. Orvis, A. Nelson Cheney and others(1883), The American Salmon Fisherman and Fly Rods and Fly Tackle by H.P. Wells (1886 and 1885), LittleRivers and other books by the Rev. H. Van Dyke--these are only a few specially distinguished in style andmatter. Germany and France have not contributed so largely to the modern library, but in the first country wefind several useful works by Max von dem Borne, beginning with the Handbuch der Angelfischerei of 1875,and there are a good many other writers who have contributed to the subject, while in France there are a fewvolumes on fishing by different hands. The most noticeable is M.G. Albert Petit's _La Truite de rivière_(1897), an admirable book on fly-fishing. As yet, however, though there are many enthusiastic anglers inFrance, the sport has not established itself so firmly as to have inspired much literature of its own; the samemay be said of Germany.

Modern Conditions.--In the modern history of angling there are one or two features that should be touchedupon. The great increase in the number of fishermen has had several results. One is a corresponding increasein the difficulty of obtaining fishing, and a notable rise in the value of rivers, especially those which are famedfor salmon and trout. Salmon-fishing now may be said to have become a pastime of the rich, and there aresigns that trout-fishing will before long have to be placed in the same exclusive category, while even the rightto angle for less-esteemed fish will eventually be a thing of price. The development is natural, and it hasnaturally led to efforts on the part of the angling majority to counteract, if possible, the growing difficulty.These efforts have been directed chiefly in two ways, one the establishment of fishing clubs, the other theadoption of angling in salt water. The fishing club of the big towns was originally a social institution, and itsmembers met together to sup, converse on angling topics and perhaps to display notable fish that they hadcaught. Later, however, arose the idea that it would be a convenience if a club could give its membersprivileges of fishing as well as privileges of reunion. So it comes about that all over the United Kingdom, inBritish colonies and dependencies, in the United States, and also in Germany and France, fishing clubs rentwaters, undertake preservation and restocking and generally lead an active and useful existence. It is a goodsign for the future of angling and anglers that they are rapidly increasing in number. One of the oldest fishingclubs, if not the oldest, was the Schuylkill club, founded in Pennsylvania in 1732. An account of its historywas published in Philadelphia in 1830. Among the earliest clubs in London are to be numbered such societiesas The True Waltonians, The Piscatorial, The Friendly Anglers and The Gresham, which are still flourishing.A certain amount of literary activity has been observable in the world of angling clubs, and several volumes of"papers" are on the records. Most noticeable perhaps are the three volumes of _Anglers' Evenings_ publishedin 1880-1894, a collection of essays by members of the Manchester Anglers' Association. The other method


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of securing a continuance of sport, the adoption of sea-angling as a substitute for fresh-water fishing, is quite amodern thing. Within the memory of men still young the old tactics of hand-line and force were consideredgood enough for sea fish. Now the fresh-water angler has lent his centuries of experience in deluding hisquarry; the sea-angler has adopted many of the ideas presented to him, has modified or improved others, andhas developed the capture of sea-fish into a science almost as subtle as the capture of their fresh-watercousins. One more modern feature, which is also a result of the increase of anglers, is the great advance madein fish-culture, fish-stocking and fish-acclimatization during the last half-century. Fish-culture is now arecognized industry; every trout-stream of note and value is restocked from time to time as a matter of course;salmon-hatcheries are numerous, though their practical utility is still a debated matter, in Great Britain at anyrate; coarse fish are also bred for purposes of restocking; and, lastly, it is now considered a fairly simplematter to introduce fish from one country to another, and even from continent to continent. In England themovement owes a great deal to Francis Francis, who, though he was not the earliest worker in the field, wasamong the first to formulate the science of fish-breeding; his book _Fish-Culture_, first published in 1863,still remains one of the best treatises on the subject. In the United States, where fishery science has had thebenefit of generous governmental and official support and countenance and so has reached a high level ofachievement, Dr. T. Garlick (_The Artificial Reproduction of Fishes_, Cleveland, 1857) is honoured as apioneer. On the continent of Europe the latter half of the 19th century saw a very considerable and rapiddevelopment in fish-culture, but until comparatively recently the propagation and care of fish in mostEuropean waters have been considered almost entirely from the point of view of the fish-stew and the market.As to what has been done in the way of acclimatization it is not necessary to say much. Trout (_Salmo fario_)were introduced to New Zealand in the late 'sixties from England; in the 'eighties rainbow trout (_Salmoirideus_) were also introduced from California; now New Zealand provides the finest trout-fishing of its kindin the world. American trout of different kinds have been introduced into England, and brown trout have beenintroduced to America; but neither innovation can be said to have been an unqualified success, though therainbow has established itself firmly in some waters of the United Kingdom. It is still regarded with somesuspicion, as it has a tendency to wander from waters which do not altogether suit it. For the rest, trout havebeen established in Ceylon, in Kashmir and in South Africa, and early in 1906 an attempt was made to carrythem to British Central Africa. In fact the possibilities of acclimatization are so great that, it seems probable,in time no river of the civilized world capable of holding trout will be without them.


Angling now divides itself into two main divisions, fishing in fresh water and fishing in the sea. The twobranches of the sport have much in common, and sea-angling is really little more than an adaptation offresh-water methods to salt-water conditions. Therefore it will not be necessary to deal with it at great lengthand it naturally comes in the second place. Angling in fresh water is again divisible into three principal parts,fishing on the surface, _i.e._ with the fly; in mid-water, _i.e._ with a bait simulating the movements of a smallfish or with the small fish itself; and on the bottom with worms, paste or one of the many other baits whichexperience has shown that fish will take. With the premise that it is not intended here to go into the minutiaeof instruction which may more profitably be discovered in the many works of reference cited at the end of thisarticle, some account of the subdivisions into which these three styles of fishing fall may be given.

_Fresh-Water Fishing._

_Fly-fishing_.--Fly-fishing is the most modern of them, but it is the most highly esteemed, principally becauseit is the method par excellence of taking members of the most valuable sporting family of fish, theSalmonidae. It may roughly be considered under three heads, the use of the "wet" or sunk fly, of the "dry" orfloating fly, and of the natural insect. Of these the first is the most important, for it covers the widest field andis the most universally practised. There are few varieties of fish which may not either consistently oroccasionally be taken with the sunk fly in one of its two forms. The large and gaudy bunch of feathers, silkand tinsel with which salmon, very large trout, black bass and occasionally other predaceous fish are taken isnot, strictly speaking, a fly at all. It rather represents, if anything, some small fish or subaqueous creature on


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which the big fish is accustomed to feed and it may conveniently receive the generic name of salmon-fly. Thesmaller lures, however, which are used to catch smaller trout and other fish that habitually feed on insect foodare in most cases intended to represent that food in one of its forms and are entitled to the name of "artificialflies." The dry or floating fly is simply a development of the imitation theory, and has been evolved from thewet fly in course of closer observation of the habits of flies and fish in certain waters. Both wet and dry flymethods are really a substitute for the third and oldest kind of surface-fishing, the use of a natural insect as abait. Each method is referred to incidentally below.

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_Spinning, &c_.--Mid-water fishing, as has been said, broadly consists in the use of a small fish, or somethingthat simulates it, and its devices are aimed almost entirely at those fish which prey on their fellows. Spinning,live-baiting and trolling[1] are these devices. In the first a small dead fish or an imitation of it made in metal,india-rubber, or other substance, is caused to revolve rapidly as it is pulled through the water, so that it givesthe idea of something in difficulties and trying to escape. In the second a small fish is put on the angler's hookalive and conveys the same idea by its own efforts. In the third a small dead fish is caused to dart up and downin the water without revolving; it conveys the same idea as the spinning fish, though the manipulation isdifferent.

[Footnote 1: Trolling is very commonly confused in angling writing and talk with _trailing_, which simplymeans drawing a spinning-bait along behind a boat in motion.]

_Bottom-Fishing_.--Bottom-fishing is the branch of angling which is the most general. There is practically nofresh-water fish that will not take some one or more of the baits on the angler's list if they are properlypresented to it when it is hungry. Usually the baited hook is on or near the bottom of the water, but the rulesuggested by the name "bottom-fishing" is not invariable and often the bait is best used in mid-water;similarly, in "mid-water fishing" the bait must sometimes be used as close to the bottom as possible.Bottom-fishing is roughly divisible into two kinds, float-fishing, in which a bite is detected by the aid of afloat fastened to the line above the hook and so balanced that its tip is visible above the water, andhand-fishing, in which no float is used and the angler trusts to his hand to feel the bite of a fish. In most caseseither method can be adopted and it is a matter of taste, but broadly speaking the float-tackle is more suited towater which is not very deep and is either still or not rapid. In great depths or strong streams a float is difficultto manage.

The Fish.

It is practically impossible to classify the fish an angler catches according to the methods which he employs,as most fish can be taken by at least two of these methods, while many of those most highly esteemed can becaught by all three. Sporting fresh-water fish are therefore treated according to their families and merits fromthe angler's point of view, and it is briefly indicated which method or methods best succeed in pursuit of them.

Salmon.--First in importance come the migratory _Salmonidae_, and at the head of them the salmon (_Salmosalar_), which has a two-fold reputation as a sporting and as a commercial asset. The salmon fisheries of acountry are a very valuable possession, but it is only comparatively recently that this has been realized andthat salmon rivers have received the legal protection which is necessary to their well-being. Even now itcannot be asserted that in England the salmon question, as it is called, is settled. Partly owing to our ignoranceof the life-history of the fish, partly owing to the difficulty of reconciling the opposed interests of commerceand sport, the problem as to how a river should be treated remains only partially solved, though it cannot bedenied that there has been a great advance in the right direction. The life-history of the salmon, so far as itconcerns the matter in hand, may be very briefly summed up. It is bred in the rivers and fed in the sea. Theparent fish ascend in late autumn as high as they can get, the ova are deposited on gravel shallows, hatchingout in the course of a few weeks into parr. The infant salmon remains in fresh water at least one year,


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generally two years, without growing more than a few inches, and then about May assumes what is called thesmolt-dress, that is to say, it loses the dark parr-bands and red spots of infancy and becomes silvery all over.After this it descends without delay to the sea, where it feeds to such good purpose that in a year it hasreached a weight of 2 lb to 4 lb or more, and it may then reascend as a grilse. Small grilse indeed may onlyhave been in the sea a few months, ascending in the autumn of the year of their first descent. If the fishsurvives the perils of its first ascent and spawning season and as a kelt or spawned fish gets down to the seaagain, it comes up a second time as a salmon of weight varying from 8 lb upwards. Whether salmon come uprivers, and, if so, spawn, every year, why some fish are much heavier than others of the same age, what theirmode of life is in the sea, why some run up in spring and summer when the breeding season is not till aboutNovember or December, whether they were originally sea-fish or river-fish--these and other similar questionsawait a conclusive answer. One principal fact, however, stands out amid the uncertainty, and that is thatwithout a free passage up and down unpolluted rivers and without protection on the spawning beds salmonhave a very poor chance of perpetuating their species. Economic prudence dictates therefore that every year aconsiderable proportion of running salmon should be allowed to escape the dangers that confront them in theshape of nets, obstructions, pollutions, rods and poachers. And it is in the adjustment of the interests which arebound up in these dangers (the last excepted; officially poachers have no interests, though in practice theirplea of "custom and right" has too often to be taken into consideration) that the salmon question consists. Tosecure a fair proportion of fish for the market, a fair proportion for the rods and a fair proportion for the redds,without unduly damaging manufacturing interests, this is the object of those who have the question at heart,and with many organizations and scientific observers at work it should not be long before the object isattained. Already the system of "marking" kelts with a small silver label has resulted in a considerable array ofvaluable statistics which have made it possible to estimate the salmon's ordinary rate of growth from year toyear. It is very largely due to the efforts of anglers that the matter has gone so far. Whether salmon feed infresh water is another question of peculiar interest to anglers, for it would seem that if they do not then thewhole practice of taking them must be an anomaly. Champions have arisen on both sides of the argument,some, scientists, asserting that salmon (parr and kelts excluded, for both feed greedily as opportunity occurs)do not feed, others, mostly anglers, maintaining strongly that they do, and bringing as evidence theirundoubted and customary capture by rod and line, not only with the fly, but also with such obviousfood-stuffs as dead baits, worms and prawns. On the other side it is argued that food is never found inside asalmon after it has been long enough in a river to have digested its last meal taken in salt water. The very fewinstances of food found in salmon which have been brought forward to support the contrary opinion are in thescientific view to be regarded with great caution; certainly in one case of recent years, which at first appearedto be well authenticated, it was afterwards found that a small trout had been pushed down a salmon's throatafter capture by way of a joke. A consideration of the question, however, which may perhaps make someappeal to both sides, is put forward by Dr.J. Kingston Barton in the first of the two volumes on Fishing(Country Life Series). He maintains that salmon do not habitually feed in fresh water, but he does not rejectthe possibility of their occasionally taking food. His view is that after exertion, such as that entailed byrunning from pool to pool during a spate, the fish may feel a very transient hunger and be impelled thereby tosnap at anything in its vicinity which looks edible. The fact that the angler's best opportunity is undoubtedlywhen salmon have newly arrived into a pool, supports this contention. The longer they are compelled toremain in the same spot by lack of water the worse becomes the prospect of catching them, and "unfishable" isone of the expressive words which fishermen use to indicate the condition of a river during the long periods ofdrought which too often distinguish the sport.

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Salmon Tackle and Methods.--It is when the drought breaks up and the long-awaited rain has come that theangler has his chance and makes ready his tackle, against the period of a few days (on some short streamsonly a few hours) during which the water will be right; right is a very exact term on some rivers, meaning notonly that the colour of the water is suitable to the fly, but that its height shall be within an inch or two of agiven mark, prescribed by experience. As to the tackle which is made ready, there is, as in most anglingmatters, divergence of opinion. Salmon fly-rods are now made principally of two materials, greenheart and


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split-cane; the former is less expensive, the latter is more durable; it is entirely a matter of taste which a manuses, but the split-cane rod is now rather more in favour, and for salmon-fishing it is in England usually builtwith a core of steel running from butt to tip and known as a "steel centre." How long the rod shall be is also amatter on which anglers differ, but from 16 ft. to 17 ft. 6 in. represents the limits within which most rods arepreferred. The tendency is to reduce rather than to increase the length of the rod, which may be accounted forby the adoption of a heavy line. Early in the 19th century anglers used light-topped rods of 20 ft. and evenmore, and with them a light line composed partly of horse-hair; they thought 60 ft. with such material a goodcast. Modern experience, however, has shown that a shorter rod with a heavier top will throw a heavy dressedsilk line much farther with less exertion. Ninety feet is now considered a good fishing cast, while many mencan throw a great deal more. In the United States, where rods have long been used much lighter than inEngland, the limits suggested would be considered too high. From 12 ft. 6 in. to 15 ft. 6 in. is about the rangeof the American angler's choice, though long rods are not unknown with him. The infinite variety of reels,lines, gut collars[1] and other forms of tackle which is now presented to the angler's consideration and for hisbewilderment is too wide a subject to be touched upon here. Something, however, falls to be said about flies.One of the perennially fruitful topics of inquiry is what the fish takes a salmon-fly to be. Beyond a fairlygeneral admission that it is regarded as something endowed with life, perhaps resembling a rememberedarticle of marine diet, perhaps inviting gastronomic experiment, perhaps irritating merely and rousing animpulse to destroy, the discussion has not reached any definite conclusion. But more or less connected with itis the controversy as to variety of colour and pattern. Some authorities hold that a great variety of patternswith very minute differences in colour and shades of colour is essential to complete success; others contendthat salmon do not differentiate between nice shades of colour, that they only draw distinctions between fliesbroadly as being light, medium or dark in general appearance, and that the size of a fly rather than its colour isthe important point for the angler's consideration. Others again go some way with the supporters of thecolour-scheme and admit the efficacy of flies whose general character is red, or yellow, or black, and so on.The opinion of the majority, however, is probably based on past experience, and a man's favourite flies fordifferent rivers and condition of water are those with which he or someone else has previously succeeded. Itremains a fact that in most fly-books great variety of patterns will be discoverable, while certain old standardfavourites such as the Jock Scott, Durham Ranger, Silver Doctor, and Thunder and Lightning will beprominent. Coming out of the region of controversy it is a safe generalization to say that the general rule is:big flies for spring fishing when rivers are probably high, small flies for summer and low water, and fliesmedium or small in autumn according to the conditions. Spring fishing is considered the cream of the sport.Though salmon are not as a rule so numerous or so heavy as during the autumn run, and though kelts are oftena nuisance in the early months, yet the clean-run fish of February, March or April amply repays patience anddisappointment by its fighting powers and its beauty. Summer fishing on most rivers in the British Islands isuncertain, but in Norway summer is the season, which possibly explains to some extent the popularity of thatcountry with British anglers, for the pleasure of a sport is largely increased by good weather.

Two methods of using the fly are in vogue, casting and harling. The first is by far the more artistic, and it maybe practised either from a boat, from the bank or from the bed of the river itself; in the last case the anglerwades, wearing waterproof trousers or wading-stockings and stout nail-studded brogues. In either case thefishing is similar. The fly is cast across and down stream, and has to be brought over the "lie" of the fish,swimming naturally with its head to the stream, its feathers working with tempting movement and its wholeappearance suggesting some live thing dropping gradually down and across stream. Most anglers add to themotion of the fly by "working" it with short pulls from the rod-top. When a fish takes, the rise is sometimesseen, sometimes not; in any case the angler should not respond with the rod until he feels the pull. Then heshould _tighten_, not strike. The fatal word "strike," with its too literal interpretation, has caused many abreakage. Having hooked his fish, the angler must be guided by circ*mstances as to what he does; the salmonwill usually decide that for him. But it is a sound rule to give a well-hooked fish no unnecessary advantageand to hold on as hard as the tackle will allow. Good tackle will stand an immense strain, and with this "aminute a pound" is a fair estimate of the time in which a fish should be landed. A foul-hooked salmon (nouncommon thing, for a fish not infrequently misses the fly and gets hooked somewhere in the body) takesmuch longer to land. The other method of using the fly, harling, which is practised on a few big rivers,


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consists in trailing the fly behind a boat rowed backward and forwards across the stream and droppinggradually downwards. Fly-fishing for salmon is also practised on some lakes, into which the fish run. Onlakes the boat drifts slowly along a "beat," while the angler casts diagonally over the spots where salmon arewont to lie. Salmon may also be caught by "mid-water fishing," with a natural bait either spun or trolled andwith artificial spinning-baits of different kinds, and by "bottom-fishing" with prawns, shrimps and worms.Spinning is usually practised when the water is too high or too coloured for the fly; trolling is seldomemployed, but is useful for exploring pools which cannot be fished by spinning or with the fly; the prawn is avaluable lure in low water and when fish are unwilling to rise; while the worm is killing at all states of theriver, but except as a last resource is not much in favour. There are a few waters where salmon have thereputation of not taking a fly at all; in them spinning or prawning are the usual modes of fishing. But mostanglers, wherever possible, prefer to use the fly. The rod for the alternative methods is generally shorter andstiffer than the fly-rod, though made of like material. Twelve to fourteen feet represents about the range ofchoice. Outside the British Islands the salmon-fisher finds the headquarters of his sport in Europe inScandinavia and Iceland, and in the New World in some of the waters of Canada and Newfoundland.

[Footnote 1: The precise date when silkworm gut (now so important a feature of the angler's equipment) wasintroduced is obscure. Pepys, in his Diary (1667), mentions "a gut string varnished over" which "is beyondany hair for strength and smallness" as a new angling secret which he likes "mightily." In the third edition(1700) of Chetham's _Vade-Mecum_, already cited, appears an advertisem*nt of the "East India weed, whichis the only thing for trout, carp and bottom-fishing." Again, in the third edition of Nobbes's Art of Trolling(1805), in the supplementary matter, appears a letter signed by J. Eaton and G. Gimber, tackle-makers ofCrooked Lane (July 20, 1801), in which it is stated that gut "is produced from the silkworm and not an Indianweed, as has hitherto been conjectured...." The word "gut" is employed before this date, but it seems obviousthat silkworm gut was for a long time used under the impression that it was a weed, and that its introductionwas a thing of the 17th century. It is probable, however, that vegetable fibre was used too; we believe that insome parts of India it is used by natives to this day. Pepys' "minikin" was probably cat-gut.]

_Land-locked Salmon_.--The land-locked salmon (_Salmo salar sebago_) of Canada and the lakes of Maineis, as its name implies, now regarded by scientists as merely a land-locked form of the salmon. It does notoften attain a greater size than 20 ft, but it is a fine fighter and is highly esteemed by American anglers. Inmost waters it does not take a fly so well as a spinning-bait, live-bait or worm. The methods of angling for itdo not differ materially from those employed for other Salmonidae.

Pacific Salmon.--Closely allied to Salmo salar both in appearance and habits is the genus _Oncorhynchus_,commonly known as Pacific salmon. It contains six species, is peculiar to the North Pacific Ocean, and is ofsome importance to the angler, though of not nearly so much as the Atlantic salmon. The quinnat is the largestmember of the genus, closely resembles salar in appearance and surpasses him in size. The others, sockeye,humpback, cohoe, dog-salmon and masu, are smaller and of less interest to the angler, though some of themhave great commercial value. The last-named is only found in the waters of Japan, but the rest occur in greateror less quantities in the rivers of Kamchatka, Alaska, British Columbia and Oregon. The problems presentedto science by solar are offered by Oncorhynchus also, but there are variations in his life-history, such as thefact that few if any fish of the genus are supposed to survive their first spawning season. When once in therivers none of these salmon is of very much use to the angler; as, though it is stated that they will occasionallytake a fly or spoon in fresh water, they are not nearly so responsive as their Atlantic cousin and in manystreams are undoubtedly not worth trying for. At the mouths of some rivers, however, where the water isdistinctly tidal, and in certain bays of the sea itself they give very fine sport, the method of fishing for thembeing usually to trail a heavy spoonbait behind a boat. By this means remarkable bags of fish have been madeby anglers. The sport is of quite recent development.

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_Sea-Trout_.--Next to the salmon comes the sea-trout, the other migratory salmonid of Europe. This is a fish


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with many local names and a good deal of local variation. Modern science, however, recognises two "races"only, _Salmo trutta_, the sea-trout proper, and Salmo cambricus or _eriox_, the bull-trout, or sewin of Wales,which is most prominent in such rivers as the Coquet and Tweed. The life-history of sea-trout is much thesame as that of salmon, and the fish on their first return from the sea in the grilse-stage are called by manynames, finnock, herling and whitling being perhaps the best known. Of the two races Salmo trutta alone is ofmuch use to the fly-fisher. The bull-trout, for some obscure reason, is not at all responsive to his efforts,except in its kelt stage. Then it will take greedily enough, but that is small consolation. The bull-trout is astrong fish and grows to a great size and it is a pity that it is not of greater sporting value, if only to make upfor its bad reputation as an article of food. Some amends, however, are made by its cousin the sea-trout, whichis one of the gamest and daintiest fish on the angler's list. It is found in most salmon rivers and also in not afew streams which are too small to harbour the bigger fish, while there are many lakes in Scotland and Ireland(where the fish is usually known as white trout) where the fishing is superb when the trout have run up intothem. Fly-fishing for sea-trout is not a thing apart. A three-pounder that will impale itself on a big salmon-fly,might equally well have taken a tiny trout-fly. Many anglers, when fishing a sea-trout river where they runlarge, 5 lb or more, and where there is also a chance of a salmon, effect a compromise by using a light 13 ft. or14 ft. double-handed rod, and tackle not so slender as to make hooking a salmon a certain disaster. Butundoubtedly to get the full pleasure out of sea-trout-fishing a single-handed rod of 10 ft. to 12 ft. withreasonably fine gut and small flies should be used, and the way of using it is much the same as in wet-flyfishing for brown trout, which will be treated later. When the double-handed rod and small salmon-flies areused, the fishing is practically the same as salmon-fishing except that it is on a somewhat smaller scale. Fliesfor sea-trout are numberless and local patterns abound, as may be expected with a fish which has so catholic ataste. But, as with salmon-fishers so with sea-trout-fishers, experience forms belief and success governsselection. Among the small salmon-flies and loch-flies which will fill his book, the angler will do well to havea store of very small trout-flies at hand, while experience has shown that even the dry fly will kill sea-trout onoccasion, a thing that is worth remembering where rivers are low and fish shy. July, August and Septemberare in general the best months for sea-trout, and as they are dry months the angler often has to put up withindifferent sport. The fish will, however, rise in tidal water and in a few localities even in the sea itself, or insalt-water lochs into which streams run. Sea-trout have an irritating knack of "coming short," that is to say,they will pluck at the fly without really taking it. There are occasions, on the other hand, in loch-fishing whereplenty of time must be given to the fish without tightening on it, especially if it happens to be a big one. Likesalmon, sea-trout are to be caught with spinning-baits and also with the worm. The main controversy that isconcerned with sea-trout is whether or no the fish captured in early spring are clean fish or well-mended kelts.On the whole, as sea-trout seldom run before May, the majority of opinion inclines to their being kelts.

_Non-migratory Salmonidae_.--Of the non-migratory members of the Salmonidae the most important in GreatBritain is the brown trout (_Salmo fario_). Its American cousin the rainbow trout (_S. irideus_) is now fairlywell established in the country too, while other transatlantic species both of trout and char (which are some ofthem partially migratory, that is to say, migratory when occasion offers), such as the steelhead (_S. rivularis_),fontinalis (_S. fonlinalis_) and the cut-throat trout (_S. clarkii_), are at least not unknown. All these fish,together with their allied forms in America, can be captured with the fly, and, speaking broadly, the wet-flymethod will do well for them all. Therefore it is only necessary to deal with the methods applicable to onespecies, the brown trout.

Trout.--Of the game-fishes the brown trout is the most popular, for it is spread over the whole of Great Britainand most of Europe, wherever there are waters suited to it. It is a fine sporting fish and is excellent for thetable, while in some streams and lakes it grows to a very considerable size, examples of 16 lb from southernrivers and 20 lb from Irish and Scottish lakes being not unknown. One of the signs of its popularity is that itshabits and history have produced some very animated controversies. Some of the earliest discussions wereprovoked by the liability of the fish to change its appearance in different surroundings and conditions, and soat one time many a district claimed its local trout as a separate species. Now, however, science admits but onespecies, though, to such well-defined varieties as the Loch Leven trout, the estuarine trout and the gillaroo, itconcedes the right to separate names and "races." In effect all, from the great ferox of the big lakes of Scotland


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and Ireland to the little fingerling of the Devonshire brook, are one and the same--Salmo fario.

_Wet-Fly Fishing for Trout_.--Fly-fishing for trout is divided into three kinds: fishing with the artificial flysunk or "wet," fishing with it floating or "dry" and fishing with the natural insect. Of the two first methods thewet fly is the older and may be taken first. Time was when all good anglers cast their flies downstream andthought no harm. But in 1857 W.C. Stewart published his _Practical Angler_, in which he taught that it paidbetter to fish up-stream, for by so doing the angler was not only less likely to be seen by the trout but wasmore likely to hook his fish. The doctrine was much discussed and criticized, but it gradually won adherents,until now up-stream fishing is the orthodox method where it is possible. Stewart was also one of the first toadvocate a lighter rod in place of the heavy 12 ft. and 13 ft. weapons that were used in the North in his time.There are still many men who use the long rod for wet-fly fishing in streams, but there are now more who find10 ft. quite enough for their purpose. For lake-fishing from a boat, however, the longer rod is still in manycases preferred. In fishing rivers the main art is to place the right flies in the right places and to let them comenaturally down with the stream. The right flies may be ascertained to some extent from books and from localwisdom, but the right places can only be learnt by experience. It does not, however, take long to acquire "aneye for water" and that is half the battle, for the haunts of trout in rapid rivers are very much alike. Inlake-fishing chance has a greater share in bringing about success, but here too the right fly and the right placeare important; the actual management of rod, line and flies, of course, is easier, for there is no stream to bereckoned with. Though there is little left to be said about wet-fly fishing where the fly is an imitation more orless exact of a natural insect, there is another branch of the art which has been stimulated by moderndevelopments. This is the use of salmon-flies for big trout much in the same way as for salmon. In such riversas the Thames, where the trout are cannibals and run very large, ordinary trout-flies are of little use, and thefly-fisher's only chance is to use a big fly and "work" it, casting across and down stream. The big fly has alsobeen found serviceable with the great fish of New Zealand and with the inhabitants of such a piece of water asBlagdon Lake near Bristol, where the trout run very large. For this kind of fishing much stronger tackle and aheavier rod are required than for catching fish that seldom exceed the pound.

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Dry Fly.--Fishing with the floating fly is a device of southern origin, and the idea no doubt arose from thefacts that on the placid south country streams the natural fly floats on the surface and that the trout areaccustomed to feed on it there. The controversy "dry versus wet" was long and spirited, but the new idea wonthe day and now not only on the chalk-streams, but on such stretches of even Highland rivers as are suitable,the dry-fly man may be seen testing his theories. These theories are simple and consist in placing before thefish an exact imitation of the insect on which it is feeding, in such a way that it shall float down exactly as if itwere an insect of the same kind. To this end special tackle and special methods have been found necessary.Not only the fly but also the line has to float on the wafer; the line is very heavy and therefore the rod(split-cane or greenheart) must be stiff and powerful; special precautions have to be taken that the fly shallfloat unhindered and shall not "drag"; special casts have to be made to counteract awkward winds; and, lastly,the matching of the fly with the insect on the water is a matter of much nicety, for the water-flies are of manyshades and colours. Many brains have busied themselves with the solution of these problems with suchsuccess that dry-fly fishing is now a finished art. The entomology of the dry-fly stream has been studied verydeeply by Mr. F.M. Halford, the late G.S. Marryat and others, and improvements both in flies and tackle havebeen very great. Quite lately, however, there has been a movement in favour of light rods for dry-fly fishing aswell as wet-fly fishing. The English split-cane rod for dry-fly work weighs about an ounce to the foot, rathermore or rather less. The American rod of similar action and material weighs much less--approximately 6 oz.to 10 ft. The light rod, it is urged, is much less tiring and is quite powerful enough for ordinary purposes.Against it is claimed that dry-fly fishing is not "ordinary purposes," that chalk-stream weeds are too strongand chalk-stream winds too wild for the light rod to be efficient against them. However, the light rod isgrowing in popular favour; British manufacturers are building rods after the American style; and anglers aretaking to them more and more. The dry-fly method is now practised by many fishermen both in Germany andFrance, but it has scarcely found a footing as yet in the United States or Canada.


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_Fishing with the Natural Fly._--The natural fly is a very killing bait for trout, but its use is not wide-spreadexcept in Ireland. In Ireland "dapping" with the green drake or the daddy-longlegs is practised from boats onmost of the big loughs. A light whole-cane rod of stiff build, about 16 ft. in length, is required with a floss-silkline light enough to be carried out on the breeze; the "dap" (generally two mayflies or daddy-longlegs on asmall stout-wired hook) is carried out by the breeze and just allowed to touch the water. When a trout rises itis well to count "ten" before striking. Very heavy trout are caught in this manner during the mayfly season. Inthe North "creeper-fishing" is akin to this method, but the creeper is the larva of the stone-fly, not a fly itself,and it is cast more like an ordinary fly and allowed to sink. Sometimes, however, the mature insect is usedwith equally good results. A few anglers still practise the old style of dapping or "dibbling" after the manneradvised by Izaak Walton. It is a deadly way of fishing small overgrown brooks. A stiff rod and strong gut arenecessary, and a grasshopper or almost any large fly will serve for bait.

_Other Methods._--The other methods of taking trout principally employed are spinning, live-baiting andworming. For big river trout such as those of the Thames a gudgeon or bleak makes the best spinning or livebait, for great lake trout (_Jerox_) a small fish of their own species and for smaller trout a minnow. There arenumberless artificial spinning-baits which kill well at times, the Devon being perhaps the favourite. The use ofthe drop-minnow, which is trolling on a lesser scale, is a killing method employed more in the north ofEngland than elsewhere. The worm is mostly deadly in thick water, so deadly that it is looked on askance. Butthere is a highly artistic mode of fishing known as "clear-water worming." This is most successful when riversare low and weather hot, and it needs an expert angler to succeed in it. The worm has to be cast up-streamrather like a fly, and the method is little inferior to fly-fishing in delicacy and difficulty. The other baits fortrout, or rather the other baits which they will take sometimes, are legion. Wasp-grubs, maggots, caterpillars,small frogs, bread, there is very little the fish will not take. But except in rural districts little effort is made tocatch trout by means less orthodox than the fly, minnow and worm, and the tendency nowadays both inEngland and America is to restrict anglers where possible to the use of the artificial fly only.

_Grayling._--The only other member of the salmon family in England which gives much sport to thefly-fisher is the grayling, a fish which possesses the recommendation of rising well in winter. It can be caughtwith either wet or dry fly, and with the same tackle as trout, which generally inhabit the same stream.Grayling will take most small trout-flies, but there are many patterns of fly tied specially for them, most ofthem founded on the red tag or the green insect. Worms and maggots are also largely used in some waters forgrayling, and there is a curious contrivance known as the "grasshopper," which is a sort of compromisebetween the fly and bait. It consists of a leaded hook round the shank of which is twisted bright-colouredwool. The point is tipped with maggots, and the lure, half artificial, half natural, is dropped into deep holesand worked up and down in the water. In some places the method is very killing. The grayling has been veryprominent of late years owing to the controversy "grayling versus trout." Many people hold that graylinginjure a trout stream by devouring trout-ova and trout-food, by increasing too rapidly and in other ways.Beyond, however, proving the self-evident fact that a stream can only support a given amount of fish-life, thegrayling's opponents do not seem to have made out a very good case, for no real evidence of its injuring trouthas been adduced.

_Char._--The chars (_Sahelinus_) are a numerous family widely distributed over the world, but in GreatBritain are not very important to the angler. One well-defined species (_Sahelinus alpinus_) is found in somelakes of Wales and Scotland, but principally in Westmorland and Cumberland. It sometimes takes a small flybut is more often caught with small artificial spinning-baits. The fish seldom exceeds 1-1/2 lb in Great Britain,though in Scandinavia it is caught up to 5 lb or more. There are some important chars in America, fontinalisbeing one of the most esteemed. Some members of the genus occasionally attain a size scarcely excelled bythe salmon. Among them are the Great Lake trout of America, _Cristinomer namaycush_, and the Danubian"salmon" or huchen, Salmo hucho. Both of these fish are caught principally with spinning-baits, but both willon occasion take a salmon-fly, though not with any freedom after they have reached a certain size. An attempthas been made to introduce huchen into the Thames but at the time of writing the result cannot yet beestimated.


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Pike.--The pike (_Esox lucius_), which after the Salmonidae is the most valued sporting fish in Great Britain,is a fish of prey pure and simple. Though it will occasionally take a large fly, a worm or other ground-bait, itssystematic capture is only essayed with small fish or artificial spinning-baits. A live bait is supposed to be themost deadly lure for big pike, probably because it is the method employed by most anglers. But spinning ismore artistic and has been found quite successful enough by those who give it a fair and full trial. Trolling, themethod of "sink and draw" with a dead bait, referred to previously in this article, is not much practisednowadays, though at one time it was very popular. It was given up because the traditional form oftrolling-tackle was such that the bait had to be swallowed by the pike before the hook would take hold, andthat necessitated killing all fish caught, whether large or small. The same objection formerly applied tolive-baiting with what was known as a gorge-hook. Now, however, what is called snap-tackle is almostinvariably used in live-baiting, and the system is by some few anglers extended to the other method too. Pikeare autumn and winter fish and are at their best in December. They grow to a very considerable size, fish of 20lb being regarded as "specimens" and an occasional thirty-pounder rewarding the zealous and fortunate. Theheaviest pike caught with a rod in recent years which is sufficiently authenticated, weighed 37 lb, but heavierspecimens are said to have been taken in Irish lakes. River pike up to about 10 lb in weight are excellenteating.

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America has several species of pike, of which the muskelunge of the great lake region (_Esox masquinongy_)is the most important. It is a very fine fish, excelling Esox lucius both in size and looks. From the angler'spoint of view it may be considered simply as a large pike and may be caught by similar methods. Itoccasionally reaches the weight of 80 lb or perhaps more. The pickerel (_Esox reticulatus_) is the only otherof the American pikes which gives any sport. It reaches a respectable size, but is as inferior to the pike as thepike is to the muskelunge.

Perch.--Next to the pikes come the perches, also predatory fishes. The European perch (_Perca fluviatilis_)has a place by itself in the affections of anglers. When young it is easy to catch by almost any method offishing, and a large number of Walton's disciples have been initiated into the art with its help. Worms andsmall live-baits are the principal lures, but at times the fish will take small bright artificial spinning-baits well,and odd attractions such as boiled shrimps, caddis-grubs, small frogs, maggots, wasp-grubs, &c. aresometimes successful. The drop-minnow is one of the best methods of taking perch. Very occasionally, andprincipally in shallow pools, the fish will take an artificial fly greedily, a small salmon-fly being the best thingto use in such a case. A perch of 2 lb is a good fish, and a specimen of 4-1/2 lb about the limit of anglingexpectation. There have been rare instances of perch over 5 lb, and there are legends of eight-pounders,which, however, need authentication.

Black Bass.--The yellow perch of America (_Perca flavescens_) is very much like its European cousin inappearance and habits, but it is not so highly esteemed by American anglers, because they are fortunate inbeing possessed of a better fish in the black bass, another member of the perch family. There are two kinds ofblack bass (Micropterus salmoides and _Micropterus dolomieu_), the large-mouthed and the small-mouthed.The first is more a lake and pond fish than the second, and they are seldom found in the same waters. As theblack bass is a fly-taking fish and a strong fighter, it is as valuable to the angler as a trout and is highlyesteemed. Bass-flies are _sui generis_, but incline more to the nature of salmon-flies than trout-flies. Anartificial frog cast with a fly-rod or very light spinning-rod is also a favourite lure. For the rest the fish willtake almost anything in the nature of worms or small fish, like its cousin the perch. A 4 lb bass is a good fish,but five-pounders are not uncommon. Black bass have to some extent been acclimatized in France.

The ruffe or pope (_Acerina vulgaris_) is a little fish common in the Thames and many other slow-flowingEnglish rivers. It is very like the perch in shape but lacks the dusky bars which distinguish the other, and isspotted with dark brown spots on a golden olive background. It is not of much use to the angler as it seldomexceeds 3 oz. in weight. It takes small worms, maggots and similar baits greedily, and is often a nuisance


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when the angler is expecting better fish. Allied to the perches is the pike-perch, of which two species are ofsome importance to the angler, one the wall-eye of eastern America (_Stizostedion vitreum_) and the other thezander of Central Europe (_Sandrus lucioperca_). The last especially is a fine fighter, occasionally reaching aweight of 20 lb. It is usually caught by spinning, but will take live-baits, worms and other things of thatnature. The Danube may be described as its headquarters. It is a fish whose sporting importance will be morerealized as anglers on the continent become more numerous.

Cyprinidae.--The carp family (_Cyprinidae_) is a large one and its members constitute the majority of Englishsporting fishes. In America the various kinds of chub, sucker, dace, shiner, &c. are little esteemed and areregarded as spoils for the youthful angler only, or as baits for the better fish in which the continent is so rich.In England, however, the Cyprinidae have an honoured place in the affections of all who angle "at thebottom," while in Europe some of them have a commercial value as food-fishes. In India at least one memberof the family, the mahseer, takes rank with the salmon as a "big game" fish.

_Carp, Tench, Barbel, Bream_.--The family as represented in England may be roughly divided into twogroups, those which feed on the bottom purely and those which occasionally take flies. The first consists ofcarp, tench, barbel and bream. Of these carp, tench and bream are either river or pool fish, while the barbel isfound only in rivers, principally in the Thames and Trent. The carp grows to a great size, 20 lb being notunknown; tench are big at 5 lb; barbel have been caught up to 14 lb or rather more; and bream occasionallyreach 8 lb, while a fish of over 11 lb is on record. All these fish are capricious feeders, carp and barbel beingparticularly undependable. In some waters it seems to be impossible to catch the large specimens, and theangler who seeks to gain trophies in either branch of the sport needs both patience and perseverance. Tenchand bream are not quite so difficult. The one fish can sometimes be caught in great quantities, and the other isgenerally to be enticed by the man who knows how to set about it. Two main principles have to be observed inattacking all these fish, ground-baiting and early rising. Ground-baiting consists in casting food into the waterso as to attract the fish to a certain spot and to induce them to feed. Without it very little can be done with shyand large fish of these species. Early rising is necessary because they only feed freely, as a rule, fromdaybreak till about three hours after sun-rise. The heat of a summer or early autumn day makes them sluggish,but an hour or two in the evening is sometimes remunerative. The bait for them all should usually lie on thebottom, and it consists mainly of worms, wasp and other grubs, pastes of various kinds; and for carp, andsometimes bream, of vegetable baits such as small boiled potatoes, beans, peas, stewed wheat, pieces ofbanana, &c. None of these fish feed well in winter.

_Roach, Rudd, Dace, Chub_.--The next group of Cyprinidae consists of fish which will take a bait similar tothose already mentioned and also a fly. The sizes which limit the ordinary angler's aspirations are roach about2 lb, rudd about 2-1/2 lb, dace about 1 lb and chub about 5 lb. There are instances of individuals heavier thanthis, one or two roach and many rudd of over 3 lb being on record, while dace have been caught up to 1 lb 6oz., and chub of over 7 lb are not unknown. Roach only take a fly as a rule in very hot weather when they arenear the surface, or early in the season when they are on the shallows; the others will take it freely all throughthe summer. Ordinary trout flies do well enough for all four species, but chub often prefer something larger,and big bushy lures called "palmers," which represent caterpillars, are generally used for them. The fly may beused either wet or dry for all these fish, and there is little to choose between the methods as regardseffectiveness. Fly-fishing for these fish is a branch of angling which might be more practised than it is, as thesport is a very fair substitute for trout fishing. Roach, chub and dace feed on bottom food and give good sportall the winter.

_Gudgeon, Bleak, Minnow, &c_.--The small fry of European waters, gudgeon, bleak, minnow, loach,stickleback and bullhead, are principally of value as bait for other fish, though the first-named species givespretty sport on fine tackle and makes a succulent dish. Small red worms are the best bait for gudgeon andminnows, a maggot or small fly for bleak, and the rest are most easily caught in a small-meshed net. Theloach is used principally in Ireland as a trout bait, and the other two are of small account as hook-baits, thoughsticklebacks are a valuable form of food for trout in lakes and pools.


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Mahseer.--Among the carps of India, several of which give good sport, special mention must be made of themahseer (_Barbus mosal_), a fish which rivals the salmon both in size and strength. It reaches a weight of 60lb and sometimes more and is fished for in much the same manner as salmon, with the difference that afterabout 10 lb it takes a spinning-bait, usually a heavy spoon-bait, better than a fly.

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_Cat-fish_.--None of the fresh-water cat-fishes (of which no example is found in England) are what may becalled sporting fish, but several may be caught with rod and line. There are several kinds in North America,and some of them are as heavy as 150 lb, but the most important is the wels (_Silurus glanis_) of the Danubeand neighbouring waters. This is the largest European fresh-water fish, and it is credited with a weight of 300lb or more. It is a bottom feeder and will take a fish-bait either alive or dead; it is said occasionally to run at aspinning bait when used very deep.

Burbot.--The burbot (_Lota vulgaris_) is the only fresh-water member of the cod family in Great Britain, andit is found only in a few slow-flowing rivers such as the Trent, and there not often, probably because it is afish of sluggish habits which feeds only at night. It reaches a weight of 3 lb or more, and will take most fleshor fish baits on the bottom. The burbot of America has similar characteristics.

Sturgeon.--The sturgeons, of which there are a good many species in Europe and America, are of no use to theangler. They are anadromous fishes of which little more can be said than that a specimen might take a bottombait once in a way. In Russia they are sometimes caught on long lines armed with baited hooks, andoccasionally an angler hooks one. Such a case was reported from California in The Field of the 19th of August1905.

Shad.--Two other anadromous fish deserve notice. The first is the shad, a herring-like fish of which twospecies, allice and twaite (Clupea alosa and _C. finta_), ascend one or two British and several continentalrivers in the spring. The twaite is the more common, and in the Severn, Wye and Teme it sometimes givesvery fair sport to anglers, taking worm and occasionally fly or small spinning bait. It is a good fighter, andreaches a weight of about 3 lb. Its sheen when first caught is particularly beautiful. America also has shads.

Flounder.--The other is the flounder (_Pleuronectes flesus_), the only flat-fish which ascends British rivers. Itis common a long way up such rivers as the Severn, far above tidal influence, and it will take almost anyflesh-bait used on the bottom. A flounder of 1 lb is, in a river, a large one, but heavier examples aresometimes caught.

Eel.--The eel (_Anguilla vulgaris_) is regarded by the angler more as a nuisance than a sporting fish, but whenof considerable size (and it often reaches a weight of 8 lb or more) it is a splendid fighter and stronger thanalmost any fish that swims. Its life history has long been disputed, but it is now accepted that it breeds in thesea and ascends rivers in its youth. It is found practically everywhere, and its occurrence in isolated ponds towhich it has never been introduced by human agency has given rise to a theory that it travels overland as wellas by water. The best baits for eels are worms and small fish, and the best time to use them is at night or inthundery or very wet weather.

_Sea Angling._

Sea angling is attended by almost as many refinements of tackle and method as fresh-water angling. The chiefdifferences are differences of locality and the habits of the fish. To a certain extent sea angling may also bedivided into three classes--fishing on the surface with the fly, at mid-water with spinning or other bait, and onthe bottom; but the first method is only practicable at certain times and in certain places, and the others, fromthe great depths that often have to be sounded and the heavy weights that have to be used in searching them,necessitate shorter and stouter rods, larger reels and stronger tackle than fresh-water anglers employ. Also, of


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course, the sea-fisherman is liable to come into conflict with very large fish occasionally. In British waters themonster usually takes the form of a skate or halibut. A specimen of the former weighing 194 lb has beenlanded off the Irish coast with rod and line in recent years. In American waters there is a much greateropportunity of catching fish of this calibre.

Great Game Fishes.--There are several giants of the sea which are regularly pursued by American anglers,chief among them being the tarpon (_Tarpon atlanticus_) and the tuna or tunny (Thunnus thynnus), whichhave been taken on rod and line up to 223 lb and 251 lb respectively. Jew-fish and black sea-bass of over 400lb have been taken on rod and line, and there are many other fine sporting fish of large size which give theangler exciting hours on the reefs of Florida, or the coasts of California, Texas or Mexico. Practically all ofthem are taken with a fish-bait either live or dead, and used stationary on the bottom or in mid-water trailedbehind a boat.

British Game Fishes.--On a much smaller scale are the fishes most esteemed in British waters. The bass(_Labrax lupus_) heads the list as a plucky and rather difficult opponent. A fish of 10 lb is a large one, butfifteen-pounders have been taken. Small or "school" bass up to 3 lb or 4 lb may sometimes be caught with thefly (generally a roughly constructed thing with big wings), and when they are really taking the sport ismagnificent. In some few localities it is possible to cast for them from rocks with a salmon rod, but usually aboat is required. In other places bass may be caught from the shore with fish bait used on the bottom in quiteshallow water. They may again sometimes be caught in mid-water, and in fact there are few methods and fewlures employed in sea angling which will not account for them at times. The pollack (_Gadus pollachius_) andcoal-fish (_Gadus virens_) come next in esteem. Both in some places reach a weight of 20 lb or more, andboth when young will take a fly. Usually, however, the best sport is obtained by trailing some spinning-bait,such as an artificial or natural sand-eel, behind a boat. Sometimes, and especially for pollack, the bait must bekept near the bottom and heavy weights on the line are necessary; the coal-fish are more prone to come to thesurface for feeding. The larger grey mullet (_Mugil capito_) is a great favourite with many anglers, as it isextremely difficult to hook, and when hooked fights strongly. Fishing for mullet is more akin to fresh-waterfishing than any branch of sea-angling, and indeed can be carried on in almost fresh water, for the fishfrequent harbours, estuaries and tidal pools. They can be caught close to the surface, at mid-water and at thebottom, and as a rule vegetable baits, such as boiled macaroni, or ragworms are found to answer best. Usuallyground-baiting is necessary, and the finer the tackle used the greater is the chance of sport. Not a few anglersfish with a float as if for river fish. The fish runs up to about 8 lb in weight. The cod (_Gadus morhua_) growslarger and fights less gamely than any of the fish already mentioned. It is generally caught with bait used onthe bottom from a boat, but in places codling, or young cod, give some sport to anglers fishing from the shore.The mackerel (_Scomber scomber_) gives the best sport to a bait, usually a strip of fish skin, trailed behind aboat fairly close to the surface, but it will sometimes feed on the bottom. Mackerel on light tackle are gamefighters, though they do not usually much exceed 2 lb. Whiting and whiting-pout (Gadus merlangus and_Gadus luscus_) both feed on or near the bottom, do not grow to any great size, and are best sought with finetackle, usually an arrangement of three or four hooks at intervals above a lead which is called a "paternoster."If one or more of the hooks are on the bottom the tackle will do for different kinds of flat fish as well,flounders and dabs being the two species most often caught by anglers. The bream (_Pagellus centrodontus_)is another bottom-feeder which resembles the fresh-water bream both in appearance and habits. It is an earlymorning or rather a nocturnal fish, and grows to a weight of 3 lb or 4 lb. Occasionally it will feed in mid-wateror even close to the surface. The conger eel (_Conger vulgaris_) is another night-feeder, which gives finesport, as it grows to a great size, and is very powerful. Strong tackle is essential for conger fishing, as sopowerful an opponent in the darkness cannot be given any law. The bait must be on or near the bottom. Thereare, of course, many other fish which come to the angler's rod at times, but the list given is fairly complete asrepresenting the species which are especially sought. Beside them are occasional (in some waters toofrequent) captures such as dog-fish and sharks, skates and rays. Many of them run to a great size and giveplenty of sport on a rod, though they are not as a rule welcomed. Lastly, it must be mentioned that certain ofthe Salmonidae, smelts _(Osmerus eperlanus),_ sea-trout, occasionally brown trout, and still moreoccasionally salmon can be caught in salt water either in sea-lochs or at the mouths of rivers. Smelts are best


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fished for with tiny hooks tied on fine gut and baited with fragments of shrimp, ragworm, and other delicacies.

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MODERN AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCE BOOKS.--_History and Literature:_ Prof. A.N. Mayer, Sportwith Gun and Rod (New York and Edinburgh), with a chapter on "The Primitive Fish-Hook," by BarnetPhillips; Dr.R. Munro, Lake Dwellings of Europe (London, 1890), with many illustrations and descriptions ofearly fish-books, &c.; H. Cholmondeley Pennell and others, Fishing Gossip (Edinburgh, 1866), contains apaper on "Fishing and Fish-Hooks of the Earliest Date," by Jonathan Couch; C.D. Badham, Prose Halieutics(London, 1854), full of curious lore, relating, however, more to ichthyophagy than angling; _The Angler'sNote-Book and Naturalist's Record_ (London, 1st series 1881, 2nd series 1888), edited by T. Satchell, the twovolumes containing much valuable matter on angling history, literature, and other topics; R. Blakey, AnglingLiterature (London, 1856), inaccurate and badly arranged, but containing a good deal of curious matter not tobe found elsewhere; O. Lambert, Angling Literature in England (London, 1881), a good little general survey;J.J. Manley, Fish and Fishing (London, 1881), with chapters on fishing literature, &c.; R.B. Marston, Waltonand Some Earlier Writers on Fish and Fishing (London and New York, 1894); _Piscatorial Society's Papers_(vol. i. London, 1890), contains a paper on "The Useful and Fine Arts in their Relation to Fish and Fishing,"by S.C. Harding; Super Flumina (Anon.; London, 1904), gives passim useful information on fishing literature;T. Westwood and T. Satchell, Bibliotheca Piscatoria (London, 1883) an admirable bibliography of the sport:together with the supplement prepared by R.B. Marston, 1901, it may be considered wonderfully complete.

_Methods and Practice._--General Fresh-water Fishing: F. Francis, A Book on Angling (London, 1885),though old, a thoroughly sound text-book, particularly good on salmon fishing; H.C. Pennell and others,_Fishing--Salmon and Trout and Pike and Coarse Fish_ (Badminton Library, 2 vols., London, 1904); JohnBickerdyke, _The Book of the All-Round Angler_ (London, 1900); Horace G. Hutchinson and others,_Fishing (Country Life_ Series, 2 vols., London, 1904), contains useful ichthyological notes by G.A.Boulenger, a chapter on "The Feeding of Salmon in Fresh-Water," by Dr.J. Kingston Barton, and a detailedaccount of the principal salmon rivers of Norway, by C.E. Radclyffe.

_Salmon and Trout._--Major J.P. Traherne, The Habits of the Salmon (London, 1889); G.M. Kelson, TheSalmon Fly (London, 1895), contains instructions on dressing salmon-flies; A.E. Gathorne Hardy, The Salmon("Fur, Feather and Fin Series," London, 1898); Sir H. Maxwell, Bt., Salmon and Sea Trout (Angler's Library,London, 1898); Sir E. Grey, Bt., Fly Fishing (Haddon Hall Library, London and New York, 1899); W. EarlHodgson, Salmon Fishing (London, 1906), contains a series of coloured plates of salmon flies; Marquis ofGranby, The Trout ("Fur, Feather and Fin Series," London, 1898). Wet Fly Fishing: W.C. Stewart, ThePractical Angler (London, 1905), a new edition of an old but still valuable work; E.M. Tod, Wet Fly Fishing(London, 1903); W. Earl Hodgson, Trout Fishing (London, 1905), contains a series of admirable colouredplates of artificial flies. Dry Fly Fishing: F.M. Halford, _Dry-Fly Fishing in Theory and Practice_ (London,1902), the standard work on the subject; G.A.B. Dewar, The Book of the Dry Fly (London, 1897). Grayling:T.E. Pritt, The Book of the Grayling (Leeds, 1888); H.A. Rolt, Grayling Fishing in South Country Streams(London, 1905).

_Coarse Fish._--C.H. Wheeley, Coarse Fish (Angler's Library, London, 1897); J.W. Martin, Practical Fishing(London); _Float-fishing and Spinning_ (London, 1885); W. Senior and others, Pike and Perch ("Fur, Featherand Fin Series," London, 1900); A.J. Jardine, Pike and Perch (Angler's Library, London, 1898); H.C. Pennell,The Book of the Pike (London, 1884); Greville Fennell, The Book of the Roach (London, 1884).

_Sea Fishing._--J.C. Wilco*cks, The Sea Fisherman (London, 1884); John Bickerdyke (and others), SeaFishing (Badminton Library, London, 1895); Practical Letters to Sea Fishers (London, 1902); F.G. Aflalo,Sea Fish (Angler's Library, London, 1897); P.L. Haslope, Practical Sea Fishing (London, 1905).

_Tackle, Flies, &c._--H.C. Pennell, Modern Improvements in Fishing Tackle (London, 1887); H.P. Wells, Fly


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Rods and Fly Tackle (New York and London, 1901); A. Ronalds, _The Fly-Fisher's Entomology_ (London,1883); F.M. Halford, Dry Fly Entomology (London, 1902); Floating Flies and How to Dress them (London,1886); T.E. Pritt, North Country Flies (London, 1886); H.G. M'Clelland, How to tie Flies for Trout andGrayling (London, 1905); Capt. J.H. Hale, How to tie Salmon Flies (London, 1892); F.G. Aflalo, JohnBickerdyke and C.H. Wheeley. How to buy Fishing Tackle (London).

_Ichthyology, Fisheries, Fish-Culture, &c._--Dr. Francis Day, Fishes of Great Britain and Ireland (2 vols.,London, 1889); British and Irish Salmonidae (London, 1887); Dr. A.C.L.G. Günther, Introduction to theStudy of Fishes (London, 1880); Dr. D.S. Jordan, A Guide to the Study of Fishes (2 vols., New York andLondon, 1905); F. Francis, Practical Management of Fisheries (London, 1883); Fish Culture (London, 1865);F.M. Halford, Making a Fishery (London, 1902); J.J. Armistead, _An Angler's Paradise_ (Dumfries, 1902); F.Mather, _Modern Fish-Culture_ (New York, 1899); Livingstone Stone, Domesticated Trout (Charlestown andLondon, 1896).

_Angling Guide Books, Geographical Information, &c._--Great Britain: _The Angler's Diary_ (London),gives information about most important waters in the British Isles, and about some foreign waters, publishedannually; _The Sportsman's and Tourist's Guide to Scotland_ (London), a good guide to angling in Scotland,published twice a year; Augustus Grimble, The Salmon Rivers of Scotland (London, 1900, 4 vols.); TheSalmon Rivers of Ireland (London, 1903); The Salmon and Sea Trout Rivers of England and Wales (London,1904, 2 vols.), this fine series gives minute information as to salmon pools, flies, seasons, history, catches,&c.; W.M. Gallichan, Fishing in Wales (London, 1903); Fishing in Derbyshire (London, 1905); J. Watson,English Lake District Fisheries (London, 1899); C. Wade, Exmoor Streams (London, 1903); G.A.B. Dewar,South Country Trout Streams (London, 1899); "Hi Regan," How and Where to Fish in Ireland (London,1900); E.S. Shrubsole, The Land of Lakes (London, 1906), a guide to fishing in County Donegal. Europe:"Palmer Hackle," Hints on Angling (London, 1846), contains "suggestions for angling excursions in Franceand Belgium," but they are too old to be of much service; W.M. Gallichan, Fishing and Travel in Spain(London, 1905); G.W. Hartley, _Wild Sport with Gun, Rifle and Salmon Rod_ (Edinburgh, 1903), contains achapter on huchen fishing; Max von dem Borne, _Wegweiser für Angler durch Deutschland, Oesterreich unddie Schweiz_ (Berlin, 1877), a book of good conception and arrangement, and still useful, though out of datein many particulars; _Illustrierte Angler-Schule (der deutschen Fischerei Zeitung)_, Stettin, contains goodchapters on the wels and huchen; H. Storck, Der Angelsport (Munich, 1898), contains a certain amount ofgeographical information; E.B. Kennedy, Thirty Seasons in Scandinavia (London, 1904), contains usefulinformation about fishing; General E.F. Burton, Trouting in Norway (London, 1897); Abel Chapman, WildNorway (London, 1897); F. Sandeman, Angling Travels in Norway (London, 1895). America: C.F. Holder,Big Game Fishes of the United States (New York, 1903); J.A. Henshall, _Bass, Pike, Perch and Pickerel_(New York, 1903); Dean Sage and others, Salmon and Trout (New York, 1902); E.T.D. Chambers, Angler'sGuide to Eastern Canada (Québec, 1899); Rowland Ward, The English Angler in Florida (London, 1898); J.Turner Turner, The Giant Fish of Florida (London, 1902). India: H.S. Thomas, The Rod in India (London,1897); "Skene Dhu," The Mighty Mahseer (Madras, 1906), contains a chapter on the acclimatization of troutin India and Ceylon. New Zealand: W.H. Spackman, Trout in New Zealand (London, 1894); Capt. Hamilton,Trout Fishing and Sport in Maoriland (Wellington, 1905), contains a valuable section on fishing waters.

_Fishery Law._--G.C. Oke, A Handy Book of the Fishery Laws (edited by J.W. Willis Band and A.C.M'Barnet, London, 1903).

ANGLO-ISRAELITE THEORY, the contention that the British people in the United Kingdom, its colonies,and the United States, are the racial descendants of the "ten tribes" forming the kingdom of Israel, largenumbers of whom were deported by Sargon king of Assyria on the fall of Samaria in 721 B.C. The theory(which is fully set forth in a book called _Philo-Israel_) rests on premises which are deemed by scholars--boththeological and anthropological--to be utterly unsound.


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ANGLO-NORMAN LITERATURE:--The French language (_q.v._) came over to England with William theConqueror. During the whole of the 12th century it shared with Latin the distinction of being the literarylanguage of England, and it was in use at the court until the 14th century. It was not until the reign of HenryIV. that English became the native tongue of the kings of England. After the loss of the French provinces,schools for the teaching of French were established in England, among the most celebrated of which we mayquote that of Marlborough. The language then underwent certain changes which gradually distinguished itfrom the French spoken in France; but, except for some graphical characteristics, from which certain rules ofpronunciation are to be inferred, the changes to which the language was subjected were the individualmodifications of the various authors, so that, while we may still speak of Anglo-Norman writers, anAnglo-Norman language, properly so called, gradually ceased to exist. The prestige enjoyed by the Frenchlanguage, which, in the 14th century, the author of the _Manière de language_ calls "le plus bel et le plusgracious language et plus noble parler, apres latin d'escole, qui soit au monde et de touz genz mieulx prisée etamée que nul autre (quar Dieux le fist si douce et amiable principalement à l'oneur et loenge de luy mesmes.Et pour ce il peut comparer au parler des angels du ciel, pour la grand doulceur et biaultée d'icel)," was suchthat it was not till 1363 that the chancellor opened the parliamentary session with an English speech. Andalthough the Hundred Years' War led to a decline in the study of French and the disappearance ofAnglo-Norman literature, the French language continued, through some vicissitudes, to be the classicallanguage of the courts of justice until the 17th century. It is still the language of the Channel Islands, thoughthere too it tends more and more to give way before the advance of English.

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It will be seen from the above that the most flourishing period of Anglo-Norman literature was from thebeginning of the 12th century to the end of the first quarter of the 13th. The end of this period is generally saidto coincide with the loss of the French provinces to Philip Augustus, but literary and political history do notcorrespond quite so precisely, and the end of the first period would be more accurately denoted by theappearance of the history of William the Marshal in 1225 (published for the _Societe de l'histoire de France_,by Paul Meyer, 3 vols., 1891-1901). It owes its brilliancy largely to the protection accorded by Henry II. ofEngland to the men of letters of his day. "He could speak French and Latin well, and is said to have knownsomething of every tongue between'the Bay of Biscay and the Jordan.' He was probably the most highlyeducated sovereign of his day, and amid all his busy active life he never lost his interest in literature andintellectual discussion; his hands were never empty, they always had either a bow or a book" (_Dict. of Nat.Biog._). Wace and Benoît de Sainte-More compiled their histories at his bidding, and it was in his reign thatMarie de France composed her poems. An event with which he was closely connected, viz. the murder ofThomas Becket, gave rise to a whole series of writings, some of which are purely Anglo-Norman. In his timeappeared the works of Béroul and Thomas respectively, as well as some of the most celebrated of theAnglo-Norman _romans d'aventure_. It is important to keep this fact in mind when studying the differentworks which Anglo-Norman literature has left us. We will examine these works briefly, grouping them intonarrative, didactic, hagiographic, lyric, satiric and dramatic literature.

_Narrative Literature:_ (_a_) Epic and Romance.--The French epic came over to England at an early date. Weknow that the Chanson de Roland was sung at the battle of Hastings, and we possess Anglo-Norman MSS. ofa few chansons de geste. The _Pèlerinage de Charlemagne_ (Koschwitz, _Altfranzösische Bibliothek_, 1883)was, for instance, only preserved in an Anglo-Norman manuscript of the British Museum (now lost), althoughthe author was certainly a Parisian. The oldest manuscript of the Chanson de Roland that we possess is also amanuscript written in England, and amongst the others of less importance we may mention _La Chançun deWillame_, the MS. of which has (June 1903) been published in facsimile at Chiswick (cf. Paul Meyer,_Romania_, xxxii. 597-618). Although the diffusion of epic poetry in England did not actually inspire anynew _chansons de geste_, it developed the taste for this class of literature, and the epic style in which the talesof _Horn_, of _Bovon de Hampton_, of Guy of Warwick (still unpublished), of Waldef (still unpublished), andof Fulk Fitz Warine are treated, is certainly partly due to this circ*mstance. Although the last of these workshas come down to us only in a prose version, it contains unmistakable signs of a previous poetic form, and


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what we possess is really only a rendering into prose similar to the transformations undergone by many of thechansons de geste (cf. L. Brandin, _Introduction to Fulk Fitz Warine_, London, 1904).

The interinfluence of French and English literature can be studied in the Breton romances and the _romansd'aventure_ even better than in the epic poetry of the period. The Lay of Orpheus is known to us only throughan English imitation; the Lai du cor was composed by Robert Biket, an Anglo-Norman poet of the 12thcentury (Wulff, Lund, 1888). The lais of Marie de France were written in England, and the greater number ofthe romances composing the _matière de Bretagne_ seem to have passed from England to France through themedium of Anglo-Norman. The legends of Merlin and Arthur, collected in the Historia Regum Britanniae byGeoffrey of Monmouth ([+] 1154), passed into French literature, bearing the character which the bishop of St.Asaph had stamped upon them. Chrétien de Troye's Perceval (c. 1175) is doubtless based on anAnglo-Norman poem. Robert de Boron (c. 1215) took the subject of his Merlin (published by G. Paris and J.Ulrich, 1886, 2 vols., _Société des Anciens Textes_) from Geoffrey of Monmouth. Finally, the mostcelebrated love-legend of the middle ages, and one of the most beautiful inventions of world-literature, thestory of Tristan and Iseult, tempted two authors, Béroul and Thomas, the first of whom is probably, and thesecond certainly, Anglo-Norman (see ARTHURIAN LEGEND; GRAIL, THE HOLY; TRISTAN). One FolieTristan was composed in England in the last years of the 12th century. (For all these questions see _Soc. desAnc. Textes_, Muret's ed. 1903; Bédier's ed. 1902-1905). Less fascinating than the story of Tristan and Iseult,but nevertheless of considerable interest, are the two _romans d'aventure_ of Hugh of Rutland, Ipomedon(published by Kölbing and Koschwitz, Breslau, 1889) and Protesilaus (still unpublished) written about 1185.The first relates the adventures of a knight who married the young duch*ess of Calabria, niece of KingMeleager of Sicily, but was loved by Medea, the king's wife. The second poem is the sequel to _Ipomedon_,and deals with the wars and subsequent reconciliation between Ipomedon's sons, Daunus, the elder, lord ofApulia, and Protesilaus, the younger, lord of Calabria. Protesilaus defeats Daunus, who had expelled him fromCalabria. He saves his brother's life, is reinvested with the dukedom of Calabria, and, after the death ofDaunus, succeeds to Apulia. He subsequently marries Medea, King Meleager's widow, who had helped him toseize Apulia, having transferred her affection for Ipomedon to his younger son (cf. Ward, _Cat. of Rom._, i.728). To these two romances by an Anglo-Norman author, _Amadas et Idoine_, of which we only possess acontinental version, is to be added. Gaston Paris has proved indeed that the original was composed in Englandin the 12th century (_An English Miscellany presented to Dr. Furnivall in Honour of his Seventy-fifthBirthday_, Oxford, 1901, 386-394). The Anglo-Norman poem on the Life of Richard Coeur de Lion is lost,and an English version only has been preserved. About 1250 Eustace of Kent introduced into England the_roman d'Alexandre_ in his _Roman de toute chevalerie_, many passages of which have been imitated in oneof the oldest English poems on Alexander, namely, King Alisaunder (P. Meyer, _Alexandre le grand_, Paris,1886, ii. 273, and Weber, _Metrical Romances_, Edinburgh).

(_b_) _Fableaux, Fables and Religious Tales_.--In spite of the incontestable popularity enjoyed by this classof literature, we have only some half-dozen fableaux written in England, viz. _Le chevalier à la corbeille, Lechevalier qui faisait parler les muets, Le chevalier, sa dame et un clerc, Les trois dames, La gageure, Le prêtred'Alison, La bourgeoise d'Orléans_ (Bédier, _Les Fabliaux_, 1895). As to fables, one of the most popularcollections in the middle ages was that written by Marie de France, which she claimed to have translated fromKing Alfred. In the _Contes moralisés_, written by Nicole Bozon shortly before 1320 (_Soc. Anc. Textes_,1889), a few fables bear a strong resemblance to those of Marie de France.

The religious tales deal mostly with the Mary Legends, and have been handed down to us in three collections:

(i.) The Adgar's collection. Most of these were translated from William of Malmesbury ([+] 1143?) by Adgarin the 12th century ("Adgar's Marien-Legenden," _Altfr. Biblioth_. ix.; J.A. Herbert, Rom. xxxii. 394).

(ii.) The collection of Everard of Gateley, a monk of St. Edmund at Bury, who wrote c. 1250 three MaryLegends (Rom. xxix. 27).


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(iii.) An anonymous collection of sixty Mary Legends composed c. 1250 (Brit. Museum Old Roy. 20 B, xiv.),some of which have been published in Suchier's _Bibliotheca Normannica_; in the _Altf. Bibl_. See alsoMussafia, "Studien zu den mittelalterlichen Marien-legenden" in _Sitzungsh. der Wien. Akademie_ (t. cxiii.,cxv., cxix., cxxiii., cxxix.).

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Another set of religious and moralizing tales is to be found in Chardri's Set dormans and _Josaphat, c._ 1216(Koch, _Altfr. Bibl._, 1880; G. Paris, _Poèmes et légendes du moyen âge_).

(_c_) History.--Of far greater importance, however, are the works which constitute Anglo-Normanhistoriography. The first Anglo-Norman historiographer is Geoffrey Gaimar, who wrote his Estorie desAngles (between 1147 and 1151) for Dame Constance, wife of Robert Fitz-Gislebert (_The Anglo-NormanMetrical Chronicle,_ Hardy and Martin, i. ii., London, 1888). This history comprised a first part (now lost),which was merely a translation of Geoffrey of Monmouth's _Historia regum Britanniae_, preceded by ahistory of the Trojan War, and a second part which carries us as far as the death of William Rufus. For thissecond part he has consulted historical documents, but he stops at the year 1087, just when he has reached theperiod about which he might have been able to give us some first-hand information. Similarly, Wace in hisRoman de Rou et des dues de Normandie (ed. Andresen, Heilbronn, 1877-1879, 2 vols.), written 1160-1174,stops at the battle of Tinchebray in 1107 just before the period for which he would have been so useful. HisBrut or Geste des Bretons (Le Roux de Lincy, 1836-1838, 2 vols.), written in 1155, is merely a translation ofGeoffrey of Monmouth. "Wace," says Gaston Paris, speaking of the _Roman de Rou_, "traduit en lesabrégeant des historiens latins que nous possédons; mais çà et là il ajoute soit des contes populaires, parexemple sur Richard 1'er, sur Robert 1'er, soit des particularités qu'il savait par tradition (sur ce même Robertle magnifique, sur l'expédition de Guillaume, &c.) et qui donnent à son oeuvre un réel intérêt historique. Salangue est excellente; son style clair, serré, simple, d'ordinaire assez monotone, vous plaît par sa saveurarchaïque et quelquefois par une certaine grâce et une certaine malice."

The History of the Dukes of Normandy by Benoît de Sainte-More is based on the work of Wace. It wascomposed at the request of Henry II. about 1170, and takes us as far as the year 1135 (ed. by FrancisqueMichel, 1836-1844, _Collection de documents inédits,_ 3 vols.). The 43,000 lines which it contains are of butlittle interest to the historian; they are too evidently the work of a _romancier courtois,_ who takes pleasure inrecounting love-adventures such as those he has described in his romance of Troy. Other works, however,give us more trustworthy information, for example, the anonymous poem on Henry II.'s Conquest of Irelandin 1172 (ed. Francisque Michel, London, 1837), which, together with the Expugnatio hibernica of Giraud deBarri, constitutes our chief authority on this subject. The Conquest of Ireland was republished in 1892 byGoddard Henry Orpen, under the title of The Song of Dermot and the Earl (Oxford, Clarendon Press).Similarly, Jourdain Fantosme, who was in the north of England in 1174, wrote an account of the wars betweenHenry II., his sons, William the Lion of Scotland and Louis VII., in 1173 and 1174 (Chronicle of the reigns ofStephen ... III., ed. by Joseph Stevenson and Fr. Michel, London, 1886, pp. 202-307). Not one of thesehistories, however, is to be compared in value with _The History of William the Marshal, Count of Striguiland Pembroke,_ regent of England from 1216-1219, which was found and subsequently edited by Paul Meyer(_Société de l'histoire de France,_ 3 vols., 1891-1901). This masterpiece of historiography was composed in1225 or 1226 by a professional poet of talent at the request of William, son of the marshal. It was compiledfrom the notes of the marshal's squire, John d'Early ([+] 1230 or 1231), who shared all the vicissitudes of hismaster's life and was one of the executors of his will. This work is of great value for the history of the period1186-1219, as the information furnished by John d'Early is either personal or obtained at first hand. In the partwhich deals with the period before 1186, it is true, there are various mistakes, due to the author's ignorance ofcontemporary history, but these slight blemishes are amply atoned for by the literary value of the work. Thestyle is concise, the anecdotes are well told, the descriptions short and picturesque; the whole constitutes oneof the most living pictures of medieval society. Very pale by the side of this work appear the Chronique ofPeter of Langtoft, written between 1311 and 1320, and mainly of interest for the period 1294-1307 (ed. by T.


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Wright, London, 1866-1868); the Chronique of Nicholas Trevet (1258?-1328?), dedicated to Princess Mary,daughter of Edward I. (Duffus Hardy, _Descr. Catal._ III., 349-350); the Scala Chronica compiled by ThomasGray of Heaton ([+] _c._ 1369), which carries us to the year 1362-1363 (ed. by J. Stevenson, Maitland Club,Edinburgh, 1836); the _Black Prince,_ a poem by the poet Chandos, composed about 1386, and relating thelife of the Black Prince from 1346-1376 (re-edited by Francisque Michel, London and Paris, 1883); and,lastly, the different versions of the _Brutes,_ the form and historical importance of which have been indicatedby Paul Meyer (_Bulletin de la Société des Anciens Textes,_ 1878, pp. 104-145), and by F.W.D. Brie(_Geschichte und Quellen der mittelenglischen Prosachronik, The Brute of England or The Chronicles ofEngland,_ Marburg, 1905).

Finally we may mention, as ancient history, the translation of Eutropius and Dares, by Geoffrey of Waterford(13th century), who gave also the _Secret des Secrets,_ a translation from a work wrongly attributed toAristotle, which belongs to the next division (_Rom._ xxiii. 314).

Didactic Literature.--This is the most considerable, if not the most interesting, branch of Anglo-Normanliterature: it comprises a large number of works written chiefly with the object of giving both religious andprofane instruction to Anglo-Norman lords and ladies. The following list gives the most importantproductions arranged in chronological order:--

Philippe de Thaun, _Comput, c_. 1119 (edited by E. Mall, Strassburg, 1873), poem on the calendar;_Bestiaire, c_. 1130 (ed. by E. Walberg, Paris, 1900; cf. G. Paris, _Rom._ xxxi. 175); _Lois de Guillaume leConquérant_ (redaction between 1150 and 1170, ed. by J.E. Matzke, Paris, 1899); _Oxford Psalter, c_. 1150(Fr. Michel, _Libri Psalmorum versio antiqua gallica_, Oxford, 1860); _Cambridge Psalter, c_. 1160 (Fr.Michel, _Le Livre des Psaumes,_ Paris, 1877); _London Psalter,_ same as Oxford Psalter (cf. Beyer, _Zt. f.rom. Phil._ xi. 513-534; xii. 1-56); _Disticha Catonis_, translated by Everard de Kirkham and Elie deWinchester (Stengel, _Ausg. u. Abhandlungen_); _Le Roman de fortune_, summary of Boetius' _Deconsolatione philosophiae,_ by Simon de Fresne (_Hist. lit._ xxviii. 408); _Quatre livres des rois_, translatedinto French in the 12th century, and imitated in England soon after (P. Schlösser, _Die Lautverhältnisse derquatre livres des rois,_ Bonn, 1886; _Romania,_ xvii. 124); _Donnei des Amanz,_, the conversation of twolovers, overheard and carefully noted by the poet, of a purely didactic character, in which are included threeinteresting pieces, the first being an episode of the story of Tristram, the second a fable, _L'homme et leserpent,_ the third a tale, _L'homme et l'oiseau_, which is the basis of the celebrated _Lai de l'oiselet_(_Rom._ xxv. 497); Livre des Sibiles (1160); _Enseignements Trebor_, by Robert de Ho (=Hoo, Kent, on theleft bank of the Medway) [edited by Mary Vance Young, Paris; Picard, 101; cf. G. Paris, _Rom._ xxxii. 141];Lapidaire de Cambridge (Pannier, _Les Lapidaires français_); Frére Angier de Ste. Frideswide, _Dialogues,_29th of November 1212 (_Rom._ xii. 145-208, and xxix.; M.K. Pope, _Étude sur la langue de Frère Angier,_Paris, 1903); _Li dialoge Grégoire le pape_, ed. by Foerster, 1876; _Petit Plet_, by Chardri, _c._ 1216 (Koch,_Altfr Bibliothek._ i., and Mussafia, _Z.f.r.P._ iii. 591); _Petite philosophie, c._ 1225 (_Rom._ xv. 356; xxix.72); _Histoire de Marie et de Jésus (Rom._ xvi. 248-262); _Poème sur l'Ancien Testament_ (_Not. et Extr._xxxiv. 1, 210; _Soc. Anc. Textes_, 1889, 73-74); Le Corset and _Le Miroir,_ by Robert de Gretham (_Rom._vii. 345; xv. 296); _Lumière as Lais,_ by Pierre de Peckham, _c._ 1250 (_Rom._ xv. 287); an Anglo-Normanredaction of _Image du monde, c._ 1250 (_Rom._ xxi. 481); two Anglo-Norman versions of Quatre soeurs(Justice, Truth, Peace, Mercy), 13th century (ed. by Fr. Michel, _Psautier d'Oxford,_ pp. 364-368, _BulletinSoc. Anc. Textes,_ 1886, 57, _Romania,_ xv. 352); another Comput by Raüf de Lenham, 1256 (P. Meyer,_Archives des missions,_ 2nd series iv. 154 and 160-164; _Rom._ xv. 285); _Le chastel d'amors,_ by RobertGrosseteste or Greathead, bishop of Lincoln ([+] 1253) [ed. by Cooke, _Carmina Anglo-Normannica_, 1852,Caxton Society]; _Poème sur l'amour de Dieu et sur la haine du péché_, 13th century, second part (_Rom._xxix. 5); Le mariage des neuf filles du diable (_Rom._ xxix. 54); _Ditie d' Urbain_, attributed without anyfoundation to Henry I. (P. Meyer, _Bulletin Soc. Anc. Textes_, 1880, p. 73 and Romania xxxii, 68);_Dialogue de l'évêque Saint Julien et son disciple_ (_Rom._ xxix. 21); _Poème sur l'antichrist et le jugementdernier_, by Henri d'Arci (_Rom._ xxix. 78; _Not. et. Extr._ 35, i. 137). Wilham de Waddington produced atthe end of the 13th century his _Manuel des péchés_, which was adapted in England by Robert of Brunne in


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his Handlying Sinne (1303) [_Hist. lit._ xxviii. 179-207; _Rom._ xxix. 5, 47-53]; see Furnivall,_Robert ofBrunne's Handlying Synne_ (Roxb. Club, 1862); in the 14th century we find Nicole Bozon's _Contesmoralisés_ (see above); _Traité de naturesse_ (_Rom._ xiii. 508); Sermons in verse (P. Meyer, op. cit. xlv.);Proverbes de bon enseignement (op. cit. xlvi.). We have also a few handbooks on the teaching of French.Gautier de Biblesworth wrote such a treatise _à Madame Dyonise de Mountechensi pur aprise de langage_(Wright, _A Volume of Vocabularies_; P. Meyer, _Rec. d'anc. textes_, p. 360 and Romania xxxii, 22);Orthographia gallica (Sturzinger, _Altfr. Bibl._ 1884); _La manière de language_, written in 1396 (P. Meyer,_Rev. crit. d'hist. et de litt._ nos. compl. de 1870); _Un petit livre pour enseigner les enfants de leurentreparler comun françois_, c. 1399 (Stengel, _Z. für n.f. Spr. u. Litt._ i. 11). The important _Mirour del'omme_, by John Gower, contains about 30,000 lines written in very good French at the end of the 14thcentury (Macaulay, _The Complete Works of John Gower_, i., Oxford, 1899).

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Hagiography.--Among the numerous lives of saints written in Anglo-Norman the most important ones are thefollowing, the list of which is given in chronological order:--Voyage de Saint Brandan (or _Brandain_),written in 1121, by an ecclesiastic for Queen Aelis of Louvain (_Rom. St._ i. 553-588; _Z.f.r.P._ ii. 438-459;_Rom._ xviii. 203. C. Wahlund, _Die altfr. Prosaübersetz. von Brendan's Meerfahrt_, Upsala, 1901); life ofSt. Catherine by Clemence of Barking (_Rom._ xiii. 400, Jarnik, 1894); life of St Giles, c. 1170, by Guillaumede Berneville (_Soc. Anc. Textes fr._, 1881; _Rom._ xi. and xxiii. 94); life of St. Nicholas, life of Our Lady,by Wace (Delius, 1850; Stengel, _Cod. Digby_, 66); Uhlemann, _Gram. Krit. Studien zu Wace's Conceptionund Nicolas_, 1878; life of St. George by Simon de Fresne (_Rom._ x. 319; J.E. Matzke, _Public. of the Mod.Lang. Ass. of Amer._ xvii. 1902; _Rom._ xxxiv. 148); _Expurgatoire de Ste. Patrice_, by Marie de France(Jenkins, 1894; Eckleben, _Aelteste Schilderung vom Fegefeuer d.H. Patricius_, 1851; Ph. de Felice, 1906);_La vie de St. Edmund le Rei_, by Denis Pyramus, end of 12th century (_Memorials of St. Edmund's Abbey_,edited by T. Arnold, ii. 1892; _Rom._ xxii. 170); Henri d'Arci's life of St. Thais, poem on the Antichrist,_Visio S. Pauli_ (P. Meyer, _Not. et Extr._ xxxv. 137-158); life of St. Gregory the Great by Frère Angier,30th of April 1214 (_Rom._ viii. 509-544; ix. 176; xviii. 201); life of St. Modwenna, between 1225 and 1250(Suchier, _Die dem Matthäus Paris zugeschriebene Vie de St. Auban_, 1873, pp. 54-58); Fragments of a lifeof St Thomas Becket, c. 1230 (P. Meyer, _Soc. Anc. Text. fr._, 1885); and another life of the same by Benoitof St. Alban, 13th century (Michel, _Chron. des ducs de Normandie; Hist. Lit._ xxiii. 383); a life of Edwardthe Confessor, written before 1245 (Luard, _Lives of Edward the Confessor_, 1858; _Hist. Lit._ xxvii. 1), byan anonymous monk of Westminster; life of St. Auban, c. 1250 (Suchier, op. cit.; Uhlemann, "Über die vie deSt. Auban in Bezug auf Quelle," &c. _Rom. St._ iv. 543-626; ed. by Atkinson, 1876). _The Vision ofTnudgal_, an Anglo-Norman fragment, is preserved in MS. 312, Trinity College, Dublin; the MS. is of the14th century; the author seems to belong to the 13th (_La vision de Tondale_, ed. by Friedel and Kuno Meyer,1906). In this category we may add the life of Hugh of Lincoln, 13th century (_Hist. Lit._ xxiii. 436; Child,_The English and Scottish Popular Ballads_, 1888, p. v; Wolter, _Bibl. Anglo-Norm._, ii. 115). Other lives ofsaints were recognized to be Anglo-Norman by Paul Meyer when examining the MSS. of the Welbeck library(_Rom._ xxxii. 637 and _Hist. Lit._ xxxiii. 338-378).

_Lyric Poetry._--The only extant songs of any importance are the seventy-one Ballads of Gower (Stengel,_Gower's Minnesang_, 1886). The remaining songs are mostly of a religious character. Most of them havebeen discovered and published by Paul Meyer (_Bulletin de la Soc. Anc. Textes_, 1889; _Not. et Extr._xxxiv; _Rom._ xiii. 518, t. xiv. 370; xv. p. 254, &c.). Although so few have come down to us such songs musthave been numerous at one time, owing to the constant intercourse between English, French and Provençals ofall classes. An interesting passage in Piers Plowman furnishes us with a proof of the extent to which thesesongs penetrated into England. We read of:

"... dykers and deluers that doth here dedes ille, And dryuen forth the longe day with 'Deu, vous saue, DameEmme!'" (Prologue, 223 f.)


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One of the finest productions of Anglo-Norman lyric poetry written in the end of the 13th century, is the_Plainte d'amour_ (Vising, Göteborg, 1905; Romania xiii. 507, xv. 292 and xxix. 4), and we may mention,merely as literary curiosities, various works of a lyrical character written in two languages, Latin and French,or English and French, or even in three languages, Latin, English and French. In Early English Lyrics(Oxford, 1907) we have a poem in which a lover sends to his mistress a love-greeting composed in threelanguages, and his learned friend replies in the same style (_De amico ad amicam, Responcio_, viii and ix).

Satire.--The popularity enjoyed by the Roman de Renart and the Anglo-Norman version of the Riote duMonde (_Z.f. rom. Phil._ viii. 275-289) in England is proof enough that the French spirit of satire was keenlyappreciated. The clergy and the fair sex presented the most attractive target for the shots of the satirists.However, an Englishman raised his voice in favour of the ladies in a poem entitled _La Bonté des dames_(Meyer, _Rom._ xv. 315-339), and Nicole Bozon, after having represented "Pride" as a feminine being whomhe supposes to be the daughter of Lucifer, and after having fiercely attacked the women of his day in the_Char d'Orgueil_ (_Rom._ xiii. 516), also composed a _Bounté des femmes_ (P. Meyer, op. cit. 33) in whichhe covers them with praise, commending their courtesy, their humility, their openness and the care with whichthey bring up their children. A few pieces of political satire show us French and English exchanging amenitieson their mutual shortcomings. The _Roman des Français_, by André de Coutances, was written on thecontinent, and cannot be quoted as Anglo-Norman although it was composed before 1204 (cf. Gaston Paris:_Trois versions rimées de l'évangile de Nicodème, Soc. Anc. Textes_, 1885), it is a very spirited reply toFrench authors who had attacked the English.

Dramatic Literature.--This must have had a considerable influence on the development of the sacred drama inEngland, but none of the French plays acted in England in the 12th and 13th centuries has been preserved._Adam_, which is generally considered to be an Anglo-Norman mystery of the 12th century, was probablywritten in France at the beginning of the 13th century (Romania xxxii. 637), and the so-called Anglo-NormanResurrection belongs also to continental French. It is necessary to state that the earliest English moralitiesseem to have been imitations of the French ones.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Apart from the works already mentioned see generally: Scheibner, "Über die Herrschaftder frz. Sprache in England" (Annaberg, Progr. der Königlichen Realschule, 1880, 38 f.); Groeber, _Grundr.der romanischen Philologie_, ii. iii. (Strassburg, 1902); G. Paris, _La Litt. fr. au moyen âge_ (1905);_Esquisse historique de la litt. fr. au moyen âge_ (1907); _La Litt. norm, avani l'annexion 912-1204_ (Paris,1899); "L'Esprit normand en Angleterre," _La Poésie au moyen âge_ (2nd series 45-74, Paris, 1906); ThomasWright, Biographia britannica literaria (Anglo-Norman period, London, 1846); Ten Brink, Geschichte derenglischen Litteratur (Berlin, 1877, i. 2); J.J. Jusserand, _Hist. litt. du peuple anglais_ (2nd ed. 1895, vol. i.);W.H. Schofield, English Literature from the Norman Conquest to Chaucer (London, 1906); Johan Vising,_Franska Sprâket i England_ (Göteborg, 1900, 1901, 1902).

(L. BR.)

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ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. It is usual to speak of "the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle"; it would be morecorrect to say that there are four Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. It is true that these all grow out of a common stock,that in some even of their later entries two or more of them use common materials; but the same may be saidof several groups of medieval chronicles, which no one dreams of treating as single chronicles. Of thisfourfold Chronicle there are seven MSS. in existence; _C.C.C. Cant._ 173 (A); _Cott. Tib._ A vi. (B); _Cott.Tib._ B i. (C); _Cott. Tib._ B iv. (D); _Bodl. Laud. Misc._ 636 (E); _Cott. Domitian_ A viii. (F); _Cott. Otho_B xi. (G). Of these G is now a mere fragment, and it is known to have been a transcript of A. F is bilingual,the entries being given both in Saxon and Latin. It is interesting as a stage in the transition from the vernacularto the Latin chronicle; but it has little independent value, being a mere epitome, made at Canterbury in the11th or 12th century, of a chronicle akin to E. B, as far as it goes (to 977), is identical with C, both having


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been copied from a common original, but A, C, D, E have every right to be treated as independent chronicles.The relations between the four vary very greatly in different parts, and the neglect of this consideration has ledto much error and confusion. The common stock, out of which all grow, extends to 892. The present writersees no reason to doubt that the idea of a national, as opposed to earlier local chronicles, was inspired byAlfred, who may even have dictated, or at least revised, the entries relating to his own campaigns; while forthe earlier parts pre-existing materials, both oral and written, were utilized. Among the latter the chronologicalepitome appended to Bede's Ecclesiastical History may be specially mentioned. But even this common stockexists in two different recensions, in A, B, C, on the one hand, and D, E on the other. The main points ofdifference are that in D, E (1) a series of northern annals have been incorporated; (2) the Bede entries aretaken, not from the brief epitome, but from the main body of the _Eccl. Hist._ The inference is that, shortlyafter the compiling of this Alfredian chronicle, a copy of it was sent to some northern monastery, probablyRipon, where it was expanded in the way indicated. Copies of this northernized Chronicle afterwards foundtheir way to the south. The impulse given by Alfred was continued under Edward, and we have what may becalled an official continuation of the history of the Danish wars, which, in B, C, D extends to 915, and in A to924. After 915 B, C insert as a separate document a short register of Mercian affairs during the same period(902-924), which might be called the acts of Æthelflaed, the famous "Lady of the Mercians," while D hasincorporated it, not very skilfully, with the official continuation. Neither of these documents exists in E. From925 to 975 all the chronicles are very fragmentary; a few obits, three or four poems, among them the famousballad on the battle of Brunanburh, make up the meagre tale of their common materials, which each has triedto supplement in its own way. A has inserted a number of Winchester entries, which prove that A is aWinchester book. And this local and scrappy character it retains to 1001, where it practically ends. At somesubsequent time it was transferred bodily to Canterbury, where it received numerous interpolations in theearlier part, and a few later local entries which finally tail off into the Latin acts of Lanfranc. A may thereforebe dismissed. C has added to the common stock one or two Abingdon entries, with which place the history ofC is closely connected; while D and E have a second group of northern annals 901-966, E being howevermuch more fragmentary than D, omitting, or not having access to, much both of the common and of thenorthern material which is found in D. From 983 to 1018 C, D and E are practically identical, and give aconnected history of the Danish struggles under Æthelred II. This section was probably composed atCanterbury. From 1018 the relations of C, D, E become too complicated to be expressed by any formula;sometimes all three agree together, sometimes all three are independent; in other places each pair in turn agreeagainst the third. It may be noted that C is strongly anti-Godwinist, while E is equally pro-Godwinist, Doccupying an intermediate position. C extends to 1066, where it ends abruptly, and probably mutilated. Dends at 1079 and is certainly mutilated. In its later history D is associated with some place in the diocese ofWorcester, probably Evesham. In its present form D is a comparatively late MS., none of it probably muchearlier, and some of it later, than 1100. In the case of entries in the earlier part of the chronicles, which arepeculiar to D, we cannot exclude the possibility that they may be late interpolations. E is continued to 1154. Inits present form it is unquestionably a Peterborough book. The earlier part is full of Peterboroughinterpolations, to which place many of the later entries also refer. But (apart from the interpolations) it is onlythe entries after 1121, where the first hand in the MS. ends, which were actually composed at Peterborough.The section 1023-1067 certainly, and possibly also the section 1068-1121, was composed at St. Augustine's,Canterbury; and the former is of extreme interest and value, the writer being in close contact with the eventswhich he describes. The later parts of E show a great degeneration in language, and a querulous tone due tothe sufferings of the native population under the harsh Norman rule; "but our debt to it is inestimable; and wecan hardly measure what the loss to English history would have been, if it had not been written; or if, havingbeen written, it had, like so many another English chronicle, been lost."

BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The above account is based on the introduction in vol. ii. of the Rev. C. Plummer'sedition of Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel (Clarendon Press, 1892, 1899); to which the student may bereferred for detailed arguments. The editio princeps of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was by Abraham Wheloc,professor of Arabic at Cambridge, where the work was printed (1643-1644). It was based mainly on the MS.called G above, and is the chief source of our knowledge of that MS. which perished, all but three leaves, inthe Cottonian fire of 1723. Edmund Gibson of Queen's College, Oxford, afterwards bishop of London,


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published an edition in 1692. He used Wheloc's edition, and E, with collations or transcripts of B and F. BothWheloc and Gibson give Latin translations. In 1823 appeared an edition by Dr. Ingram, of Trinity College,Oxford, with an English translation. Besides A, B, E, F, Ingram used C and D for the first time. But both heand Gibson made the fatal error of trying to combine the disparate materials contained in the variouschronicles in a single text. An improvement in this respect is seen in the edition made by Richard Price (d.1833) for the first (and only) volume of Monumenta Historica Britannica (folio 1848). There is still, however,too much conflation, and owing to the plan of the volume, the edition only extends to 1066. A translation isappended. In 1861 appeared Benjamin Thorpe's six-text edition in the Rolls Series. Though not free fromdefects, this edition is absolutely indispensable for the study of the chronicles and the mutual relations of thedifferent MSS. A second volume contains the translation. In 1865 the Clarendon Press published _Two SaxonChronicles (A and E) Parallel, with supplementary extracts from the others_, by the Rev. John Earle. Thisedition has no translation, but in the notes and introduction a very considerable advance was made. On thisedition is partly based the later edition by the Rev. C. Plummer, already cited above. In addition to thetranslations contained in the editions already mentioned, the following have been issued separately. The firsttranslation into modern English was by Miss Anna Gurney, privately printed in 1819. This was largely basedon Gibson's edition, and was in turn the basis of Dr. Giles' translation, published in 1847, and often reprinted.The best translation is that by the Rev. Joseph Stevenson, in his series of Church Historians of England(1853). Up to the Conquest it is a revision of the translation contained in _Mon. Hist. Brit._ From that point itis an independent translation.

(C. PL.)

ANGLO-SAXON LAW. 1. The body of legal rules and customs which obtained in England before theNorman conquest constitutes, with the Scandinavian laws, the most genuine expression of Teutonic legalthought. While the so-called "barbaric laws" (_leges barbarorum_) of the continent, not excepting thosecompiled in the territory now called Germany, were largely the product of Roman influence, the continuity ofRoman life was almost completely broken in the island, and even the Church, the direct heir of Romantradition, did not carry on a continuous existence: Canterbury was not a see formed in a Roman province inthe same sense as Tours or Reims. One of the striking expressions of this Teutonism is presented by thelanguage in which the Anglo-Saxon laws were written. They are uniformly worded in English, whilecontinental laws, apart from the Scandinavian, are all in Latin. The English dialect in which the Anglo-Saxonlaws have been handed down to us is in most cases a common speech derived from West Saxon--naturallyenough as Wessex became the predominant English state, and the court of its kings the principal literarycentre from which most of the compilers and scribes derived their dialect and spelling. Traces of Kentishspeech may be detected, however, in the _Textus Roffensis_, the MS. of the Kentish laws, and Northumbriandialectical peculiarities are also noticeable on some occasions, while Danish words occur only as technicalterms. At the conquest, Latin takes the place of English in the compilations made to meet the demand forAnglo-Saxon law texts as still applied in practice.

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2. It is easy to group the Anglo-Saxon laws according to the manner of their publication. They would fall intothree divisions: (1) laws and collections of laws promulgated by public authority; (2) statements of custom;(3) private compilations of legal rules and enactments. To the first division belong the laws of the Kentishkings, Æthelberht, Hlothhere and Eadric, Withraed; those of Ine of Wessex, of Alfred, Edward the Elder,Æthelstan,[1] Edmund, Edgar, Æthelred and Canute; the treaty between Alfred and Guthrum and the so-calledtreaty between Edward and Guthrum. The second division is formed by the convention between the Englishand the Welsh _Dunsaetas_, the law of the Northumbrian priests, the customs of the North people, thefragments of local custumals entered in Domesday Book. The third division would consist of the collectionsof the so-called _Pseudo-leges Canuti_, the laws of Edward the Confessor, of Henry I., and the greatcompilation of the _Quadripartitus_, then of a number of short notices and extracts like the fragments on the"wedding of a wife," on oaths, on ordeals, on the king's peace, on rural customs (_Rectitudines singularum


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personarum_), the treatises on the reeve (_gerefa_) and on the judge (_dema_), formulae of oaths, notions asto wergeld, &c. A fourth group might be made of the charters, as they are based on Old English private andpublic law and supply us with most important materials in regard to it. Looking somewhat deeper at thesources from which Old English law was derived, we shall have to modify our classification to some extent,as the external forms of publication, although important from the point of view of historical criticism, are notsufficient standards as to the juridical character of the various kinds of material. Direct statements of lawwould fall under the following heads, from the point of view of their legal origins: i. customary rules followedby divers communities capable of formulating law; ii. enactments of authorities, especially of kings; iii.private arrangements made under recognized legal rules. The first would comprise, besides most of thestatements of custom included in the second division according to the first classification, a great many of therules entered in collections promulgated by kings; most of the paragraphs of Æthelberht's, Hlothhere's, andEadric's and Ine's laws, are popular legal customs that have received the stamp of royal authority by theirinsertion in official codes. On the other hand, from Withraed's and Alfred's laws downwards, the element ofenactment by central authority becomes more and more prominent. The kings endeavour, with the help ofsecular and clerical witan, to introduce new rules and to break the power of long-standing customs (e.g. theprecepts about the keeping of holidays, the enactments of Edmund restricting private vengeance, and thesolidarity of kindreds as to feuds, and the like). There are, however, no outward signs enabling us todistinguish conclusively between both categories of laws in the codes, nor is it possible to draw a line betweenpermanent laws and personal ordinances of single sovereigns, as has been attempted in the case of Frankishlegislation.

[Footnote 1: The Judicia civitatis Lundoniae are a gild statute confirmed by King Æthelstan.]

3. Even in the course of a general survey of the legal lore at our disposal, one cannot help being struck bypeculiarities in the distribution of legal subjects. Matters which seem to us of primary importance and occupya wide place in our law-books are almost entirely absent in Anglo-Saxon laws or relegated to the background.While it is impossible to give here anything like a complete or exact survey of the field--a task renderedalmost impossible by the arbitrary manner in which paragraphs are divided, by the difficulty of making OldEnglish enactments fit into modern rubrics, and by the necessity of counting several times certain paragraphsbearing on different subjects--a brief statistical analysis of the contents of royal codes and laws may be foundinstructive.

We find roughly 419 paragraphs devoted to criminal law and procedure as against 91 concerned withquestions of private law and civil procedure. Of the criminal law clauses, as many as 238 are taken up withtariffs of fines, while 80 treat of capital and corporal punishment, outlawry and confiscation, and 101 includerules of procedure. On the private law side 18 clauses apply to rights of property and possession, 13 tosuccession and family law, 37 to contracts, including marriage when treated as an act of sale; 18 touch on civilprocedure. A subject which attracted special attention was the law of status, and no less than 107 paragraphscontain disposition dictated by the wish to discriminate between the classes of society. Questions of publiclaw and administration are discussed in 217 clauses, while 197 concern the Church in one way or another,apart from purely ecclesiastical collections. In the public law division it is chiefly the power, interests andprivileges of the king that are dealt with, in roughly 93 paragraphs, while local administration comes in for 39and purely economic and fiscal matter for 13 clauses. Police regulations are very much to the fore and occupyno less than 72 clauses of the royal legislation. As to church matters, the most prolific group is formed bygeneral precepts based on religious and moral considerations, roughly 115, while secular privileges conferredon the Church hold about 62, and questions of organization some 20 clauses.

The statistical contrasts are especially sharp and characteristic when we take into account the chronologicalsequence in the elaboration of laws. Practically the entire code of Æthelberht, for instance, is a tariff of finesfor crimes, and the same subject continues to occupy a great place in the laws of Hlothhere and Eadric, Ineand Alfred, whereas it appears only occasionally in the treaties with the Danes, the laws of Withraed, Edwardthe Elder, Æthelstan, Edgar, Edmund and Æthelred. It reappears in some strength in the code of Canute, but


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the latter is chiefly a recapitulation of former enactments. The system of "compositions" or fines, paid inmany cases with the help of kinsmen, finds its natural place in the ancient, tribal period of English history andloses its vitality later on in consequence of the growth of central power and of the scattering of maegths.Royalty and the Church, when they acquire the lead in social life, work out a new penal system based onoutlawry, death penalties and corporal punishments, which make their first appearance in the legislation ofWithraed and culminate in that of Æthelred and Canute.

As regards status, the most elaborate enactments fall into the period preceding the Danish settlements. Afterthe treaties with the Danes, the tendency is to simplify distinctions on the lines of an opposition betweentwelvehynd-men and twyhynd-men, paving the way towards the feudal distinction between the free and theunfree. In the arrangements of the commonwealth the clauses treating of royal privileges are more or lessevenly distributed over all reigns, but the systematic development of police functions, especially in regard toresponsibility for crimes, the catching of thieves, the suppression of lawlessness, is mainly the object of 10thand 11th century legislation. The reign of Æthelred, which witnessed the greatest national humiliation and thegreatest crime in English history, is also marked by the most lavish expressions of religious feeling and themost frequent appeals to morality. This sketch would, of course, have to be modified in many ways if weattempted to treat the unofficial fragments of customary law in the same way as the paragraphs of royal codes,and even more so if we were able to tabulate the indirect evidence as to legal rules. But, imperfect as suchstatistics may be, they give us at any rate some insight into the direction of governmental legislation.

4. The next question to be approached concerns the pedigree of Anglo-Saxon law and the latter's naturalaffinities. What is its position in the legal history of Germanic nations? How far has it been influenced bynon-Germanic elements, especially by Roman and Canon law? The oldest Anglo-Saxon codes, especially theKentish and the West Saxon ones, disclose a close relationship to the barbaric laws of Lower Germany--thoseof Saxons, Frisians, Thuringians. We find a division of social ranks which reminds us of the threefoldgradation of Lower Germany (edelings, frilings, lazzen-eorls, ceorls, laets), and not of the twofold Frankishone (_ingenui Franci, Romani_), nor of the minute differentiation of the Upper Germans and Lombards. Insubsequent history there is a good deal of resemblance between the capitularies' legislation of Charlemagneand his successors on one hand, the acts of Alfred, Edward the Elder, Æthelstan and Edgar on the other, aresemblance called forth less by direct borrowing of Frankish institutions than by the similarity of politicalproblems and condition. Frankish law becomes a powerful modifying element in English legal history afterthe Conquest, when it was introduced wholesale in royal and in feudal courts. The Scandinavian invasionsbrought in many northern legal customs, especially in the districts thickly populated with Danes. TheDomesday survey of Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, Yorkshire, Norfolk, &c., shows remarkable deviations inlocal organization and justice (lagmen, sokes), and great peculiarities as to status (socmen, freemen), whilefrom laws and a few charters we can perceive some influence on criminal law (_nidings-vaerk_), specialusages as to fines (_lahslit_), the keeping of peace, attestation and sureties of acts (_faestermen_), &c. But, onthe whole, the introduction of Danish and Norse elements, apart from local cases, was more important owingto the conflicts and compromises it called forth and its social results,--than on account of any distinct trail ofScandinavian views in English law. The Scandinavian newcomers coalesced easily and quickly with thenative population.

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The direct influence of Roman law was not great during the Saxon period: we notice neither the transmissionof important legal doctrines, chiefly through the medium of Visigothic codes, nor the continuous stream ofRoman tradition in local usage. But indirectly Roman law did exert a by no means insignificant influencethrough the medium of the Church, which, for all its insular character, was still permeated with Roman ideasand forms of culture. The Old English "books" are derived in a roundabout way from Roman models, and thetribal law of real property was deeply modified by the introduction of individualistic notions as to ownership,donations, wills, rights of women, &c. Yet in this respect also the Norman Conquest increased the store ofRoman conceptions by breaking the national isolation of the English Church and opening the way for closer


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intercourse with France and Italy.

5. It would be useless to attempt to trace in a brief sketch the history of the legal principles embodied in thedocuments of Anglo-Saxon law. But it may be of some value to give an outline of a few particularlycharacteristic subjects.

(a) The Anglo-Saxon legal system cannot be understood unless one realizes the fundamental oppositionbetween folk-right and privilege. Folk-right is the aggregate of rules, formulated or latent but susceptible offormulation, which can be appealed to as the expression of the juridical consciousness of the people at large orof the communities of which it is composed. It is tribal in its origin, and differentiated, not according toboundaries between states, but on national and provincial lines. There may be the folk-right of West and EastSaxons, of East Angles, of Kentish men, Mercians, Northumbrians, Danes, Welshmen, and these mainfolk-right divisions remain even when tribal kingdoms disappear and the people is concentrated in one or tworealms. The chief centres for the formulation and application of folk-right were in the 10th and 11th centuriesthe shire-moots, while the witan of the realm generally placed themselves on the higher ground of Stateexpediency, although occasionally using folk-right ideas. The older law of real property, of succession, ofcontracts, the customary tariffs of fines, were mainly regulated by folk-right; the reeves employed by the kingand great men were supposed to take care of local and rural affairs according to folk-right. The law had to bedeclared and applied by the people itself in its communities, while the spokesmen of the people were neitherdemocratic majorities nor individual experts, but a few leading men--the twelve eldest thanes or some similarquorum. Folk-right could, however, be broken or modified by special law or special grant, and the fountain ofsuch privileges was the royal power. Alterations and exceptions were, as a matter of fact, suggested by theinterested parties themselves, and chiefly by the Church. Thus a privileged land-tenure wascreated--bookland; the rules as to the succession of kinsmen were set at nought by concession of testamentarypower and confirmations of grants and wills; special exemptions from the jurisdiction of the hundreds andspecial privileges as to levying fines were conferred. In process of time the rights originating in royal grants ofprivilege overbalanced, as it were, folk-right in many respects, and became themselves the starting-point of anew legal system--the feudal one.

(b) Another feature of vital importance in the history of Anglo-Saxon law is its tendency towards thepreservation of peace. Society is constantly struggling to ensure the main condition of its existence--peace.Already in Æthelberht's legislation we find characteristic fines inflicted for breach of the peace ofhouseholders of different ranks--the ceorl, the eorl, and the king himself appearing as the most exalted amongthem. Peace is considered not so much a state of equilibrium and friendly relations between parties, but ratheras the rule of a third within a certain region--a house, an estate, a kingdom. This leads on one side to therecognition of private authorities--the father's in his family, the master's as to servants, the lord's as to hispersonal or territorial dependents. On the other hand, the tendency to maintain peace naturally takes its coursetowards the strongest ruler, the king, and we witness in Anglo-Saxon law the gradual evolution of more andmore stringent and complete rules in respect of the king's peace and its infringements.

(c) The more ancient documents of Anglo-Saxon law show us the individual not merely as the subject andcitizen of a certain commonwealth, but also as a member of some group, all the fellows of which are closelyallied in claims and responsibilities. The most elementary of these groups is the _maegth_, the association ofa*gnatic and cognatic relations. Personal protection and revenge, oaths, marriage, wardship, succession,supervision over settlement, and good behaviour, are regulated by the law of kinship. A man's actions areconsidered not as exertions of his individual will, but as acts of the kindred, and all the fellows of the maegthare held responsible for them. What began as a natural alliance was used later as a means of enforcingresponsibility and keeping lawless individuals in order. When the association of kinsmen failed, the voluntaryassociations--guilds--appeared as substitutes. The gild brothers associated in mutual defence and support, andthey had to share in the payment of fines. The township and the hundred came also in for certain forms ofcollective responsibility, because they presented groups of people associated in their economic and legalinterests.


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(d) In course of time the natural associations get loosened and intermixed, and this calls forth the elaboratepolice legislation of the later Anglo-Saxon kings. Regulations are issued about the sale of cattle in thepresence of witnesses. Enactments about the pursuit of thieves, and the calling in of warrantors to justify salesof chattels, are other expressions of the difficulties attending peaceful intercourse. Personal surety appears as acomplement of and substitute for collective responsibility. The hlaford and his hiredmen are an institution notonly of private patronage, but also of police supervision for the sake of laying hands on malefactors andsuspected persons. The landrica assumes the same part in a territorial district. Ultimately the laws of the 10thand 11th centuries show the beginnings of the frankpledge associations, which came to act so important a partin the local police and administration of the feudal age.

The points mentioned are not many, but, apart from their intrinsic importance in any system of law, they are,as it were, made prominent by the documents themselves, as they are constantly referred to in the latter.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.--_Editions_: Liebermann, Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen (1903, 1906) is indispensable,and leaves nothing to be desired as to the constitution of the texts. The translations and notes are, of course, tobe considered in the light of an instructive, but not final, commentary. R. Schmid, Gesetze der Angelsachsen(2nd ed., Leipzig, 1858) is still valuable on account of its handiness and the fulness of its glossary. B. Thorpe,Ancient Laws and Institutes of England (1840) is not very trustworthy. _Domesday Book_, i. ii. (Rec.Comm.); _Codex Diplomaticus Aevi Saxonici_, i.-vi. ed. J.M. Kemble (1839-1848); Cartularium Saxonicum(up to 940), ed. W. de Gray Birch (1885-1893); J. Earle, Land Charters (Oxford, 1888); Thorpe,_Diplomatarium Anglicanum; Facsimiles of Ancient Charters_, edited by the Ordnance Survey and by theBritish Museum; Haddan and Stubbs, _Councils of Great Britain_, i.-iii. (Oxford, 1869-1878).

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Modern works.--Konrad Maurer, _Über Angelsachsische Rechtsverhaltnisse, Kritische Ueberschau_ (Munich,1853 ff.), still the best account of the history of Anglo-Saxon law; _Essays on Anglo-Saxon Law_, by H.Adams, H.C. Lodge, J.L. Laughlin and E. Young (1876); J.M. Kemble, _Saxons in England_; F. Palgrave,_History of the English Commonwealth_; Stubbs, _Constitutional History of England_, i.; Pollock andMaitland, _History of English Law_, i.; H. Brunner, _Zur Rechtsgeschichte der romisch-germanischenUrkunde_ (1880); Sir F. Pollock, _The King's Peace_ (Oxford Lectures); F. Seebohm; _The English VillageCommunity_; Ibid. _Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law_; Marquardsen, _Haft und Burgschaft imAngelsachsischen Recht_; Jastrow, "Über die Strafrechtliche Stellung der Sklaven," Gierke's_Untersuchungen_, i.; Steenstrup, _Normannerne_, iv.; F.W. Maitland, Domesday and Beyond (Cambridge,1897); H.M. Chadwick, _Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions_ (1905); P. Vinogradoff, "Folcland" in the_English Historical Review_, 1893; "Romanistische Einflusse im Angelsächsischen Recht: Das Buchland" inthe _Mélanges Fitting_, 1907; "The Transfer of Land in Old English Law" in the _Harvard Law Review_,1907.

(P. Vi.)

ANGLO-SAXONS. The term "Anglo-Saxon" is commonly applied to that period of English history, languageand literature which preceded the Norman Conquest. It goes back to the time of King Alfred, who seems tohave frequently used the title rex Anglorum Saxonum or _rex Angul-Saxonum_. The origin of this title is notquite clear. It is generally believed to have arisen from the final union of the various kingdoms under Alfred in886. Bede (_Hist. Eccl._ i. 15) states that the people of the more northern kingdoms (East Anglia, Mercia,Northumbria, &c.) belonged to the Angli, while those of Essex, Sussex and Wessex were sprung from theSaxons (_q.v._), and those of Kent and southern Hampshire from the Jutes (_q.v._). Other early writers,however, do not observe these distinctions, and neither in language nor in custom do we find evidence of anyappreciable differences between the two former groups, though in custom Kent presents most remarkablecontrasts with the other kingdoms. Still more curious is the fact that West Saxon writers regularly speak oftheir own nation as a part of the Angelcyn and of their language as _Englisc_, while the West Saxon royal


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family claimed to be of the same stock as that of Bernicia. On the other hand, it is by no means impossiblethat the distinction drawn by Bede was based solely on the names Essex (East Seaxan), East Anglia, &c. Weneed not doubt that the Angli and the Saxons were different nations originally; but from the evidence at ourdisposal it seems likely that they had practically coalesced in very early times, perhaps even before theinvasion. At all events the term Angli Saxones seems to have first come into use on the continent, where wefind it, nearly a century before Alfred's time, in the writings of Paulus Diaconus (Paul the Deacon). There canbe little doubt, however, that there it was used to distinguish the Teutonic inhabitants of Britain from the OldSaxons of the continent.

See W.H. Stevenson, _Asser's Life of King Alfred_ (Oxford, 1904, pp. 148 ff.); H. Munro Chadwick, TheOrigin of the English Nation (Cambridge, 1907); also BRITAIN, _Anglo-Saxon_.


ANGOLA, the general name of the Portuguese possessions on the west coast of Africa south of the equator.With the exception of the enclave of Kabinda (_q.v._) the province lies wholly south of the river Congo.Bounded on the W. by the Atlantic Ocean, it extends along the coast from the southern bank of the Congo (6°S., 12° E.) to the mouth of the Kunene river (17° 18' S., 11° 50' E.). The coast-line is some 900 m. long. Onthe north the Congo forms for 80 m. the boundary separating Angola from the Congo Free State. The frontierthence (in 5° 52' S.) goes due east to the Kwango river. The eastern boundary--dividing the Portuguesepossessions from the Congo State and Barotseland (N.W. Rhodesia)--is a highly irregular line. On the southAngola borders German South-West Africa, the frontier being drawn somewhat S. of the 17th degree of S.latitude. The area of the province is about 480,000 sq. m. The population is estimated (1906) at 4,119,000.

The name Angola (a Portuguese corruption of the Bantu word _Ngola_) is sometimes confined to the 105 m.of coast, with its hinterland, between the mouths of the rivers Dande and Kwanza, forming the central portionof the Portuguese dominions in West Africa; in a looser manner Angola is used to designate all the westerncoast of Africa south of the Congo in the possession of Portugal; but the name is now officially applied to thewhole of the province. Angola is divided into five districts: four on the coast, the fifth, Lunda, wholly inland,being the N.E. part of the province. Lunda is part of the old Bantu kingdom of Muata Yanvo, divided byinternational agreement between Portugal and the Congo Free State.

The coast divisions of Angola are Congo on the N. (from the river Congo to the river Loje), correspondingroughly with the limits of the "kingdom of Congo" (see History below); Loanda, which includes Angola in themost restricted sense mentioned above; Benguella and Mossamedes to the south. Mossamedes is againdivided into two portions--the coast region and the hinterland, known as Huilla.

Physical Features.--The coast is for the most part flat, with occasional low cliffs and bluffs of red sandstone.There is but one deep inlet of the sea--Great Fish Bay (or Bahia dos Tigres), a little north of thePortuguese-German frontier. Farther north are Port Alexander, Little Fish Bay and Lobito Bay, whileshallower bays are numerous. Lobito Bay has water sufficient to allow large ships to unload close inshore.The coast plain extends inland for a distance varying from 30 to 100 m. This region is in general sparselywatered and somewhat sterile. The approach to the great central plateau of Africa is marked by a series ofirregular terraces. This intermediate mountain belt is covered with luxuriant vegetation. Water is fairlyabundant, though in the dry season obtainable only by digging in the sandy beds of the rivers. The plateau hasan altitude ranging from 4000 to 6000 ft. It consists of well-watered, wide, rolling plains, and low hills withscanty vegetation. In the east the tableland falls away to the basins of the Congo and Zambezi, to the south itmerges into a barren sandy desert. A large number of rivers make their way westward to the sea; they rise,mostly, in the mountain belt, and are unimportant, the only two of any size being the Kwanza and the Kunene,separately noticed. The mountain chains which form the edge of the plateau, or diversify its surface, rungenerally parallel to the coast, as Tala Mugongo (4400 ft.), Chella and Vissecua (5250 ft. to 6500 ft.). In thedistrict of Benguella are the highest points of the province, viz. Loviti (7780 ft.), in 12° 5' S., and Mt. Elonga


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(7550 ft.). South of the Kwanza is the volcanic mountain Caculo-Cabaza (3300 ft.). From the tableland theKwango and many other streams flow north to join the Kasai (one of the largest affluents of the Congo),which in its upper course forms for fully 300 m. the boundary between Angola and the Congo State. In thesouth-east part of the province the rivers belong either to the Zambezi system, or, like the Okavango, drain toLake Ngami.

Geology.--The rock formations of Angola are met with in three distinct regions: (1) the littoral zone, (2) themedian zone formed by a series of hills more or less parallel with the coast, (3) the central plateau. The centralplateau consists of ancient crystalline rocks with granites overlain by unfossiliferous sandstones andconglomerates considered to be of Palaeozoic age. The outcrops are largely hidden under laterite. The medianzone is composed largely of crystalline rocks with granites and some Palaeozoic unfossiliferous rocks. Thelittoral zone contains the only fossiliferous strata. These are of Tertiary and Cretaceous ages, the latter rocksresting on a reddish sandstone of older date. The Cretaceous rocks of the Dombe Grande region (nearBenguella) are of Albian age and belong to the Acanthoceras mamillari zone. The beds containingSchloenbachia inflata are referable to the Gault. Rocks of Tertiary age are met with at Dombe Grande,Mossamedes and near Loanda. The sandstones with gypsum, copper and sulphur of Dombe are doubtfullyconsidered to be of Triassic age. Recent eruptive rocks, mainly basalts, form a line of hills almost bare ofvegetation between Benguella and Mossamedes. Nepheline basalts and liparites occur at Dombe Grande. Thepresence of gum copal in considerable quantities in the superficial rocks is characteristic of certain regions.

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_Climate._--With the exception of the district of Mossamedes, the coast plains are unsuited to Europeans. Inthe interior, above 3300 ft., the temperature and rainfall, together with malaria, decrease. The plateau climateis healthy and invigorating. The mean annual temperature at Sao Salvador do Congo is 72.5° F.; at Loanda,74.3°; and at Caconda, 67.2°. The climate is greatly influenced by the prevailing winds, which arc W., S.W.and S.S.W. Two seasons are distinguished--the cool, from June to September; and the rainy, from October toMay. The heaviest rainfall occurs in April, and is accompanied by violent storms.

_Flora and Fauna._--Both flora and fauna are those characteristic of the greater part of tropical Africa. As farsouth as Benguella the coast region is rich in oil-palms and mangroves. In the northern part of the province aredense forests. In the south towards the Kunene are regions of dense thorn scrub. Rubber vines and trees areabundant, but in some districts their number has been considerably reduced by the ruthless methods adoptedby native collectors of rubber. The species most common are various root rubbers, notably the _Carpodinuschylorrhiza._ This species and other varieties of carpodinus are very widely distributed. Landolphias are alsofound. The coffee, cotton and Guinea pepper plants are indigenous, and the tobacco plant flourishes in severaldistricts. Among the trees are several which yield excellent timber, such as the tacula (_Pterocarpustinctorius_), which grows to an immense size, its wood being blood-red in colour, and the Angola mahogany.The bark of the musuemba (_Albizzia coriaria_) is largely used in the tanning of leather. The mulundo bears afruit about the size of a cricket ball covered with a hard green shell and containing scarlet pips like apomegranate. The fauna includes the lion, leopard, cheetah, elephant, giraffe, rhinoceros, hippopotamus,buffalo, zebra, kudu and many other kinds of antelope, wild pig, ostrich and crocodile. Among fish are thebarbel, bream and African yellow fish.

_Inhabitants._--The great majority of the inhabitants are of Bantu-Negro stock with some admixture in theCongo district with the pure negro type. In the south-east are various tribes of Bushmen. The best-known ofthe Bantu-Negro tribes are the Ba-Kongo (Ba-Fiot), who dwell chiefly in the north, and the Abunda (Mbunda,Ba-Bundo), who occupy the central part of the province, which takes its name from the Ngola tribe ofAbunda. Another of these tribes, the Bangala, living on the west bank of the upper Kwango, must not beconfounded with the Bangala of the middle Congo. In the Abunda is a considerable strain of Portugueseblood. The Ba-Lunda inhabit the Lunda district. Along the upper Kunene and in other districts of the plateauare settlements of Boers, the Boer population being about 2000. In the coast towns the majority of the white


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inhabitants are Portuguese. The Mushi-Kongo and other divisions of the Ba-Kongo retain curious traces of theChristianity professed by them in the 16th and 17th centuries and possibly later. Crucifixes are used as potentfetish charms or as symbols of power passing down from chief to chief; whilst every native has a "Santu" orChristian name and is dubbed dom or dona. Fetishism is the prevailing religion throughout the province. Thedwelling-places of the natives are usually small huts of the simplest construction, used chiefly as sleepingapartments; the day is spent in an open space in front of the hut protected from the sun by a roof of palm orother leaves.

_Chief Towns._--The chief towns are Sao Paulo de Loanda, the capital, Kabinda, Benguella and Mossamedes(_q.v._). Lobito, a little north of Benguella, is a town which dates from 1905 and owes its existence to the bayof the same name having been chosen as the sea terminus of a railway to the far interior. Noki is on thesouthern bank of the Congo at the head of navigation from the sea, and close to the Congo Free State frontier.It is available for ships of large tonnage, and through it passes the Portuguese portion of the trade of the lowerCongo. Ambriz--the only seaport of consequence in the Congo district of the province--is at the mouth of theLoje river, about 70 m. N. of Loanda. Novo Redondo and Egito are small ports between Loanda andBenguella. Port Alexander is in the district of Mossamedes and S. of the town of that name.

In the interior Humpata, about 95 m. from Mossamedes, is the chief centre of the Boer settlers; otherwisethere are none but native towns containing from 1000 to 3000 inhabitants and often enclosed by a ring ofsycamore trees. Ambaca and Malanje are the chief places in the fertile agricultural district of the middleKwanza, S.E. of Loanda, with which they are in railway communication. Sao Salvador (pop. 1500) is thename given by the Portuguese to Bonza Congo, the chief town of the "kingdom of Congo." It stands 1840 ft.above sea-level and is about 160 m. inland and 100 S.E. of the river port of Noki, in 6° 15' S. Of the cathedraland other stone buildings erected in the 16th century, there exist but scanty ruins. The city walls weredestroyed in the closing years of the 19th century and the stone used to build government offices. There is afort, built about 1850, and a small military force is at the disposal of the Portuguese resident. Bembe andEncoje are smaller towns in the Congo district south of Sao Salvador. Bihe, the capital of the plateau districtof the same name forming the hinterland of Benguella, is a large caravan centre. Kangomba, the residence ofthe king of Bihe, is a large town. Caconda is in the hill country S.E. of Benguella.

_Agriculture and Trade._--Angola is rich in both agricultural and mineral resources. Amongst the cultivatedproducts are mealies and manioc, the sugar-cane and cotton, coffee and tobacco plants. The chief exports arecoffee, rubber, wax, palm kernels and palm-oil, cattle and hides and dried or salt fish. Gold dust, cotton, ivoryand gum are also exported. The chief imports are food-stuffs, cotton and woollen goods and hardware.Considerable quantities of coal come from South Wales. Oxen, introduced from Europe and from SouthAfrica, flourish. There are sugar factories, where rum is also distilled and a few other manufactures, but theprosperity of the province depends on the "jungle" products obtained through the natives and from theplantations owned by Portuguese and worked by indentured labour, the labourers being generally "recruited"from the far interior. The trade of the province, which had grown from about £800,000 in 1870 to about£3,000,000 in 1905, is largely with Portugal and in Portuguese bottoms. Between 1893 and 1904 thepercentage of Portuguese as compared with foreign goods entering the province increased from 43 to 201%, aresult due to the preferential duties in force.

The minerals found include thick beds of copper at Bembe, and deposits on the M'Brije and the Cuvo and invarious places in the southern part of the province; iron at Ociras (on the Lucalla affluent of the Kwanza) andin Bailundo; petroleum and asphalt in Dande and Quinzao; gold in Lombije and Cassinga; and mineral salt inQuissama. The native blacksmiths are held in great repute.

_Communications._--There is a regular steamship communication between Portugal, England and Germany,and Loanda, which port is within sixteen days' steam of Lisbon. There is also a regular service between CapeTown, Lobito and Lisbon and Southampton. The Portuguese line is subsidized by the government. Therailway from Loanda to Ambaca and Malanje is known as the Royal Trans-African railway. It is of metre


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gauge, was begun in 1887 and is some 300 m. long. It was intended to carry the line across the continent toMozambique, but when the line reached Ambaca (225 m.) in 1894 that scheme was abandoned. The railwayhad created a record in being the most expensive built in tropical Africa--£8942 per mile. A railway fromLobito Bay, 25 m.N. of Benguella, begun in 1904, runs towards the Congo-Rhodesia frontier. It is of standardAfrican gauge (3 ft. 6 in.) and is worked by an English company. It is intended to serve the Katanga coppermines. Besides these two main railways, there are other short lines linking the seaports to their hinterland.Apart from the railways, communication is by ancient caravan routes and by ox-wagon tracks in the southerndistrict. Riding-oxen are also used. The province is well supplied with telegraphic communication and isconnected with Europe by submarine cables.

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_Government and Revenue._--The administration of the province is carried on under a governor-general,resident at Loanda, who acts under the direction of the ministry of the colonies at Lisbon. At the head of eachdistrict is a local governor. Legislative powers, save those delegated to the governor-general, are exercised bythe home government. Revenue is raised chiefly from customs, excise duties and direct taxation. The revenue(in 1904-1905 about £350,000) is generally insufficient to meet expenditure (in 1904-1905 over£490,000)--the balance being met by a grant from the mother country. Part of the extra expenditure is,however, on railways and other reproductive works.

_History._--The Portuguese established themselves on the west coast of Africa towards the close of the 15thcentury. The river Congo was discovered by Diogo Cam or Cao in 1482. He erected a stone pillar at themouth of the river, which accordingly took the title of Rio de Padrao, and established friendly relations withthe natives, who reported that the country was subject to a great monarch, Mwani Congo or lord of Congo,resident at Bonza Congo. The Portuguese were not long in making themselves influential in the country.Gonçalo de Sousa was despatched on a formal embassy in 1490; and the first missionaries entered the countryin his train. The king was soon afterwards baptized and Christianity was nominally established as the nationalreligion. In 1534 a cathedral was founded at Bonza Congo (renamed Sao Salvador), and in 1560 the Jesuitsarrived with Paulo Diaz de Novaes. Of the prosperity of the country the Portuguese have left the most glowingand indeed incredible accounts. It was, however, about this time ravaged by cannibal invaders (Bangala) fromthe interior, and Portuguese influence gradually declined. The attention of the Portuguese was, moreover, nowturned more particularly to the southern districts of Angola. In 1627 the bishop's seat was removed to SaoPaulo de Loanda and Sao Salvador declined in importance. In the 18th century, in spite of hindrances fromHolland and France, steps were taken towards re-establishing Portuguese authority in the northern regions; in1758 a settlement was formed at Encoje; from 1784 to 1789 the Portuguese carried on a war against thenatives of Mussolo (the district immediately south of Ambriz); in 1791 they built a fort at Quincollo on theLoje, and for a time they worked the mines of Bembe. Until, however, the "scramble for Africa" began in1884, they possessed no fort or settlement on the coast to the north of Ambriz, which was first occupied in1855. At Sao Salvador, however, the Portuguese continued to exercise influence. The last of the native princeswho had real authority was a potentate known as Dom Pedro V. He was placed on the throne in 1855 with thehelp of a Portuguese force, and reigned over thirty years. In 1888 a Portuguese resident was stationed atSalvador, and the kings of Congo became pensioners of the government.

Angola proper, and the whole coast-line of what now constitutes the province of that name, was discovered byDiogo Cam during 1482 and the three following years. The first governor sent to Angola was Paulo Diaz, agrandson of Bartholomew Diaz, who reduced to submission the region south of the Kwanza nearly as far asBenguella. The city of Loanda was founded in 1576, Benguella in 1617. From that date the sovereignty ofPortugal over the coast-line, from its present southern limit as far north as Ambriz (7° 50' S.) has beenundisputed save between 1640 and 1648, during which time the Dutch attempted to expel the Portuguese andheld possession of the ports. Whilst the economic development of the country was not entirely neglected andmany useful food products were introduced, the prosperity of the province was very largely dependent on theslave trade with Brazil, which was not legally abolished until 1830 and in fact continued for many years


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In 1884 Great Britain, which up to that time had steadily refused to acknowledge that Portugal possessedterritorial rights north of Ambriz, concluded a treaty recognizing Portuguese sovereignty over both banks ofthe lower Congo; but the treaty, meeting with opposition in England and Germany, was not ratified.Agreements concluded with the Congo Free State, Germany and France in 1885-1886 (modified in details bysubsequent arrangements) fixed the limits of the province, except in the S.E., where the frontier betweenBarotseland (N.W. Rhodesia) and Angola was determined by an Anglo-Portuguese agreement of 1891 and thearbitration award of the king of Italy in 1905 (see AFRICA: _History)_. Up to the end of the 19th century thehold of Portugal over the interior of the province was slight, though its influence extended to the Congo andZambezi basins. The abolition of the external slave trade proved very injurious to the trade of the seaports, butfrom 1860 onward the agricultural resources of the country were developed with increasing energy, a work inwhich Brazilian merchants took the lead. After the definite partition of Africa among the European powers,Portugal applied herself with some seriousness to exploit Angola and her other African possessions.Nevertheless, in comparison with its natural wealth the development of the country has been slow. Slaveryand the slave trade continued to flourish in the interior in the early years of the 20th century, despite theprohibitions of the Portuguese government. The extension of authority over the inland tribes proceeded veryslowly and was not accomplished without occasional reverses. Thus in September 1904 a Portuguese columnlost over 300 men killed, including 114 Europeans, in an encounter with the Kunahamas on the Kunene, notfar from the German frontier. The Kunahamas are a wild, raiding tribe and were probably largely influencedby the revolt of their southern neighbours, the Hereros, against the Germans. In 1905 and again in 1907 therewas renewed fighting in the same region.

_AUTHORITIES._--E. de Vasconcellos, As Colonias Portuguesas (Lisbon, 1896-1897); J.J. Monteiro,Angola and the River Congo (2 vols. London, 1875); Viscount de Paiva Manso, _Historia do Congo....(Documentos_) (Lisbon, 1877); A Report of the Kingdom of Congo (London, 1881), an English translation,with notes by Margarite Hutchinson, of Filippo Pigafetta's Relatione del Reame di Congo (Rome, 1591), abook founded on the statements and writings of Duarte Lopez; Rev. Thos. Lewis, "The Ancient Kingdom ofKongo" in _Geographical Journal,_ vol. xix. and vol. xxxi. (London, 1902 and 1908); The Strange Adventuresof Andrew Battell of Leigh in Angola and the Adjoining Regions (London, 1901), a volume of the HakluytSociety, edited by E.G. Ravenstein, who gives in appendices the history of the country from its discovery tothe end of the 17th century; J.C. Feo Cardozo, _Memorias contendo ... a historia dos governadores e capitaensgeneraes de Angola, desde 1575 até 1825_ (Paris, 1825); H.W. Nevinson, A Modern Slavery (London, 1906),an examination of the system of indentured labour and its recruitment; _Ornithologie d'Angola_, by J.V.Barboza du Bocage (Lisbon, 1881); "Géologie des Colonies portugaises en Afrique," by P. Choffat, in _Com.d. service géol. du Portugal._ See also the annual reports on the _Trade of Angola,_ issued by the BritishForeign Office.

ANGORA, or ENGURI. (1) A city of Turkey (anc. _Ancyra)_ in Asia, capital of the vilayet of the samename, situated upon a steep, rocky hill, which rises 500 ft. above the plain, on the left bank of the Enguri Su, atributary of the Sakaria (Sangarius), about 220 m. E.S.E. of Constantinople. The hill is crowned by the ruinsof the old citadel, which add to the picturesqueness of the view; but the town is not well built, its streets beingnarrow and many of its houses constructed of sun-dried mud bricks; there are, however, many fine remains ofGraeco-Roman and Byzantine architecture, the most remarkable being the temple of Rome and Augustus, onthe walls of which is the famous Monumentum Ancyranum (see ANCYRA). Ancyra was the centre of theTectosages, one of the three Gaulish tribes which settled in Galatia in the 3rd century B.C., and became thecapital of the Roman province of Galatia when it was formally constituted in 25 B.C. During the Byzantineperiod, throughout which it occupied a position of great importance, it was captured by Persians and Arabs;then it fell into the hands of the Seljuk Turks, was held for eighteen years by the Latin Crusaders, and finallypassed to the Ottoman Turks in 1360. In 1402 a great battle was fought in the vicinity of Angora, in which theTurkish sultan Bayezid was defeated and made prisoner by the Tatar conqueror Timur. In 1415 it wasrecovered by the Turks under Mahommed I., and since that period has belonged to the Ottoman empire. In


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1832 it was taken by the Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha. Angora is connected with Constantinople byrailway, and exports wool, mohair, grain and yellow berries. Mohair cloth is manufactured, and the town isnoted for its honey and fruit. From 1639 to 1768 there was an agency of the Levant Company here; there isnow a British consul. Pop. estimated at 28,000 (Moslems, 18,000; Christians, largely Roman CatholicArmenians, about 9400; Jews, 400).

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(2) A Turkish vilayet in north-central Asia Minor, which includes most of the ancient Galatia. It is anagricultural country, depending for its prosperity on its grain, wool (average annual export, 4,400,000 ft), andthe mohair obtained from the beautiful Angora goats (average annual clip, 3,300,000 lb). The fineness of thehair may perhaps be ascribed to some peculiarity in the atmosphere, for it is remarkable that the cats, dogs andother animals of the country are to a certain extent affected in the same way, and that they all lose much oftheir distinctive beauty when taken from their native districts. The only important industry is carpet-weavingat Kir-sheher and Kaisarieh. There are mines of silver, copper, lignite and salt, and many hot springs,including some of great repute medicinally. Average annual exports 1896-1898, £920,762; imports, £411,836.Pop. about 900,000 (Moslems, 765,000 to 800,000, the rest being Christians, with a few hundred Jews).


See C. Ritter, Erdkunde van Asien (vol. xviii., 1837-1839); V. Cuinet, _La Turquie d'Asie_, t, i. (1891);Murray's Handbook to Asia Minor (1895); and other works mentioned under ANCYRA.

ANGOULÊME, CHARLES DE VALOIS, DUKE OF (1573-1650), the natural son of Charles IX. of Franceand Marie Touchet, was born on the 28th of April 1573, at the castle of Fayet in Dauphiné. His father dying inthe following year, commended him to the care and favour of his brother and successor, Henry III., whofaithfully fulfilled the charge. His mother married François de Balzac, marquis d'Entragues, and one of herdaughters, Henriette, marchioness of Verneuil, afterwards became the mistress of Henry IV. Charles ofValois, was carefully educated, and was destined for the order of Malta. At the early age of sixteen he attainedone of the highest dignities of the order, being made grand prior of France. Shortly after he came intopossession of large estates left by Catherine de' Medici, from one of which he took his title of count ofAuvergne. In 1591 he obtained a dispensation from the vows of the order of Malta, and married Charlotte,daughter of Henry, Marshal d'Amville, afterwards duke of Montmorency. In 1589 Henry III. was assassinated,but on his deathbed he commended Charles to the good-will of his successor Henry IV. By that monarch hewas made colonel of horse, and in that capacity served in the campaigns during the early part of the reign. Butthe connexion between the king and the marchioness of Verneuil appears to have been very displeasing toAuvergne, and in 1601 he engaged in the conspiracy formed by the dukes of Savoy, Biron and Bouillon, oneof the objects of which was to force Henry to repudiate his wife and marry the marchioness. The conspiracywas discovered; Biron and Auvergne were arrested and Biron was executed. Auvergne after a few months'imprisonment was released, chiefly through the influence of his half-sister, his aunt, the duch*ess ofAngouleme and his father-in-law. He then entered into fresh intrigues with the court of Spain, acting inconcert with the marchioness of Verneuil and her father d'Entragues. In 1604 d'Entragues and he were arrestedand condemned to death; at the same time the marchioness was condemned to perpetual imprisonment in aconvent. She easily obtained pardon, and the sentence of death against the other two was commuted intoperpetual imprisonment. Auvergne remained in the Bastille for eleven years, from 1605 to 1616. A decree ofthe parlement (1606), obtained by Marguerite de Valois, deprived him of nearly all his possessions, includingAuvergne, though he still retained the title. In 1616 he was released, was restored to his rank ofcolonel-general of horse, and despatched against one of the disaffected nobles, the duke of Longueville, whohad taken Péronne. Next year he commanded the forces collected in the Île de France, and obtained somesuccesses. In 1619 he received by bequest, ratified in 1620 by royal grant, the duchy of Angoulême. Soonafter he was engaged on an important embassy to Germany, the result of which was the treaty of Ulm, signedJuly 1620. In 1627 he commanded the large forces assembled at the siege of La Rochelle; and some years


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after in 1635, during the Thirty Years' War, he was general of the French army in Lorraine. In 1636 he wasmade lieutenant-general of the army. He appears to have retired from public life shortly after the death ofRichelieu in 1643. His first wife died in 1636, and in 1644 he married Francoise de Narbonne, daughter ofCharles, baron of Mareuil. She had no children and survived her husband until 1713. Angouleme himself diedon the 24th of September 1650. By his first wife he had three children: Henri, who became insane; LouisEmmanuel, who succeeded his father as duke of Angoulême and was colonel-general of light cavalry andgovernor of Provence; and Françoise, who died in 1622.

The duke was the author of the following works:--(i)_Mémoires_, from the assassination of Henri III. to thebattle of Arques (1589-1593) published at Paris by Boneau, and reprinted by Buchon in his Choix dechroniques (1836) and by Petitot in his _Mémoires_ (1st series, vol. xliv.); (2) _Les Harangues, prononcés enassemblée de MM. les princes protestants d'Allemagne_, par Monseigneur le duc d' Angoulême (1620); (3) atranslation of a Spanish work by Diego de Torres. To him has also been ascribed the work, _La générale etfidèle Rélation de tout ce qui s'est passé en l'isle de Ré, envoyée par le roi à la royne sa mère_ (Paris, 1627).

ANGOULÊME, a city of south-western France, capital of the department of Charente, 83 m. N.N.E. ofBordeaux on the railway between Bordeaux and Poitiers. Pop. (1906) 30,040. The town proper occupies anelevated promontory, washed on the north by the Charente and on the south and west by the Anguienne, asmall tributary of that river. The more important of the suburbs lie towards the east, where the promontoryjoins the main plateau, of which it forms the north-western extremity.

The main line of the Orleans railway passes through a tunnel beneath the town. In place of its ancientfortifications Angoulême is encircled by boulevards known as the _Remparts_, from which fine views may beobtained in all directions. Within the town the streets are often dark and narrow, and, apart from the cathedraland the hôtel de ville, the architecture is of little interest. The cathedral of St. Pierre (see CATHEDRAL), achurch in the Byzantine-Romanesque style, dates from the 11th and 12th centuries, but has undergonefrequent restoration, and was partly rebuilt in the latter half of the igth century by the architect Paul Abadie.The façade, flanked by two towers with cupolas, is decorated with arcades filled in with statuary andsculpture, the whole representing the Last Judgment. The crossing is surmounted by a dome, and theextremity of the north transept by a fine square tower over 160 ft. high. The hôtel de ville, also by Abadie, is ahandsome modern structure, but preserves two towers of the chateau of the counts of Angoulême, on the siteof which it is built. It contains museums of paintings and archaeology. Angoulême is the seat of a bishop, aprefect, and a court of assizes. Its public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, acouncil of trade-arbitrators, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank of France. It also has a lycée,training-colleges, a school of artillery, a library and several learned societies. It is a centre of thepaper-making industry, with which the town has been connected since the 14th century. Most of the mills aresituated on the banks of the watercourses in the neighbourhood of the town. The subsidiary industries, such asthe manufacture of machinery and wire fabric, are of considerable importance. Iron and copper founding,brewing, tanning, and the manufacture of gunpowder, confectionery, heavy iron goods, gloves, boots andshoes and cotton goods are also carried on. Commerce is carried on in wine, brandy and building-stone.

Angoulême (_Iculisma_) was taken by Clovis from the Visigoths in 507, and plundered by the Normans in the9th century. In 1360 it was surrendered by the peace of Bretigny to the English; they were, however, expelledin 1373 by the troops of Charles V., who granted the town numerous privileges. It suffered much during theWars of Religion, especially in 1568 after its capture by the Protestants under Coligny.

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The countship of Angoulême dated from the 9th century, the most important of the early counts beingWilliam Taillefer, whose descendants held the title till the end of the 12th century. Withdrawn from them onmore than one occasion by Richard Coeur-de-Lion, it passed to King John of England on his marriage withIsabel, daughter of Count Adhémar, and by her subsequent marriage in 1220 to Hugh X. passed to the


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Lusignan family, counts of Marche. On the death of Hugh XIII. in 1302 without issue, his possessions passedto the crown. In 1394 the countship came to the house of Orleans, a member of which, Francis I., became kingof France in 1515 and raised it to the rank of duchy in favour of his mother Louise of Savoy. The duchyafterwards changed hands several times, one of its holders being Charles of Valois, natural son of Charles IX.The last duke was Louis-Antoine, eldest son of Charles X., who died in 1844.

See A.F. Lièvre, _Angoulême: histoire, institutions et monuments_ (Angoulême, 1885).

ANGOUMOIS, an old province of France, nearly corresponding to-day to the department of Charente. Itscapital was Angoulême.

See _Essai d'une bibliothèque historique de l'Angoumois,_ by E. Castaigne (1845).

ANGRA, or ANGRA DO HEROISMO ("Bay of Heroism," a name given it in 1829, to commemorate itssuccessful defence against the Miguelist party), the former capital of the Portuguese archipelago of theAzores, and chief town of an administrative district, comprising the islands of Terceira, St. George andGraciosa. Pop. (1900) 10,788. Angra is built on the south coast of Terceira in 38° 38' N. and in 27° 13' W. It isthe headquarters of a military command, and the residence of a Roman Catholic bishop; its principal buildingsare the cathedral, military college, arsenal and observatory. The harbour, now of little commercial or strategicimportance, but formerly a celebrated naval station, is sheltered on the west and south-west by the promontoryof Mt. Brazil; but it is inferior to the neighbouring ports of Ponta Delgada and Horta. The foreign trade is notlarge, and consists chiefly in the exportation of pineapples and other fruit. Angra served as a refuge for QueenMaria II. of Portugal from 1830 to 1833.

ANGRA PEQUENA, a bay in German South-West Africa, in 26° 38' S., 15° E., discovered by BartholomewDiaz in 1487. F.A.E. Lüderitz, of Bremen, established a trading station here in 1883, and his agent concludedtreaties with the neighbouring chiefs, who ceded large tracts of country to the newcomers. On the 24th ofApril 1884 Luderitz transferred his rights to the German imperial government, and on the following 7th ofAugust a German protectorate over the district was proclaimed. (See AFRICA, §5, and GERMANSOUTH-WEST AFRICA.) Angra Pequena has been renamed by the Germans Lüderitz Bay, and the adjacentcountry is sometimes called Lüderitzland. The harbour is poor. At the head of the bay is a small town, whencea railway, begun in 1906, runs east in the direction of Bechuanaland. The surrounding country for many milesis absolute desert, except after rare but terrible thunderstorms, when the dry bed of the Little Fish river issuddenly filled with a turbulent stream, the water finding its way into the bay.

The islands off the coast of Angra Pequena, together with others north and south, were annexed to GreatBritain in 1867 and added to Cape Colony in 1874. Seal Island and Penguin Island are in the bay; Ichaboe,Mercury, and Hollam's Bird islands are to the north; Halifax, Long, Possession, Albatross, Pomona,Plumpudding, and Roastbeef islands are to the south. On these islands are guano deposits; the most valuable ison Ichaboe Island.

ANGSTRÖM, ANDERS JONAS (1814-1874), Swedish physicist, was born on the 13th of August 1814 atLögdö, Medelpad, Sweden. He was educated at Upsala University, where in 1839 he became privat docent inphysics. In 1842 he went to Stockholm Observatory in order to gain experience in practical astronomicalwork, and in the following year ht became observer at Upsala Observatory. Becoming interested in terrestrialmagnetism he made many observations of magnetic intensity and declination in various parts of Sweden, andwas charged by the Stockholm Academy of Sciences with the task, not completed till shortly before his death,of working out the magnetic data obtained by the Swedish frigate "Eugénie" on her voyage round the world in1851-1853. In 1858 he succeeded Adolph Ferdinand Svanberg (1806-1857) in the chair of physics at Upsala,and there he died on the 21st of June 1874. His most important work was concerned with the conduction ofheat and with spectroscopy. In his optical researches, _Optiska Undersökningar,_ presented to the StockholmAcademy in 1853, he not only pointed out that the electric spark yields two superposed spectra, one from the


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metal of the electrode and the other from the gas in which it passes, but deduced from Euler's theory ofresonance that an incandescent gas emits luminous rays of the same refrangibility as those which it canabsorb. This statement, as Sir E. Sabine remarked when awarding him the Rumford medal of the RoyalSociety in 1872, contains a fundamental principle of spectrum analysis, and though for a number of years itwas overlooked it entitles him to rank as one of the founders of spectroscopy. From 1861 onwards he paidspecial attention to the solar spectrum. He announced the existence of hydrogen, among other elements, in thesun's atmosphere in 1862, and in 1868 published his great map of the normal solar spectrum which longremained authoritative in questions of wave-length, although his measurements were inexact to the extent ofone part in 7000 or 8000 owing to the metre which he used as his standard having been slightly too short. Hewas the first, in 1867, to examine the spectrum of the aurora borealis, and detected and measured thecharacteristic bright line in its yellow green region; but he was mistaken in supposing that this same line,which is often called by his name, is also to be seen in the zodiacal light.

His son, KNUT JOHAN ÅNGSTRÖM, was born at Upsala on the 12th of January 1857, and studied at theuniversity of that town from 1877 to 1884. After spending a short time in Strassburg he was appointed lecturerin physics at Stockholm University in 1885, but in 1891 returned to Upsala, where in 1896 he becameprofessor of physics. He especially devoted himself to investigations of the radiation of heat from the sun andits absorption by the earth's atmosphere, and to that end devised various delicate methods and instruments,including his electric compensation pyrheliometer, invented in 1893, and apparatus for obtaining aphotographic representation of the infra-red spectrum (1895).

ANGUIER, FRANÇOIS (c. 1604-1669), and MICHEL (1612-1686), French sculptors, were two brothers,natives of Eu in Normandy. Their apprenticeship was served in the studio of Simon Guillain. The chief worksof François are the monument to Cardinal de Bérulle, founder of the Carmelite order, in the chapel of theoratory at Paris, of which all but the bust has been destroyed, and the mausoleum of Henri II., last duc deMontmorency, at Moulins. To Michel are due the sculptures of the triumphal arch at the Porte St. Denis,begun in 1674, to serve as a memorial for the conquests of Louis XIV. A marble group of the Nativity in thechurch of Val de Grâce was reckoned his masterpiece. From 1662 to 1667 he directed the progress of thesculpture and decoration in this church, and it was he who superintended the decoration of the apartments ofAnne of Austria in the old Louvre. F. Fouquet also employed him for his chateau in Vaux.

See Henri Stein, _Les frères Anguier_ (1889), with catalogue of works, and many references to originalsources; Armand Sanson, _Deux sculpteurs Normands: les frères Anguier_ (1889).

ANGUILLA, or SNAKE, a small island in the British Indies, part of the presidency of St. Kitts-Nevis, in thecolony of the Leeward Islands. Pop. (1901) 3890, mostly negroes. It is situated in 18° 12' N. and 63° 5' W.,about 60 m. N.W. of St Kitts, is 16 m. long and has an area of 35 sq. m. The destruction of trees bycharcoal-burners has resulted in the almost complete deforestation of the island. Nearly all the land is in thehands of peasant proprietors, who cultivate sweet potatoes, peas, beans, corn, &c., and rear sheep and goats.Cattle, phosphate of lime and salt, manufactured from a lake in the interior, are the principal exports, themarket for these being the neighbouring island of St. Thomas.

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ANGULATE (Lat. _angulus_, an angle), shaped with corners or angles; an adjective used in botany andzoology for the shape of stems, leaves and wings.

ANGUS, EARLS OF. Angus was one of the seven original earldoms of the Pictish kingdom of Scotland, saidto have been occupied by seven brothers of whom Angus was the eldest. The Celtic line ended with Matilda(_fl._ 1240), countess of Angus in her own right, who married in 1243 Gilbert de Umfravill and founded theNorman line of three earls, which ended in 1381, the then holder of the title being summoned to the Englishparliament. Meanwhile John Stewart of Bonkyl, co. Berwick, had been created earl of Angus in a new line.


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This third creation ended with Margaret Stewart, countess of Angus in her own right, and widow of Thomas,13th earl of Mar. By an irregular connexion with William, 1st earl of Douglas, who had married Mar's sister,she became the mother of George Douglas, 1st earl of Angus (_c._ 1380-1403), and secured a charter of herestates for her son, to whom in 1389 the title was granted by King Robert II. He was taken prisoner atHomildon Hill and died in England. The 5th earl was his great-grandson.

ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS, 5th earl of Angus (_c._ 1450-_c._ 1514), the famous "Bell the Cat," was bornabout 1450 and succeeded his father, George the 4th earl, in 1462 or 1463. In 1481 he was made warden ofthe east marches, but the next year he joined the league against James III. and his favourite Robert Cochraneat Lauder, where he earned his nickname by offering to bell the cat, _i.e._ to deal with the latter, beginning theattack upon him by pulling his gold chain off his neck and causing him with others of the king's favourites tobe hanged. Subsequently he joined Alexander Stewart, duke of Albany, in league with Edward IV. of Englandon the 11th of February 1483, signing the convention at Westminster which acknowledged the overlordship ofthe English king. In March however they returned, outwardly at least, to their allegiance, and received pardonsfor their treason. Later Angus was one of the leaders in the rebellion against James in 1487 and 1488, whichended in the latter's death. He was made one of the guardians of the young king James IV. but soon lostinfluence, being superseded by the Homes and Hepburns, and the wardenship of the marches was given toAlexander Home. Though outwardly on good terms with James, he treacherously made a treaty with HenryVII. about 1489 or 1491, by which he undertook to govern his relations with James according to instructionsfrom England, and to hand over Hermitage Castle, commanding the pass through Liddesdale into Scotland, onthe condition of receiving English estates in compensation. In October 1491 he fortified his castle of Tantallonagainst James, but was obliged to submit and exchange his Liddesdale estate and Hermitage Castle for thelordship of Bothwell. In 1493 he was again in favour, received various grants of lands, and was madechancellor, which office he retained till 1498. In 1501 he was once more in disgrace and confined toDumbarton Castle. After the disaster at Flodden in 1513, at which he was not present, but at which he lost histwo eldest sons, Angus was appointed one of the counsellors of the queen regent. He died at the close of thisyear, or in 1514. He was married three times, and by his first wife had four sons and several daughters. Histhird son, Gavin Douglas, bishop of Dunkeld, is separately noticed.

ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS, the 6th earl (_c._ 1489-1557), son of George, master of Douglas, who was killedat Flodden, succeeded on his grandfather's death. In 1509 he had married Margaret (d. 1513), daughter ofPatrick Hepburn, 1st earl of Bothwell; and in 1514 he married the queen dowager Margaret of Scotland,widow of James IV., and eldest sister of Henry VIII. By this latter act he stirred up the jealousy of the noblesand the opposition of the French party, and civil war broke out. He was superseded in the government on thearrival of John Stewart, duke of Albany, who was made regent. Angus withdrew to his estates in Forfarshire,while Albany besieged the queen at Stirling and got possession of the royal children; then he joined Margaretafter her flight at Morpeth, and on her departure for London returned and made his peace with Albany in1516. He met her once more at Berwick in June 1517, when Margaret returned to Scotland on Albany'sdeparture in vain hopes of regaining the regency. Meanwhile, during Margaret's absence, Angus had formed aconnexion with a daughter of the laird of Traquair. Margaret avenged his neglect of her by refusing to supporthis claims for power and by secretly trying through Albany to get a divorce. In Edinburgh Angus held his ownagainst the attempts of James Hamilton, 1st earl of Arran, to dislodge him. But the return of Albany in 1521,with whom Margaret now sided against her husband, deprived him of power. The regent took the governmentinto his own hands; Angus was charged with high treason in December, and in March 1522 was sentpractically a prisoner to France, whence he succeeded in escaping to London in 1524. He returned to Scotlandin November with promises of support from Henry VIII., with whom he made a close alliance. Margaret,however, refused to have anything to do with her husband. On the 23rd, therefore, Angus forced his way intoEdinburgh, but was fired upon by Margaret and retreated to Tantallon. He now organized a large party ofnobles against Margaret with the support of Henry VIII., and in February 1525 they entered Edinburgh andcalled a parliament. Angus was made a lord of the articles, was included in the council of regency, bore theking's crown on the opening of the session, and with Archbishop Beaton held the chief power. In March hewas appointed lieutenant of the marches, and suppressed the disorder and anarchy on the border. In July the


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guardianship of the king was entrusted to him for a fixed period till the 1st of November, but he refused at itsclose to retire, and advancing to Linlithgow put to flight Margaret and his opponents. He now with hisfollowers engrossed all the power, succeeded in gaining over some of his antagonists, including Arran and theHamiltons, and filled the public offices with Douglases, he himself becoming chancellor. "None that timedurst strive against a Douglas nor Douglas's man."[1] The young king James, now fourteen, was far fromcontent under the tutelage of Angus, but he was closely guarded, and several attempts to effect his liberationwere prevented, Angus completely defeating Lennox, who had advanced towards Edinburgh with 10,000 menin August, and subsequently taking Stirling. His successes were consummated by a pacification with Beaton,and in 1527 and 1528 he was busy in restoring order through the country. In the latter year, on the 11th ofMarch, Margaret succeeded in obtaining her divorce from Angus, and about the end of the month she and herlover, Henry Stewart, were besieged at Stirling. A few weeks later, however, James succeeded in escapingfrom Angus's custody, took refuge with Margaret and Arran at Stirling, and immediately proscribed Angusand all the Douglases, forbidding them to come within seven miles of his person. Angus, having fortifiedhimself in Tantallon, was attainted and his lands confiscated. Repeated attempts of James to subdue thefortress failed, and on one occasion Angus captured the royal artillery, but at length it was given up as acondition of the truce between England and Scotland, and in May 1529 Angus took refuge with Henry,obtained a pension and took an oath of allegiance, Henry engaging to make his restoration a condition ofpeace. Angus had been chiefly guided in his intrigues with England by his brother, Sir George Douglas ofPittendriech (_d._ 1552), master of Angus, a far cleverer diplomatist than himself. His life and lands were alsodeclared forfeit, as were those of his uncle, Archibald Douglas of Kilspindie (_d._ 1535), who had been afriend of James and was known by the nickname of "Greysteel." These took refuge in exile. James avengedhimself on such Douglases as lay within his power. Angus's third sister Janet, Lady Glamis, was summoned toanswer the charge of communicating with her brothers, and on her failure to appear her estates were forfeited.In 1537 she was tried for conspiring against the king's life. She was found guilty and burnt on the Castle Hill,Edinburgh, on the 17th of July 1537. Her innocence has been generally assumed, but Tytler (_Hist, ofScotland_, iv. pp. 433, 434) considered her guilty. Angus remained in England till 1542, joining in the attacksupon his countrymen on the border, while James refused all demands from Henry VIII. for his restoration, andkept firm to his policy of suppressing and extirpating the Douglas faction. On James V.'s death in 1542 Angusreturned to Scotland, with instructions from Henry to accomplish the marriage between Mary and Edward.His forfeiture was rescinded, his estates restored, and he was made a privy councillor and lieutenant-general.In 1543 he negotiated the treaty of peace and marriage, and the same year he himself married Margaret,daughter of Robert, Lord Maxwell. Shortly afterwards strife between Angus and the regent Arran broke out,and in April 1544 Angus was taken prisoner. The same year Lord Hertford's marauding expedition, which didnot spare the lands of Angus, made him join the anti-English party. He entered into a bond with Arran andothers to maintain their allegiance to Mary, and gave his support to the mission sent to France to offer thelatter's hand. In July 1544 he was appointed lieutenant of the south of Scotland, and distinguished himself onthe 27th of February 1545 in the victory over the English at Ancrum Moor. He still corresponded with HenryVIII., but nevertheless signed in 1546 the act cancelling the marriage and peace treaty, and on the 10th ofSeptember commanded the van in the great defeat of Pinkie, when he again won fame. In 1548 the attempt byLennox and Wharton to capture him and punish him for his duplicity failed, Angus escaping after his defeat toEdinburgh by sea, and Wharton being driven back to Carlisle. Under the regency of Mary of Lorraine hisrestless and ambitious character and the number of his retainers gave cause for frequent alarms to thegovernment. On the 31st of August 1547 he resigned his earldom, obtaining a regrant sibi et suis haeredibusmasculis et suis assignatis quibuscumque. His career was a long struggle for power and for the interests of hisfamily, to which national considerations were completely subordinate. He died in January 1557. By MargaretTudor he had Margaret, his only surviving legitimate child, who married Matthew, 4th earl of Lennox, andwas mother of Lord Darnley. He was succeeded by his nephew David, son of Sir George Douglas ofPittendriech.

[Footnote 1: Lindsay of Pitscottie (1814), ii. 314.]

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ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS, 8th earl, and earl of Morton (1555-1588), was the son of David, 7th earl. Hesucceeded to the title and estates in 1558, being brought up by his uncle, the 4th earl of Morton, aPresbyterian. In 1573 he was made a privy councillor and sheriff of Berwick, in 1574 lieutenant-general ofScotland, in 1577 warden of the west marches and steward of Fife, and in 1578 lieutenant-general of therealm. He gave a strong support to Morton during the attack upon the latter, made a vain attempt to rescuehim, and was declared guilty of high treason on the 2nd of June 1581. He now entered into correspondencewith the English government for an invasion of Scotland to rescue Morton, and on the latter's execution inJune went to London, where he was welcomed by Elizabeth. After the raid of Ruthven in 1582 Angusreturned to Scotland and was reconciled to James, but soon afterwards the king shook off the control of theearls of Mar and Gowrie, and Angus was again banished from the court. In 1584 he joined the rebellion ofMar and Glamis, but the movement failed, and the insurgents fled to Berwick. Later they took up theirresidence at Newcastle, which became a centre of Presbyterianism and of projects against the Scottishgovernment, encouraged by Elizabeth, who regarded the banished lords as friends of the English andantagonists of the French interest. In February 1585 they came to London, and cleared themselves of theaccusation of plotting against James's life; a plan was prepared for their restoration and for the overthrow ofJames Stewart, earl of Arran. In October they invaded Scotland and gained an easy victory over Arran,captured Stirling Castle with the king in November, and secured from James the restoration of their estatesand the control of the government. In 1586 Angus was appointed warden of the marches andlieutenant-general on the border, and performed good services in restoring order; but he was unable toovercome the king's hostility to the establishment of Presbyterian government. In January 1586 he wasgranted the earldom of Morton with the lands entailed upon him by his uncle. He died on the 4th of August1588. He was succeeded in the earldom by his cousin William, a descendant of the 5th earl. (For the Mortontitle, see MORTON, JAMES DOUGLAS, 4th EARL OF.)

WILLIAM DOUGLAS, 10th earl (c. 1554-1611), was the son of William, the 9th earl (1533-1591). Hestudied at St. Andrews University and joined the household of the earl of Morton. Subsequently, whilevisiting the French court, he became a Roman Catholic, and was in consequence, on his return, disinheritedand placed under restraint. Nevertheless he succeeded to his father's titles and estates in 1591, and though in1592 he was disgraced for his complicity in Lord Bothwell's plot, he was soon liberated and performed usefulservices as the king's lieutenant in the north of Scotland. In July 1592, however, he was asking for help fromElizabeth in a plot with Erroll and other lords against Sir John Maitland, the chancellor, and protesting hisabsolute rejection of Spanish offers, while in October he signed the Spanish Blanks (see ERROLL, FRANCISHAY, 9th EARL OF) and was imprisoned (on the discovery of the treason) in Edinburgh Castle on his returnin January 1593. He succeeded on the 13th in escaping by the help of his countess, joining the earls of Huntlyand Erroll in the north. They were offered an act of "oblivion" or "abolition" provided they renounced theirreligion or quitted Scotland. Declining these conditions they were declared traitors and "forfeited." Theyremained in rebellion, and in July 1594 an attack made by them on Aberdeen roused James's anger. Huntlyand Erroll were subdued by James himself in the north, and Angus failed in an attempt upon Edinburgh inconcert with the earl of Bothwell. Subsequently in 1597 they all renounced their religion, declared themselvesPresbyterians, and were restored to their estates and honours. Angus was again included in the privy council,and in June 1598 was appointed the king's lieutenant in southern Scotland, in which capacity he showed greatzeal and conducted the "Raid of Dumfries," as the campaign against the Johnstones was called. Not longafterwards, Angus, offended at the advancement of Huntly to a marquisate, recanted, resisted all thearguments of the ministers to bring him to a "better mind," and was again excommunicated in 1608. In 1609he withdrew to France, and died in Paris on the 3rd of March 1611. He was succeeded by his son William, as11th earl of Angus, afterwards 1st marquis of Douglas (1580-1660). The title is now held by the dukes ofHamilton.

AUTHORITIES.--_The Douglas Book_, by Sir W. Fraser (1885); _History of the House of Douglas andAngus_, by D. Hume of Godscroft (1748, legendary in some respects); _History of the House of Douglas_, bySir H. Maxwell (1902).


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ANGUSSOLA or ANGUSSCIOLA, SOPHONISBA, Italian portrait painter of the latter half of the 16thcentury, was born at Cremona about 1535, and died at Palermo in 1626. In 1560, at the invitation of Philip II.,she visited the court of Madrid, where her portraits elicited great commendation. Vandyck is said to havedeclared that he had derived more knowledge of the true principles of his art from her conversation than fromany other source. She painted several fine portraits of herself, one of which is at Althorp. A few specimens ofher painting are to be seen at Florence and Madrid. She had three sisters, who were also celebrated artists.

ANHALT, a duchy of Germany, and a constituent state of the German empire, formed, in 1863, by theamalgamation of the two duchies Anhalt-Dessau-Cöthen and Anhalt-Bernburg, and comprising all the variousAnhalt territories which were sundered apart in 1603. The country now known as Anhalt consists of twolarger portions--Eastern and Western Anhalt, separated by the interposition of a part of Prussian Saxony--andof five enclaves surrounded by Prussian territory, viz. Alsleben, Mühlingen, Dornburg, Gödnitz andTilkerode-Abberode. The eastern and larger portion of the duchy is enclosed by the Prussian governmentdistrict of Potsdam (in the Prussian province of Brandenburg), and Magdeburg and Merseburg (belonging tothe Prussian province of Saxony). The western or smaller portion (the so-called Upper Duchy or Ballenstedt)is also enclosed by the two latter districts and, for a distance of 5 m. on the west, by the duchy of Brunswick.The western portion of the territory is undulating and in the extreme south-west, where it forms part of theHarz range, mountainous, the Ramberg peak attaining a height of 1900 ft. From the Harz the country gentlyshelves down to the Saale; and between this river and the Elbe there lies a fine tract of fertile country. Theportion of the duchy lying east of the Elbe is mostly a flat sandy plain, with extensive pine forests, thoughinterspersed, at intervals, by bog-land and rich pastures. The Elbe is the chief river, and intersecting theeastern portion of the duchy, from east to west, receives at Rosslau the waters of the Mulde. The navigableSaale takes a northerly direction through the western portion of the eastern part of the territory and receives,on the right, the Fuhne and, on the left, the Wipper and the Bode. The climate is on the whole mild, thoughsomewhat inclement in the higher regions to the south-west. The area of the duchy is 906 sq. m., and thepopulation in 1905 amounted to 328,007, a ratio of about 351 to the square mile. The country is divided intothe districts of Dessau, Cöthen, Zerbst, Bernburg and Ballenstedt, of which that of Bernburg is the most, andthat of Ballenstedt the least, populated. Of the towns, four, viz. Dessau, Bernburg, Cöthen and Zerbst, havepopulations exceeding 20,000. The inhabitants of the duchy, who mainly belong to the upper Saxon race, are,with the exception of about 12,000 Roman Catholics and 1700 Jews, members of the Evangelical (Union)Church. The supreme ecclesiastical authority is the consistory in Dessau; while a synod of 39 members,elected for six years, assembles at periods to deliberate on internal matters touching the organization of thechurch. The Roman Catholics are under the bishop of Paderborn. There are within the duchy four grammarschools (gymnasia), five semi-classical and modern schools, a teachers' seminary and four high-grade girls'schools. Of the whole surface, land under tillage amounts to about 60, meadowland to 7 and forest to 25%.The chief crops are corn (especially wheat), fruit, vegetables, potatoes, beet, tobacco, flax, linseed and hops.The land is well cultivated, and the husbandry on the royal domains and the large estates especially so. Thepastures on the banks of the Elbe yield cattle of excellent quality. The forests are well stocked with game,such as deer and wild boar, and the open country is well supplied with partridges. The rivers yield abundantfish, salmon (in the Elbe), sturgeon and lampreys. The country is rich in lignite, and salt works are abundant.Of the manufactures of Anhalt, the chief are its sugar factories, distilleries, breweries and chemical works.Commerce is brisk, especially in raw products--corn, cattle, timber or wool. Coal (lignite), guano, oil andbricks are also articles of export. The trade of the country is furthered by its excellent roads, its navigablerivers and its railways (165 m.), which are worked in connexion with the Prussian system. There is a chamberof commerce in Dessau.

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Constitution.--The duchy, by virtue of a fundamental law, proclaimed on the 17th of September 1859 andsubsequently modified by various decrees, is a constitutional monarchy. The duke, who bears the title of"Highness," wields the executive power while sharing the legislation with the estates. The diet (_Landtag_) iscomposed of thirty-six members, of whom two are appointed by the duke, eight are representatives of


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landowners paying the highest taxes, two of the highest assessed members of the commercial andmanufacturing classes, fourteen of the other electors of the towns and ten of the rural districts. Therepresentatives are chosen for six years by indirect vote and must have completed their twenty-fifth year. Theduke governs through a minister of state, who is the praeses of all the departments--finance, home affairs,education, public worship and statistics. The budget estimates for the financial year 1905-1906 placed theexpenditure of the estate at £1,323,437. The public debt amounted on the 30th of June 1904 to £226,300. Byconvention with Prussia of 1867 the Anhalt troops form a contingent of the Prussian army. Appeal from thelower courts of the duchy lies to the appeal court at Naumburg in Prussian Saxony.

History.--During the 11th century the greater part of Anhalt was included in the duchy of Saxony, and in the12th century it came under the rule of Albert the Bear, margrave of Brandenburg. Albert was descended fromAlbert, count of Ballenstedt, whose son Esico (d. 1059 or 1060) appears to have been the first to bear the titleof count of Anhalt. Esico's grandson, Otto the Rich, count of Ballenstedt, was the father of Albert the Bear, bywhom Anhalt was united with the mark of Brandenburg. When Albert died in 1170, his son Bernard, whor*ceived the title of duke of Saxony in 1180, became count of Anhalt. Bernard died in 1212, and Anhalt,separated from Saxony, passed to his son Henry, who in 1218 took the title of prince and was the real founderof the house of Anhalt. On Henry's death in 1252 his three sons partitioned the principality and foundedrespectively the lines of Aschersleben, Bernburg and Zerbst. The family ruling in Aschersleben becameextinct in 1315, and this district was subsequently incorporated with the neighbouring bishopric ofHalberstadt. The last prince of the line of Anhalt-Bernburg died in 1468 and his lands were inherited by theprinces of the sole remaining line, that of Anhalt-Zerbst. The territory belonging to this branch of the familyhad been divided in 1396, and after the acquisition of Bernburg Prince George I. made a further partition ofZerbst. Early in the 16th century, however, owing to the death or abdication of several princes, the family hadbecome narrowed down to the two branches of Anhalt-Cöthen and Anhalt-Dessau. Wolfgang, who becameprince of Anhalt-Cöthen in 1508, was a stalwart adherent of the Reformation, and after the battle of Mühlbergin 1547 was placed under the ban and deprived of his lands by the emperor Charles V. After the peace ofPassau in 1552 he bought back his principality, but as he was childless he surrendered it in 1562 to hiskinsmen the princes of Anhalt-Dessau. Ernest I. of Anhalt-Dessau (d. 1516) left three sons, John II., GeorgeIII., and Joachim, who ruled their lands together for many years, and who, like Prince Wolfgang, favoured thereformed doctrines, which thus became dominant in Anhalt. About 1546 the three brothers divided theirprincipality and founded the lines of Zerbst, Plötzkau and Dessau. This division, however, was onlytemporary, as the acquisition of Cöthen, and a series of deaths among the ruling princes, enabled JoachimErnest, a son of John II., to unite the whole of Anhalt under his rule in 1570.

Joachim Ernest died in 1586 and his five sons ruled the land in common until 1603, when Anhalt was againdivided, and the lines of Dessau, Bernburg, Plötzkau, Zerbst and Cöthen were refounded. The principality wasravaged during the Thirty Years' War, and in the earlier part of this struggle Christian I. of Anhalt-Bernburgtook an important part. In 1635 an arrangement was made by the various princes of Anhalt, which gave acertain authority to the eldest member of the family, who was thus able to represent the principality as awhole. This proceeding was probably due to the necessity of maintaining an appearance of unity in view ofthe disturbed state of European politics. In 1665 the branch of Anhalt-Cöthen became extinct, and accordingto a family compact this district was inherited by Lebrecht of Anhalt-Plötzkau, who surrendered Plötzkau toBernburg, and took the title of prince of Anhalt-Cöthen. In the same year the princes of Anhalt decided that ifany branch of the family became extinct its lands should be equally divided between the remaining branches.This arrangement was carried out after the death of Frederick Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst in 1793, and Zerbstwas divided between the three remaining princes. During these years the policy of the different princes wasmarked, perhaps intentionally, by considerable uniformity. Once or twice Calvinism was favoured by a prince,but in general the house was loyal to the doctrines of Luther. The growth of Prussia provided Anhalt with aformidable neighbour, and the establishment and practice of primogeniture by all branches of the familyprevented further divisions of the principality. In 1806 Alexius of Anhalt-Bernburg was created a duke by theemperor Francis II., and after the dissolution of the Empire each of the three princes took this title. Joining theConfederation of the Rhine in 1807, they supported Napoleon until 1813, when they transferred their


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allegiance to the allies; in 1815 they became members of the Germanic Confederation, and in 1828 joined,somewhat reluctantly, the Prussian Zollverein.

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Anhalt-Cöthen was ruled without division by a succession of princes, prominent among whom was Louis (d.1650), who was both a soldier and a scholar; and after the death of Prince Charles at the battle of Semlin in1789 it passed to his son Augustus II. This prince sought to emulate the changes which had recently beenmade in France by dividing Cöthen into two departments and introducing the Code Napoléon. Owing to hisextravagance he left a large amount of debt to his nephew and successor, Louis II., and on this account thecontrol of the finances was transferred from the prince to the estates. Under Louis's successor Ferdinand, whowas a Roman Catholic and brought the Jesuits into Anhalt, the state of the finances grew worse and led to theinterference of the king of Prussia and to the appointment of a Prussian official. When the succeeding prince,Henry, died in 1847, this family became extinct, and according to an arrangement between the lines ofAnhalt-Dessau and Anhalt-Bernburg, Cöthen was added to Dessau.

Anhalt-Bernburg had been weakened by partitions, but its princes had added several districts to their lands;and in 1812, on the extinction of a cadet branch, it was again united under a single ruler. The feeble rule ofAlexander Charles, who became duke in 1834, and the disturbed state of Europe in the following decade, ledto considerable unrest, and in 1849 Bernburg was occupied by Prussian troops. A number of abortive attemptswere made to change the government, and as Alexander Charles was unlikely to leave any children, Leopoldof Anhalt-Dessau took some part in the affairs of Bernburg. Eventually in 1859 a new constitution wasestablished for Bernburg and Dessau jointly, and when Alexander Charles died in 1863 both were unitedunder the rule of Leopold.

Anhalt-Dessau had been divided in 1632, but was quickly reunited; and in 1693 it came under the rule ofLeopold I. (see ANHALT-DESSAU, LEOPOLD I., PRINCE OF), the famous soldier who was generallyknown as the "Old Dessauer." The sons of Leopold's eldest son were excluded from the succession on accountof the marriage of their father being morganatic, and the principality passed in 1747 to his second son,Leopold II. The unrest of 1848 spread to Dessau, and led to the interference of the Prussians and to theestablishment of the new constitution in 1859. Leopold IV., who reigned from 1817 to 1871, had thesatisfaction in 1863 of reuniting the whole of Anhalt under his rule. He took the title of duke of Anhalt,summoned one Landtag for the whole of the duchy, and in 1866 fought for Prussia against Austria.Subsequently a quarrel over the possession of the ducal estates between the duke and the Landtag broke thepeace of the duchy, but this was settled in 1872. In 1871 Anhalt became a state of the German Empire.Leopold IV. was followed by his son Frederick I., and on the death of this prince in 1904 his son Frederick II.became duke of Anhalt.

AUTHORITIES.--F. Knoke, Anhaltische Geschichte (Dessau, 1893); G. Krause, _Urkunden, Aktenstuckeund Briefe zur Geschichte der anhaltischen Lande und ihrer Fürsten unter dem Drucke des 30 jahrigenKrieges_ (Leipzig, 1861-1866); O. von Heinemann, Codex diplomaticus Anhaltinus (Dessau, 1867-1883);Siebigk, _Das Herzogthum Anhalt historisch, geographisch und statistisch dargestellt_ (Dessau, 1867).

ANHALT-DESSAU, LEOPOLD I., PRINCE OF (1676-1747), called the "Old Dessauer" (Alter Dessauer),general field marshal in the Prussian army, was the only surviving son of John George II., prince ofAnhalt-Dessau, and was born on the 3rd of July 1676 at Dessau. From his earliest youth he was devoted to theprofession of arms, for which he educated himself physically and mentally. He became colonel of a Prussianregiment in 1693, and in the same year his father's death placed him at the head of his own principality;thereafter, during the whole of his long life, he performed the duties of a sovereign prince and a Prussianofficer. His first campaign was that of 1695 in the Netherlands, in which he was present at the siege of Namur.He remained in the field to the end of the war of 1697, the affairs of the principality being managed chiefly byhis mother, Princess Henriette Catherine of Orange. In 1698 he married Anna Luise Föse, an apothecary's


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daughter of Dessau, in spite of his mother's long and earnest opposition, and subsequently he procured for herthe rank of a princess from the emperor (1701). Their married life was long and happy, and the princessacquired an influence over the stern nature of her husband which she never ceased to exert on behalf of hissubjects, and after the death of Leopold's mother she performed the duties of regent when he was absent oncampaign. Often, too, she accompanied him into the field. Leopold's career as a soldier in importantcommands begins with the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession. He had made many improvementsin the Prussian army, notably the introduction of the iron ramrod about 1700, and he now took the field at thehead of a Prussian corps on the Rhine, serving at the sieges of Kaiserswerth and Venlo. In the following year(1703), having obtained the rank of lieutenant-general, Leopold took part in the siege of Bonn anddistinguished himself very greatly in the battle of Höchstädt, in which the Austrians and their allies weredefeated by the French under Marshal Villars (September 20, 1703). In the campaign of 1704 the Prussiancontingent served under Prince Louis of Baden and subsequently under Eugene, and Leopold himself wongreat glory by his conduct at Blenheim. In 1705 he was sent with a Prussian corps to join Prince Eugene inItaly, and on the 16th of August he displayed his bravery at the hard-fought battle of Cassano. In the followingyear he added to his reputation in the battle of Turin, where he was the first to enter the hostile entrenchments(September 7, 1706). He served in one more campaign in Italy, and then went with Eugene to joinMarlborough in the Netherlands, being present in 1709 at the siege of Tournay and the battle of Malplaquet.In 1710 he succeeded to the command of the whole Prussian contingent at the front, and in 1712, at theparticular desire of the crown prince, Frederick William, who had served with him as a volunteer, he wasmade a general field marshal. Shortly before this he had executed a coup de main on the castle of Mörs, whichwas held by the Dutch in defiance of the claims of the king of Prussia to the possession. The operation waseffected with absolute precision and the castle was seized without a shot being fired. In the earlier part of thereign of Frederick William I., the prince of Dessau was one of the most influential members of the Prussiangoverning circle. In the war with Sweden (1715) he accompanied the king to the front, commanded an armyof 40,000 men, and met and defeated Charles XII. in a severe battle on the island of Rügen (November 16).His conduct of the siege of Stralsund which followed was equally skilful, and the great results of the war toPrussia were largely to be attributed to his leadership in the campaign. In the years of peace, and especiallyafter a court quarrel (1725) and duel with General von Grumbkow, he devoted himself to the training of thePrussian army. The reputation it had gained in the wars of 1675 to 1715, though good, gave no hint of itscoming glory, and it was even in 1740 accounted one of the minor armies of Europe. That it proved, when putto the test, to be by far the best military force existing, may be taken as the summary result of Leopold's work.The "Old Dessauer" was one of the sternest disciplinarians in an age of stern discipline, and the technicaltraining of the infantry, under his hand, made them superior to all others in the proportion of five to three (seeAUSTRIAN SUCCESSION, WAR OF THE). He was essentially an infantry soldier; in his time artillery didnot decide battles, but he suffered the cavalry service, in which he felt little interest, to be comparativelyneglected, with results which appeared at Mollwitz. Frederick the Great formed the cavalry of Hohenfriedbergand Leuthen himself, but had it not been for the incomparable infantry trained by the "Old Dessauer" hewould never have had the opportunity of doing so. Thus Leopold, heartily supported by Frederick William,who was himself called the great drill-master of Europe, turned to good account the twenty years followingthe peace with Sweden. During this time two incidents in his career call for special mention: first, hisintervention in the case of the crown prince Frederick, who was condemned to death for desertion, and hiscontinued and finally successful efforts to secure Frederick's reinstatement in the Prussian army; andsecondly, his part in the War of the Polish Succession on the Rhine, where he served under his old chiefEugene and held the office of field marshal of the Empire.

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With the death of Frederick William in 1740, Frederick succeeded to the Prussian throne, and a few monthslater took place the invasion and conquest of Silesia, the first act in the long Silesian wars and the test of thework of the "Old Dessauer's" lifetime. The prince himself was not often employed in the king's own army,though his sons held high commands under Frederick. The king, indeed, found Leopold, who was reputed,since the death of Eugene, the greatest of living soldiers, somewhat difficult to manage, and the prince spent


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most of the campaigning years up to 1745 in command of an army of observation on the Saxon frontier. Earlyin that year his wife died. He was now over seventy, but his last campaign was destined to be the mostbrilliant of his long career. A combined effort of the Austrians and Saxons to retrieve the disasters of thesummer by a winter campaign towards Berlin itself led to a hurried concentration of the Prussians. Frederickfrom Silesia checked the Austrian main army and hastened towards Dresden. But before he had arrived,Leopold, no longer in observation, had decided the war by his overwhelming victory of Kesselsdorf(December 14, 1745). It was his habit to pray before battle, for he was a devout Lutheran. On this last field hiswords were, "O Lord God, let me not be disgraced in my old days. Or if Thou wilt not help me, do not helpthese scoundrels, but leave us to try it ourselves." With this great victory Leopold's career ended. He retiredfrom active service, and the short remainder of his life was spent at Dessau, where he died on the 7th of April1747.

He was succeeded by his son, LEOPOLD II., MAXIMILIAN, PRINCE OF ANHALT-DESSAU(1700-1751), who was one of the best of Frederick's subordinate generals, and especially distinguishedhimself by the capture of Glogau in 1741, and his generalship at Mollwitz, Chotusitz (where he was madegeneral field marshal on the field of battle), Hohenfriedberg and Soor.

Another son, PRINCE DIETRICH OF ANHALT-DESSAU (d. 1769), was also a distinguished Prussiangeneral.

But the most famous of the sons was PRINCE MORITZ OF ANHALT-DESSAU (1712-1760), who enteredthe Prussian army in 1725, saw his first service as a volunteer in the War of the Polish Succession (1734-35),and in the latter years of the reign of Frederick William held important commands. In the Silesian wars ofFrederick II., Moritz, the ablest of the old Leopold's sons, greatly distinguished himself, especially at thebattle of Hohenfriedberg (Striegau), 1745. At Kesselsdorf it was the wing led by the young Prince Moritz thatcarried the Austrian lines and won the "Old Dessauer's" last fight. In the years of peace preceding the SevenYears' War, Moritz was employed by Frederick the Great in the colonizing of the waste lands of Pomeraniaand the Oder Valley. When the king took the field again in 1756, Moritz was in command of one of thecolumns which hemmed in the Saxon army in the lines of Pirna, and he received the surrender of Rutowski'sforce after the failure of the Austrian attempts at relief. Next year Moritz underwent changes of fortune. At thebattle of Kolin he led the left wing, which, through a misunderstanding with the king, was prematurely drawninto action and failed hopelessly. In the disastrous days which followed, Moritz was under the cloud ofFrederick's displeasure. But the glorious victory of Leuthen (December 5, 1757) put an end to this. At theclose of that day, Frederick rode down the lines and called out to General Prince Moritz, "I congratulate you,Herr Feldmarschall!" At Zorndorf he again distinguished himself, but at the surprise of Hochkirch fellwounded into the hands of the Austrians. Two years later, soon after his release, his wound proved mortal.

AUTHORITIES.--Varnhagen von Ense, _Preuss. biographische Denkmale_, vol. ii. (3rd ed., 1872); _MilitarKonversations-Lexikon_, vol. ii. (Leipzig, 1833); Anon., _Fürst Leopold I. von Anhalt und seine Sohne_(Dessau, 1852); G. Pauli, _Leben grosser Helden_, vol. vi.; von Orlich, _Prinz Moritz von Anhalt-Dessau_(Berlin, 1842); Crousatz, _Militarische Denkwurdigkeiten des Fürsten Leopold von Anhalt-Dessau_ (1875);supplements to _Militär Wochenblatt_ (1878 and 1889); Siebigk, _Selbstbiographie des Fürsten Leopold vonAnhalt-Dessau_ (Dessau, 1860 and 1876); Hosäus, _Zur Biographie des Fürsten Leopold von Anhalt-Dessau_(Dessau, 1876); Würdig, Des Alten Dessauers Leben und Taten (3rd ed., Dessau, 1903); _Briefe KonigFriedrich Wilhelms I. an den Fürsten L._ (Berlin, 1905).

ANHYDRITE, a mineral, differing chemically from the more commonly occurring gypsum in containing nowater of crystallization, being anhydrous calcium sulphate, CaSO_{4}. It crystallizes in the orthorhombicsystem, and has three directions of perfect cleavage parallel to the three planes of symmetry. It is notisomorphous with the orthorhombic barium and strontium sulphates, as might be expected from the chemicalformulae. Distinctly developed crystals are somewhat rare, the mineral usually presenting the form ofcleavage masses. The hardness is 3-1/2 and the specific gravity 2.9. The colour is white, sometimes greyish,


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bluish or reddish. On the best developed of the three cleavages the lustre is pearly, on other surfaces it is ofthe ordinary vitreous type.

Anhydrite is most frequently found in salt deposits with gypsum; it was, for instance, first discovered, in1794, in a salt mine near Hall in Tirol. Other localities which produce typical specimens of the mineral, andwhere the mode of occurrence is the same, are Stassfurt in Germany, Aussee in Styria and Bex in Switzerland.At all these places it is only met with at some depth; nearer the surface of the ground it has been altered togypsum owing to absorption of water.

From an aqueous solution calcium sulphate is deposited as crystals of gypsum, but when the solution containsan excess of sodium or potassium chloride anhydrite is deposited. This is one of the several methods by whichthe mineral has been prepared artificially, and is identical with its mode of origin in nature, the mineral havingcrystallized out in salt basins.

The name anhydrite was given by A.G. Werner in 1804, because of the absence of water, as contrasted withthe presence of water in gypsum. Other names for the species are muriacite and karstenite; the former, anearlier name, being given under the impression that the substance was a chloride (muriate). A peculiar varietyoccurring as contorted concretionary masses is known as tripe-stone, and a scaly granular variety, fromVulpino, near Bergamo, in Lombardy, as vulpinite; the latter is cut and polished for ornamental purposes.


ANI (anc. _Abnicum_), an ancient and ruined Armenian city, in Russian Transcaucasia, government Erivan,situated at an altitude of 4390 ft., between the Arpa-chai (_Harpasus_) and a deep ravine. In 961 it became thecapital of the Bagratid kings of Armenia, and when yielded to the Byzantine emperor (1046) it was a populouscity, known traditionally as the "city with the 1001 churches." It was taken eighteen years later by the SeljukTurks, five times by the Georgians between 1125 and 1209, in 1239 by the Mongols, and its ruin wascompleted by an earthquake in 1319. It is still surrounded by a double wall partly in ruins, and amongst theremains are a "patriarchal" church finished in 1010, two other churches, both of the 11th century, a fourthbuilt in 1215, and a palace of large size.

See Brosset, _Les Ruines d'Ani_ (1860-1861).

ANICETUS, pope c. 154-167. It was during his pontificate that St. Polycarp visited the Roman Church.

ANICHINI, LUIGI, Italian engraver of seals and medals, a native of Ferrara, lived at Venice about 1550.Michelangelo pronounced his "Interview of Alexander the Great with the high-priest at Jerusalem," "theperfection of the art." His medals of Henry II. of France and Pope Paul III. are greatly valued.

ANILINE, PHENYLAMINE, or AMINOBENZENE, (C_{6}H_{5}NH_{2}), an organic base first obtainedfrom the destructive distillation of indigo in 1826 by O. Unverdorben (_Pogg. Ann._, 1826, 8, p. 397), whonamed it crystalline. In 1834, F. Runge (_Pogg. Ann._, 1834, 31, p. 65; 32, p. 331) isolated from coal-tar asubstance which produced a beautiful blue colour on treatment with chloride of lime; this he named kyanol orcyanol. In 1841, C.J. Fritzsche showed that by treating indigo with caustic potash it yielded an oil, which henamed aniline, from the specific name of one of the indigo-yielding plants, _Indigofera anil_, anil beingderived from the Sanskrit _n[=i]la_, dark-blue, and _n[=i]l[=a]_, the indigo plant. About the same time N.N.Zinin found that on reducing nitrobenzene, a base was formed which he named benzidam. A.W. von Hofmanninvestigated these variously prepared substances, and proved them to be identical, and thenceforth they tooktheir place as one body, under the name aniline or phenylamine. Pure aniline is a basic substance of an oilyconsistence, colourless, melting at -8° and boiling at 184° C. On exposure to air it absorbs oxygen andresinifies, becoming deep brown in colour; it ignites readily, burning with a large smoky flame. It possesses asomewhat pleasant vinous odour and a burning aromatic taste; it is a highly acrid poison.


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Aniline is a weak base and forms salts with the mineral acids. Aniline hydrochloride forms large colourlesstables, which become greenish on exposure; it is the "aniline salt" of commerce. The sulphate forms beautifulwhite plates. Although aniline is but feebly basic, it precipitates zinc, aluminium and ferric salts, and onwarming expels ammonia from its salts. Aniline combines directly with alkyl iodides to form secondary andtertiary amines; boiled with carbon disulphide it gives sulphocarbanilide (diphenyl thio-urea),CS(NHC_{6}H_{5})_{2}, which may be decomposed into phenyl mustard-oil, C_{6}H_{5}CNS, andtriphenyl guanidine, C_{6}H_{5}N: C(NHC_{6}H_{5})_{2}. Sulphuric acid at 180° gives sulphanilic acid,NH2.C_{6}H_{4}.SO_{3}H. Anilides, compounds in which the amino group is substituted by an acidradical, are prepared by heating aniline with certain acids; antifebrin or acetanilide is thus obtained fromacetic acid and aniline. The oxidation of aniline has been carefully investigated. In alkaline solutionazobenzene results, while arsenic acid produces the violet-colouring matter violaniline. Chromic acid convertsit into quinone, while chlorates, in the presence of certain metallic salts (especially of vanadium), give anilineblack. Hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate give chloranil. Potassium permanganate in neutral solutionoxidizes it to nitrobenzene, in alkaline solution to azobenzene, ammonia and oxalic acid, in acid solution toaniline black. Hypochlorous acid gives para-amino phenol and para-amino diphenylamine (E. Bamberger,_Ber._, 1898, 31, p. 1522).

The great commercial value of aniline is due to the readiness with which it yields, directly or indirectly,valuable dyestuffs. The discovery of mauve in 1858 by Sir W.H. Perkin was the first of a series of dyestuffswhich are now to be numbered by hundreds. Reference should be made to the articles DYEING, FUCHSINE,SAFRANINE, INDULINES, for more details on this subject. In addition to dyestuffs, it is a starting-productfor the manufacture of many drugs, such as antipyrine, antifebrin, &c. Aniline is manufactured by reducingnitrobenzene with iron and hydrochloric acid and steam-distilling the product. The purity of the productdepends upon the quality of the benzene from which the nitrobenzene was prepared. In commerce threebrands of aniline are distinguished--aniline oil for blue, which is pure aniline; aniline oil for red, a mixture ofequimolecular quantities of aniline and ortho- and para-toluidines; and aniline oil for safranine, whichcontains aniline and ortho-toluidine, and is obtained from the distillate (_échappés_) of the fuchsine fusion.Monomethyl and dimethyl aniline are colourless liquids prepared by heating aniline, aniline hydro-chlorideand methyl alcohol in an autoclave at 220°. They are of great importance in the colour industry. Monomethylaniline boils at 193-195°; dimethyl aniline at 192°.

ANIMAL (Lat. _animalis_, from _anima_, breath, soul), a term first used as a noun or adjective to denote aliving thing, but now used to designate one branch of living things as opposed to the other branch known asplants. Until the discovery of protoplasm, and the series of investigations by which it was established that thecell was a fundamental structure essentially alike in both animals and plants (see CYTOLOGY), there was avague belief that plants, if they could really be regarded as animated creatures, exhibited at the most a lowergrade of life. We know now that in so far as life and living matter can be investigated by science, animals andplants cannot be described as being alive in different degrees. Animals and plants are extremely closelyrelated organisms, alike in their fundamental characters, and each grading into organisms which possess someof the characters of both classes or kingdoms (see PROTISTA). The actual boundaries between animals andplants are artificial; they are rather due to the ingenious analysis of the systematist than actually resident inobjective nature. The most obvious distinction is that the animal cell-wall is either absent or composed of anitrogenous material, whereas the plant cell-wall is composed of a carbohydrate material--cellulose. Theanimal and the plant alike require food to repair waste, to build up new tissue and to provide material which,by chemical change, may liberate the energy which appears in the processes of life. The food is alike in bothcases; it consists of water, certain inorganic salts, carbohydrate material and proteid material. Both animalsand plants take their water and inorganic salts directly as such. The animal cell can absorb its carbohydrateand proteid food only in the form of carbohydrate and proteid; it is dependent, in fact, on the pre-existence ofthese organic substances, themselves the products of living matter, and in this respect the animal is essentiallya parasite on existing animal and plant life. The plant, on the other hand, if it be a green plant, containing


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chlorophyll, is capable, in the presence of light, of building up both carbohydrate material and proteid materialfrom inorganic salts; if it be a fungus, devoid of chlorophyll, whilst it is dependent on pre-existingcarbohydrate material and is capable of absorbing, like an animal, proteid material as such, it is able to buildup its proteid food from material chemically simpler than proteid. On these basal differences are founded mostof the characters which make the higher forms of animal and plant life so different. The animal body, if it becomposed of many cells, follows a different architectural plan; the compact nature of its food, and the yieldingnature of its cell-walls, result in a form of structure consisting essentially of tubular or spherical masses ofcells arranged concentrically round the food-cavity. The relatively rigid nature of the plant cell-wall, and theattenuated inorganic food-supply of plants, make possible and necessary a form of growth in which thegreatest surface is exposed to the exterior, and thus the plant body is composed of flattened laminae andelongated branching growths. The distinctions between animals and plants are in fact obviously secondary andadaptive, and point clearly towards the conception of a common origin for the two forms of life, a conceptionwhich is made still more probable by the existence of many low forms in which the primary differencesbetween animals and plants fade out.

An animal may be defined as a living organism, the protoplasm of which does not secrete a cellulosecell-wall, and which requires for its existence proteid material obtained from the living or dead bodies ofexisting plants or animals. The common use of the word animal as the equivalent of mammal, as opposed tobird or reptile or fish, is erroneous.

The classification of the animal kingdom is dealt with in the article ZOOLOGY.


ANIMAL HEAT. Under this heading is discussed the physiology of the temperature of the animal body.

The higher animals have within their bodies certain sources of heat, and also some mechanism by means ofwhich both the production and loss of heat can be regulated. This is conclusively shown by the fact that bothin summer and winter their mean temperature remains the same. But it was not until the introduction ofthermometers that any exact data on the temperature of animals could be obtained. It was then found that localdifferences were present, since heat production and heat loss vary considerably in different parts of the body,although the circulation of the blood tends to bring about a mean temperature of the internal parts. Hence it isimportant to determine the temperature of those parts which most nearly approaches to that of the internalorgans. Also for such results to be comparable they must be made in the same situation. The rectum givesmost accurately the temperature of internal parts, or in women and some animals the vagin*, uterus or bladder.

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Occasionally that of the urine as it leaves the urethra may be of use. More usually the temperature is taken inthe mouth, axilla or groin.

Warm and Cold Blooded Animals.--By numerous observations upon men and animals, John Hunter showedthat the essential difference between the so-called warm-blooded and cold-blooded animals lies in theconstancy of the temperature of the former, and the variability of the temperature of the latter. Those animalshigh in the scale of evolution, as birds and mammals, have a high temperature almost constant andindependent of that of the surrounding air, whereas among the lower animals there is much variation of bodytemperature, dependent entirely on their surroundings. There are, however, certain mammals which areexceptions, being warm-blooded during the summer, but cold-blooded during the winter when they hibernate;such are the hedgehog, bat and dormouse. John Hunter suggested that two groups should be known as"animals of permanent heat at all atmospheres" and "animals of a heat variable with every atmosphere," butlater Bergmann suggested that they should be known as "hom*oiothermic" and "poikilothermic" animals. But itmust be remembered there is no hard and fast line between the two groups. Also, from work recently done by


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J.O. Wakelin Barratt, it has been shown that under certain pathological conditions a warm-blooded(hom*oiothermic) animal may become for a time cold-blooded (poikilothermic). He has shown conclusivelythat this condition exists in rabbits suffering from rabies during the last period of their life, the rectaltemperature being then within a few degrees of the room temperature and varying with it. He explains thiscondition by the assumption that the nervous mechanism of heat regulation has become paralysed. Therespiration and heart-rate being also retarded during this period, the resemblance to the condition ofhibernation is considerable. Again, Sutherland Simpson has shown that during deep anaesthesia awarm-blooded animal tends to take the same temperature as that of its environment. He demonstrated thatwhen a monkey is kept deeply anaesthetized with ether and is placed in a cold chamber, its temperaturegradually falls, and that when it has reached a sufficiently low point (about 25° C. in the monkey), theemployment of an anaesthetic is no longer necessary, the animal then being insensible to pain and incapableof being roused by any form of stimulus; it is, in fact, narcotized by cold, and is in a state of what may becalled "artificial hibernation." Once again this is explained by the fact that the heat-regulating mechanism hasbeen interfered with. Similar results have been obtained from experiments on cats. These facts--with manyothers--tend to show that the power of maintaining a constant temperature has been a gradual development, asDarwin's theory of evolution suggests, and that anything that interferes with the due working of the highernerve-centres puts the animal back again, for the time being, on to a lower plane of evolution.

[Illustration: Chart showing diurnal variation in body temperature, ranging from about 37.5° C. from 10 A.M.to 6 P.M., and falling to about 36.3° C. from 2 A.M to 6 A.M.]

Variations in the Temperature of Man and some other Animals.--As stated above, the temperature ofwarm-blooded animals is maintained with but slight variation. In health under normal conditions thetemperature of man varies between 36° C. and 38° C., or if the thermometer be placed in the axilla, between36.25° C. and 37.5° C. In the mouth the reading would be from .25° C. to 1.5° C. higher than this; and in therectum some .9° C. higher still. The temperature of infants and young children has a much greater range thanthis, and is susceptible of wide divergencies from comparatively slight causes.

Of the lower warm-blooded animals, there are some that appear to be cold-blooded at birth. Kittens, rabbitsand puppies, if removed from their surroundings shortly after birth, lose their body heat until their temperaturehas fallen to within a few degrees of that of the surrounding air. But such animals are at birth blind, helplessand in some cases naked. Animals who are born when in a condition of greater development can maintaintheir temperature fairly constant. In strong, healthy infants a day or two old the temperature rises slightly, butin that of weakly, ill-developed children it either remains stationary or falls. The cause of the variabletemperature in infants and young immature animals is the imperfect development of the nervous regulatingmechanism.

The average temperature falls slightly from infancy to puberty and again from puberty to middle age, but afterthat stage is passed the temperature begins to rise again, and by about the eightieth year is as high as ininfancy. A diurnal variation has been observed dependent on the periods of rest and activity, the maximumranging from 10 A.M. to 6 P.M., the minimum from 11 P.M. to 3 A.M. Sutherland Simpson and J.J. Galbraithhave recently done much work on this subject. In their first experiments they showed that in a monkey there isa well-marked and regular diurnal variation of the body temperature, and that by reversing the daily routinethis diurnal variation is also reversed. The diurnal temperature curve follows the periods of rest and activity,and is not dependent on the incidence of day and night; in monkeys which are active during the night andresting during the day, the body temperature is highest at night and lowest through the day. They then madeobservations on the temperature of animals and birds of nocturnal habit, where the periods of rest and activityare naturally the reverse of the ordinary through habit and not from outside interference. They found that innocturnal birds the temperature is highest during the natural period of activity (night) and lowest during theperiod of rest (day), but that the mean temperature is lower and the range less than in diurnal birds of the samesize. That the temperature curve of diurnal birds is essentially similar to that of man and other hom*oiothermalanimals, except that the maximum occurs earlier in the afternoon and the minimum earlier in the morning.


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Also that the curves obtained from rabbit, guinea-pig and dog were quite similar to those from man. The meantemperature of the female was higher than that of the male in all the species examined whose sex had beendetermined.

Meals sometimes cause a slight elevation, sometimes a slight depression--alcohol seems always to produce afall. Exercise and variations of external temperature within ordinary limits cause very slight change, as thereare many compensating influences at work, which are discussed later. Even from very active exercise thetemperature does not rise more than one degree, and if carried to exhaustion a fall is observed. In travellingfrom very cold to very hot regions a variation of less than one degree occurs, and the temperature of thoseliving in the tropics is practically identical with those dwelling in the Arctic regions.

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_Limits compatible with Life._--There are limits both of heat and cold that a warm-blooded animal can bear,and other far wider limits that a cold-blooded animal may endure and yet live. The effect of too extreme acold is to lessen metabolism, and hence to lessen the production of heat. Both katabolic and anabolic changesshare in the depression, and though less energy is used up, still less energy is generated. This diminishedmetabolism tells first on the central nervous system, especially the brain and those parts concerned inconsciousness. Both heart-beat and respiration-number become diminished, drowsiness supervenes, becomingsteadily deeper until it passes into the sleep of death. Occasionally, however, convulsions may set in towardsthe end, and a death somewhat similar to that of asphyxia takes place. In some recent experiments on catsperformed by Sutherland Simpson and Percy T. Herring, they found them unable to survive when the rectaltemperature was reduced below 16° C. At this low temperature respiration became increasingly feeble, theheart-impulse usually continued after respiration had ceased, the beats becoming very irregular, apparentlyceasing, then beginning again. Death appeared to be mainly due to asphyxia, and the only certain sign that ithad taken place was the loss of knee jerks. On the other hand, too high a temperature hurries on themetabolism of the various tissues at such a rate that their capital is soon exhausted. Blood that is too warmproduces dyspnoea and soon exhausts the metabolic capital of the respiratory centre. The rate of the heart isquickened, the beats then become irregular and finally cease. The central nervous system is also profoundlyaffected, consciousness may be lost, and the patient falls into a comatose condition, or delirium andconvulsions may set in. All these changes can be watched in any patient suffering from an acute fever. Thelower limit of temperature that man can endure depends on many things, but no one can survive a temperatureof 45° C. (113° F.) or above for very long. Mammalian muscle becomes rigid with heat rigor at about 50° C.,and obviously should this temperature be reached the sudden rigidity of the whole body would render lifeimpossible. H.M. Vernon has recently done work on the death temperature and paralysis temperature(temperature of heat rigor) of various animals. He found that animals of the same class of the animal kingdomshowed very similar temperature values, those from the Amphibia examined being 38.5° C., Fishes 39°,Reptilia 45°, and various Molluscs 46°. Also in the case of Pelagic animals he showed a relation betweendeath temperature and the quantity of solid constituents of the body, Cestus having lowest death temperatureand least amount of solids in its body. But in the higher animals his experiments tend to show that there isgreater variation in both the chemical and physical characters of the protoplasm, and hence greater variation inthe extreme temperature compatible with life.

_Regulation of Temperature._--The heat of the body is generated by the chemical changes--those ofoxidation--undergone not by any particular substance or in any one place, but by the tissues at large.Wherever destructive metabolism (katabolism) is going on, heat is being set free. When a muscle does work italso gives rise to heat, and if this is estimated it can be shown that the muscles alone during their contractionsprovide far more heat than the whole amount given out by the body. Also it must be remembered that theheart--also a muscle,--never resting, does in the 24 hours no inconsiderable amount of work, and hence mustgive rise to no inconsiderable amount of heat. From this it is clear that the larger proportion of total heat of thebody is supplied by the muscles. These are essentially the "thermogenic tissues." Next to the muscles as heatgenerators come the various secretory glands, especially the liver, which appears never to rest in this respect.


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The brain also must be a source of heat, since its temperature is higher than that of the arterial blood withwhich it is supplied. Also a certain amount of heat is produced by the changes which the food undergoes inthe alimentary canal before it really enters the body. But heat while continually being produced is alsocontinually being lost by the skin, lungs, urine and faeces. And it is by the constant modification of these twofactors, (1) heat production and (2) heat loss, that the constant temperature of a warm-blooded animal ismaintained. Heat is lost to the body through the faeces and urine, respiration, conduction and radiation fromthe skin, and by evaporation of perspiration. The following are approximately the relative amounts of heat lostthrough these various channels (different authorities give somewhat different figures):--faeces and urine about3, respiration about 20, skin (conduction, radiation and evaporation) about 77. Hence it is clear the chiefmeans of loss are the skin and the lungs. The more air that passes in and out of the lungs in a given time, thegreater the loss of heat. And in such animals as the dog, who do not perspire easily by the skin, respirationbecomes far more important.

But for man the great heat regulator is undoubtedly the skin, which regulates heat loss by its vasomotormechanism, and also by the nervous mechanism of perspiration. Dilatation of the cutaneous vascular areasleads to a larger flow of blood through the skin, and so tends to cool the body, and vice versa. Also the specialnerves of perspiration can increase or lessen heat loss by promoting or diminishing the secretions of the skin.There are greater difficulties in the exact determination in the amount of heat produced, but there are certainwell-known facts in connexion with it. A larger living body naturally produces more heat than a smaller oneof the same nature, but the surface of the smaller, being greater in proportion to its bulk than that of the larger,loses heat at a more rapid rate. Hence to maintain the same constant bodily temperature, the smaller animalmust produce a relatively larger amount of heat. And in the struggle for existence this has become so.

Food temporarily increases the production of heat, the rate of production steadily rising after a meal until amaximum is reached from about the 6th to the 9th hour. If sugar be included in the meal the maximum isreached earlier; if mainly fat, later. Muscular work very largely increases the production of heat, and hence themore active the body the greater the production of heat.

But all the arrangements in the animal economy for the production and loss of heat are themselves probablyregulated by the central nervous system, there being a thermogenic centre--situated above the spinal cord, andaccording to some observers in the optic thalamus.

AUTHORITIES.--M.S. Pembrey, "Animal Heat," in Schafer's Textbook of Physiology (1898); C.R. Richet,"Chaleur," in Dictionnaire de physiologie (Paris, 1898); Hale White, Croonian Lectures, _Lancet_, London,1897; Pembrey and Nicol, _Journal of Physiology_, vol. xxiii., 1898-1899; H.M. Vernon, "Heat Rigor,"_Journal of Physiology_, xxiv., 1899; H.M. Vernon, "Death Temperatures," _Journal of Physiology_, xxv.,1899; F.C. Eve, "Temperature on Nerve Cells," _Journal of Physiology_, xxvi., 1900; G. Weiss, _ComptesRendus, Soc. de Biol._, lii., 1900; Swale Vincent and Thomas Lewis, "Heat Rigor of Muscle," _Journal ofPhysiology_, 1901; Sutherland Simpson and Percy Herring, "Cold and Reflex Action," Journal of Physiology,1905; Sutherland Simpson, _Proceedings of Physiological Soc._, July 19, 1902; Sutherland Simpson and J.J.Galbraith, "Diurnal Variation of Body Temperature," _Journal of Physiology_, 1905; _Transactions RoyalSociety Edinburgh_, 1905; _Proc. Physiological Society_, p. xx., 1903; A.E. Boycott and J.S. Haldane,_Effects of High Temperatures on Man._

ANIMAL WORSHIP, an ill-defined term, covering facts ranging from the worship of the real divine animal,commonly conceived as a "god-body," at one end of the scale, to respect for the bones of a slain animal oreven the use of a respectful name for the living animal at the other end. Added to this, in many works on thesubject we find reliance placed, especially for the African facts, on reports of travellers who were merelyvisitors to the regions on which they wrote.

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Classification.--Animal cults may be classified in two ways: (A) according to their outward form; (B)according to their inward meaning, which may of course undergo transformations.

(A) There are two broad divisions: (1) all animals of a given species are sacred, perhaps owing to theimpossibility of distinguishing the sacred few from the profane crowd; (2) one or a fixed number of a speciesare sacred. It is probable that the first of these forms is the primary one and the second in most cases adevelopment from it due to (i.) the influence of other individual cults, (ii.) anthropomorphic tendencies, (iii.)the influence of chieftainship, hereditary and otherwise, (iv.) annual sacrifice of the sacred animal andmystical ideas connected therewith, (v.) syncretism, due either to unity of function or to a philosophicunification, (vi.) the desire to do honour to the species in the person of one of its members, and possibly otherless easily traceable causes.

(B) Treating cults according to their meaning, which is not necessarily identical with the cause which first ledto the deification of the animal in question, we can classify them under ten specific heads: (i.) pastoral cults;(ii.) hunting cults; (iii.) cults of dangerous or noxious animals; (iv.) cults of animals regarded as human soulsor their embodiment; (v.) totemistic cults; (vi.) cults of secret societies, and individual cults of tutelaryanimals; (vii.) cults of tree and vegetation spirits; (viii.) cults of ominous animals; (ix.) cults, probablyderivative, of animals associated with certain deities; (x.) cults of animals used in magic.

(i.) The pastoral type falls into two sub-types, in which the species (_a_) is spared and (_b_) sometimesreceives special honour at intervals in the person of an individual. (See _Cattle, Buffalo_, below.)

(ii.) In hunting cults the species is habitually killed, but (_a_) occasionally honoured in the person of a singleindividual, or (_b_) each slaughtered animal receives divine honours. (See _Bear_, below.)

(iii.) The cult of dangerous animals is due (_a_) to the fear that the soul of the slain beast may take vengeanceon the hunter, (_b_) to a desire to placate the rest of the species. (See _Leopard_, below.)

(iv.) Animals are frequently regarded as the abode, temporary or permanent, of the souls of the dead,sometimes as the actual souls of the dead. Respect for them is due to two main reasons: (_a_) the kinsmen ofthe dead desire to preserve the goodwill of their dead relatives; (_b_) they wish at the same time to secure thattheir kinsmen are not molested and caused to undergo unnecessary suffering. (See _Serpent_, below.)

(v.) One of the most widely found modes of showing respect to animals is known as totemism (see TOTEMAND TOTEMISM), but except in decadent forms there is but little positive worship; in Central Australia,however, the rites of the Wollunqua totem group are directed towards placating this mythical animal, andcannot be termed anything but religious ceremonies.

(vi.) In secret societies we find bodies of men grouped together with a single tutelary animal; the individual, inthe same way, acquires the nagual or individual totem, sometimes by ceremonies of the nature of thebloodbond.

(vii.) Spirits of vegetation in ancient and modern Europe and in China are conceived in animal form. (See_Goat_, below.)

(viii.) The ominous animal or bird may develop into a deity. (See _Hawk_, below.)

(ix.) It is commonly assumed that the animals associated with certain deities are sacred because the god wasoriginally theriomorphic; this is doubtless the case in certain instances; but Apollo Smintheus, DionysusBassareus and other examples seem to show that the god may have been appealed to for help and thus becomeassociated with the animals from whom he protected the crops, &c.


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(x.) The use of animals in magic may sometimes give rise to a kind of respect for them, but this is of anegative nature. See, however, articles by Preuss in _Globus_, vol. lxvii., in which he maintains that animalsof magical influence are elevated into divinities.

_Animal Cults._

Bear.--The bear enjoys a large measure of respect from all savage races that come in contact with it, whichshows itself in apologies and in festivals in its honour. The most important developments of the cult are inEast Asia among the Siberian tribes; among the Ainu of Sakhalin a young bear is caught at the end of winterand fed for some nine months; then after receiving honours it is killed, and the people, who previously showmarks of grief at its approaching fate, dance merrily and feast on its body. Among the Gilyaks a similarfestival is found, but here it takes the form of a celebration in honour of a recently dead kinsman, to whom thespirit of the bear is sent. Whether this feature or a cult of the hunting type was the primary form, is so far anopen question. There is a good deal of evidence to connect the Greek goddess Artemis with a cult of the bear;girls danced as "bears" in her honour, and might not marry before undergoing this ceremony. The bear istraditionally associated with Bern in Switzerland, and in 1832 a statue of Artio, a bear goddess, was dug upthere.

Buffalo.--The Todas of S. India abstain from the flesh of their domestic animal, the buffalo; but once a yearthey sacrifice a bull calf, which is eaten in the forest by the adult males.

Cattle.--Cattle are respected by many pastoral peoples; they live on milk or game, and the killing of an ox is asacrificial function. Conspicuous among Egyptian animal cults was that of the bull, Apis. It was distinguishedby certain marks, and when the old Apis died a new one was sought; the finder was rewarded, and the bullunderwent four months' education at Nilopolis. Its birthday was celebrated once a year; oxen, which had to bepure white, were sacrificed to it; women were forbidden to approach it when once its education was finished.Oracles were obtained from it in various ways. After death it was mummified and buried in a rock-tomb. Lesswidespread was the cult of the Mnevis, also consecrated to Osiris. Similar observances are found in our ownday on the Upper Nile; the Nuba and Nuer worship the bull; the Angoni of Central Africa and the Sakalava ofMadagascar keep sacred bulls. In India respect for the cow is widespread, but is of post-Vedic origin; there islittle actual worship, but the products of the cow are important in magic.

Crow.--The crow is the chief deity of the Thlinkit Indians of N.W. America; and all over that region it is thechief figure in a group of myths, fulfilling the office of a culture hero who brings the light, gives fire tomankind, &c. Together with the eagle-hawk the crow plays a great part in the mythology of S.E. Australia.

Dog.--Actual dog-worship is uncommon; the Nosarii of western Asia are said to worship a dog; the Kalangsof Java had a cult of the red dog, each family keeping one in the house; according to one authority the dogsare images of wood which are worshipped after the death of a member of the family and burnt after athousand days. In Nepal it is said that dogs are worshipped at the festival called Khicha Puja. Among theHarranians dogs were sacred, but this was rather as brothers of the mystae.

Elephant.--In Siam it is believed that a white elephant may contain the soul of a dead person, perhaps aBuddha; when one is taken the capturer is rewarded and the animal brought to the king to be kept everafterwards; it cannot be bought or sold. It is baptized and fêted and mourned for like a human being at itsdeath. In some parts of Indo-China the belief is that the soul of the elephant may injure people after death; it istherefore fêted by a whole village. In Cambodia it is held to bring luck to the kingdom. In Sumatra theelephant is regarded as a tutelary spirit. The cult of the white elephant is also found at Ennarea, southernAbyssinia.

Fish.--Dagon seems to have been a fish-god with human head and hands; his worshippers wore fish-skins. Inthe temples of Apollo and Aphrodite were sacred fish, which may point to a fish cult. Atargatis is said to have


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had sacred fish at Askelon, and from Xenophon we read that the fish of the Chalus were regarded as gods.

Goat.--Dionysus was believed to take the form of a goat, probably as a divinity of vegetation. Pan, Silenus,the Satyrs and the Fauns were either capriform or had some part of their bodies shaped like that of a goat. Innorthern Europe the wood spirit, Ljesche, is believed to have a goat's horns, ears and legs. In Africa theBijagos are said to have a goat as their principal divinity.

Hare.--In North America the Algonquin tribes had as their chief deity a "mighty great hare" to whom theywent at death. According to one account he lived in the east, according to another in the north. In hisanthropomorphized form he was known as Menabosho or Michabo.

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Hawk.--In North Borneo we seem to see the evolution of a god in the three stages of the cult of the hawkamong the Kenyahs, the Kayans and the sea Dyaks. The Kenyahs will not kill it, address to it thanks forassistance, and formally consult it before leaving home on an expedition; it seems, however, to be regarded asthe messenger of the supreme god Balli Penyalong. The Kayans have a hawk-god, Laki Neho, but seem toregard the hawk as the servant of the chief god, Laki Tenangan. Singalang Burong, the hawk-god of theDyaks, is completely anthropomorphized. He is god of omens and ruler of the omen birds; but the hawk is nothis messenger, for he never leaves his house; stories are, however, told of his attending feasts in human formand flying away in hawk form when all was over.

Horse.--There is some reason to believe that Poseidon, like other water gods, was originally conceived underthe form of a horse. In the cave of Phigalia Demeter was, according to popular tradition, represented with thehead and mane of a horse, possibly a relic of the time when a non-specialized corn-spirit bore this form. Herpriests were called Poloi (colts) in Laconia. In Gaul we find a horse-goddess, Epona; there are also traces of ahorse-god, Rudiobus. The Gonds in India worship a horse-god, Koda Pen, in the form of a shapeless stone;but it is not clear that the horse is regarded as divine. The horse or mare is a common form of the corn-spirit inEurope.

Leopard.--The cult of the leopard is widely found in West Africa. Among the Ewe a man who kills one isliable to be put to death; no leopard skin may be exposed to view, but a stuffed leopard is worshipped. On theGold Coast a leopard hunter who has killed his victim is carried round the town behind the body of theleopard; he may not speak, must besmear himself so as to look like a leopard and imitate its movements. InLoango a prince's cap is put upon the head of a dead leopard, and dances are held in its honour.

Lion.--The lion was associated with the Egyptian gods R[=e] and Horus; there was a lion-god at Baalbek anda lion-headed goddess Sekhet. The Arabs had a lion-god, Yaghuth. In modern Africa we find a lion-idolamong the Balonda.

Lizard.--The cult of the lizard is most prominent in the Pacific, where it appears as an incarnation ofTangaloa. In Easter Island a form of the house-god is the lizard; it is also a tutelary deity in Madagascar.

Mantis.--Cagn is a prominent figure in Bushman mythology; the mantis and the caterpillar, Ngo, are hisincarnations. It was called the "Hottentots' god" by early settlers.

Monkey.--In India the monkey-god, Hanuman, is a prominent figure; in orthodox villages monkeys are safefrom harm. Monkeys are said to be worshipped in Togo. At Porto Novo, in French West Africa, twins havetutelary spirits in the shape of small monkeys.

Serpent.--The cult of the serpent is found in many parts of the Old World; it is also not unknown in America;in Australia, on the other hand, though many species of serpent are found, there does not appear to be any

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species of cult unless we include the Warramunga cult of the mythical Wollunqua totem animal, whom theyseek to placate by rites. In Africa the chief centre of serpent worship was Dahomey; but the cult of the pythonseems to have been of exotic origin, dating back to the first quarter of the 17th century. By the conquest ofWhydah the Dahomeyans were brought in contact with a people of serpent worshippers, and ended byadopting from them the cult which they at first despised. At Whydah, the chief centre, there is a serpenttemple, tenanted by some fifty snakes; every python of the danh-gbi kind must be treated with respect, anddeath is the penalty for killing one, even by accident. Danh-gbi has numerous wives, who until 1857 took partin a public procession from which the profane crowd was excluded; a python was carried round the town in ahammock, perhaps as a ceremony for the expulsion of evils. The rainbow-god of the Ewe was also conceivedto have the form of a snake; his messenger was said to be a small variety of boa; but only certain individuals,not the whole species, were sacred. In many parts of Africa the serpent is looked upon as the incarnation ofdeceased relatives; among the Amazulu, as among the Betsileo of Madagascar, certain species are assigned asthe abode of certain classes; the Masai, on the other hand, regard each species as the habitat of a particularfamily of the tribe.

In America some of the Amerindian tribes reverence the rattlesnake as grandfather and king of snakes who isable to give fair winds or cause tempest. Among the Hopi (Moqui) of Arizona the serpent figures largely inone of the dances. The rattlesnake was worshipped in the Natchez temple of the sun; and the Aztec deityQuetzalcoatl was a serpent-god. The tribes of Peru are said to have adored great snakes in the pre-Inca days;and in Chile the Araucanians made a serpent figure in their deluge myth.

Over a large part of India there are carved representations of cobras (N[=a]gas) or stones as substitutes; tothese human food and flowers are offered and lights are burned before the shrines. Among the Dravidians acobra which is accidentally killed is burned like a human being; no one would kill one intentionally; theserpent-god's image is carried in an annual procession by a celibate priestess.

Serpent cults were well known in ancient Europe; there does not, it is true, appear to be much ground forsupposing that Aesculapius was a serpent-god in spite of his connexion with serpents. On the other hand, welearn from Herodotus of the great serpent which defended the citadel of Athens; the Roman genius loci tookthe form of a serpent; a snake was kept and fed with milk in the temple of Potrimpos, an old Slavonic god. Tothis day there are numerous traces in popular belief, especially in Germany, of respect for the snake, whichseems to be a survival of ancestor worship, such as still exists among the Zulus and other savage tribes; the"house-snake," as it is called, cares for the cows and the children, and its appearance is an omen of death, andthe life of a pair of house-snakes is often held to be bound up with that of the master and mistress themselves.Tradition says that one of the Gnostic sects known as the Ophites caused a tame serpent to coil round thesacramental bread and worshipped it as the representative of the Saviour. See also SERPENT-WORSHIP.

Sheep.--Only in Africa do we find a sheep-god proper; Ammon was the god of Thebes; he was represented asram-headed; his worshippers held the ram to be sacred; it was, however, sacrificed once a year, and its fleeceformed the clothing of the idol.

Tiger.--The tiger is associated with Siva and Durga, but its cult is confined to the wilder tribes; in Nepal thetiger festival is known as Bagh Jatra, and the worshippers dance disguised as tigers. The Waralis worshipWaghia the lord of tigers in the form of a shapeless stone. In Hanoi and Manchuria tiger-gods are also found.

Wolf.--Both Zeus and Apollo were associated with the wolf by the Greeks; but it is not clear that this implies aprevious cult of the wolf. It is frequently found among the tutelary deities of North American dancing orsecret societies. The Thlinkits had a god, Khanukh, whose name means "wolf," and worshipped a wolf-headedimage.

AUTHORITIES.--For a fuller discussion and full references to these and other cults, that of the serpentexcepted, see N.W. Thomas in Hastings' _Dictionary of Religions_; Frazer, _Golden Bough_; Campbell's

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_Spirit Basis of Belief and Custom_; Maclennan's Studies (series 2); V. Gennep, _Tabou et totémisme àMadagascar_. For the serpent, see Ellis, _Ewe-speaking Peoples_, p. 54; _Internat. Archiv_, xvii. 113; Tylor,_Primitive Culture_, ii. 239; Fergusson, _Tree and Serpent Worship_; Mähly,_Die Schlange im Mythus_;Staniland Wake, _Serpent Worship, &c._; _16th Annual Report of the American Bureau of Ethnology_, p.273, and bibliography, p. 312. For the bull, &c., in Egypt, see EGYPT: Religion.


ANIMÉ, an oleo-resin (said to be so called because in its natural state it is infested with insects) which isexuded from the locust tree, _Hymenaea coumaril_, and other species of Hymenaea growing in tropical SouthAmerica. It is of a pale brown colour, transparent, brittle, and in consequence of its agreeable odour is usedfor fumigation and in perfumery. Its specific gravity varies from 1.054 to 1.057. It melts readily over the fire,and softens even with the heat of the mouth; it is insoluble in water, and nearly so in cold alcohol. It is alliedto copal in its nature and appearance, and is much used by varnish-makers. The name is also given to Zanzibarcopal (_q.v._).

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ANIMISM (from _animus_, or _anima_, mind or soul), according to the definition of Dr. E.B. Tylor, thedoctrine of spiritual beings, including human souls; in practice, however, the term is often extended to includepanthelism or animatism, the doctrine that a great part, if not the whole, of the inanimate kingdom, as well asall animated beings, are endowed with reason, intelligence and volition, identical with that of man. This lattertheory, which in many cases is equivalent to personification, though it may be, like animism, a feature of thephilosophy of peoples of low culture, should not be confused with it. But it is difficult in practice todistinguish the two phases of thought and no clear account of animatism can yet be given, largely on theground that no people has yet been discovered which has not already developed to a greater or less extent ananimistic philosophy. On theoretical grounds it is probable that animatism preceded animism; but savagethought is no more consistent than that of civilized man; and it may well be that animistic and panthelisticdoctrines are held simultaneously by the same person. In like manner one portion of the savage explanation ofnature may have been originally animistic, another part animatistic.

Origin.--Animism may have arisen out of or simultaneously with animatism as a primitive explanation ofmany different phenomena; if animatism was originally applied to non-human or inanimate objects, animismmay from the outset have been in vogue as a theory of the nature of man. Lists of phenomena from thecontemplation of which the savage was led to believe in animism have been given by Dr. Tylor, HerbertSpencer, Mr. Andrew Lang and others; an animated controversy arose between the former as to the priority oftheir respective lists. Among these phenomena are: trance (_q.v._) and unconsciousness, sickness, death,clairvoyance (_q.v._), dreams (_q.v._), apparitions (_q.v._) of the dead, wraiths, hallucinations (_q.v._),echoes, shadows and reflections.

Primitive ideas on the subject of the soul, and at the same time the origin of them, are best illustrated by ananalysis of the terms applied to it. Readers of Dante know the idea that the dead have no shadows; this was noinvention of the poet's but a piece of traditionary lore; at the present day among the Basutos it is held that aman walking by the brink of a river may lose his life if his shadow falls on the water, for a crocodile mayseize it and draw him in; in Tasmania, North and South America and classical Europe is found the conceptionthat the soul--[Greek: skia], _umbra_--is somehow identical with the shadow of a man. More familiar to theAnglo-Saxon race is the connexion between the soul and the breath; this identification is found both in Aryanand Semitic languages; in Latin we have _spiritus_, in Greek _pneuma_, in Hebrew _ruach_; and the idea isfound extending downwards to the lowest planes of culture in Australia, America and Asia. For some of theRed Indians the Roman custom of receiving the breath of a dying man was no mere pious duty but a means ofensuring that his soul was transferred to a new body. Other familiar conceptions identify the soul with theliver (see OMEN) or the heart, with the reflected figure seen in the pupil of the eye, and with the blood.

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Although the soul is often distinguished from the vital principle, there are many cases in which a state ofunconsciousness is explained as due to the absence of the soul; in South Australia wilyamarraba (withoutsoul) is the word used for insensible. So too the autohypnotic trance of the magician or shaman is regarded asdue to his visit to distant regions or the nether world, of which he brings back an account. Telepathy orclairvoyance (_q.v._), with or without trance, must have operated powerfully to produce a conviction of thedual nature of man, for it seems probable that facts unknown to the automatist are sometimes discovered bymeans of crystal-gazing (_q.v._), which is widely found among savages, as among civilized peoples. Sicknessis often explained as due to the absence of the soul; and means are sometimes taken to lure back thewandering soul; when a Chinese is at the point of death and his soul is supposed to have already left his body,the patient's coat is held up on a long bamboo while a priest endeavours to bring the departed spirit back intothe coat by means of incantations. If the bamboo begins to turn round in the hands of the relative who isdeputed to hold it, it is regarded as a sign that the soul of the moribund has returned (see AUTOMATISM).More important perhaps than all these phenomena, because more regular and normal, was the daily period ofsleep with its frequent concomitant of fitful and incoherent ideas and images. The mere immobility of thebody was sufficient to show that its state was not identical with that of waking; when, in addition, the sleeperawoke to give an account of visits to distant lands, from which, as modern psychical investigations suggest, hemay even have brought back veridical details, the conclusion must have been irresistible that in sleepsomething journeyed forth, which was not the body. In a minor degree revival of memory during sleep andsimilar phenomena of the sub-conscious life may have contributed to the same result. Dreams are sometimesexplained by savages as journeys performed by the sleeper, sometimes as visits paid by other persons, byanimals or objects to him; hallucinations, possibly more frequent in the lower stages of culture, must havecontributed to fortify this interpretation, and the animistic theory in general. Seeing the phantasmic figures offriends at the moment when they were, whether at the point of death or in good health, many miles distant,must have led the savage irresistibly to the dualistic theory. But hallucinatory figures, both in dreams andwaking life, are not necessarily those of the living; from the reappearance of dead friends or enemies primitiveman was inevitably led to the belief that there existed an incorporeal part of man which survived thedissolution of the body. The soul was conceived to be a facsimile of the body, sometimes no less material,sometimes more subtle but yet material, sometimes altogether impalpable and intangible.

Animism and Eschatology.--The psychological side of animism has already been dealt with; almost equallyimportant in primitive creeds is the eschatological aspect. In many parts of the world it is held that the humanbody is the seat of more than one soul; in the island of Nias four are distinguished, the shadow and theintelligence, which die with the body, a tutelary spirit, termed _begoe_, and a second which is carried on thehead. Similar ideas are found among the Euahlayi of S.E. Australia, the Dakotas and many other tribes. Just asin Europe the ghost of a dead person is held to haunt the churchyard or the place of death, although moreorthodox ideas may be held and enunciated by the same person as to the nature of a future life, so the savage,more consistently, assigns different abodes to the multiple souls with which he credits man. Of the four soulsof a Dakota, one is held to stay with the corpse, another in the village, a third goes into the air, while thefourth goes to the land of souls, where its lot may depend on its rank in this life, its sex, mode of death orsepulture, on the due observance of funeral ritual, or many other points (see ESCHATOLOGY). From thebelief in the survival of the dead arose the practice of offering food, lighting fires, &c., at the grave, at first,maybe, as an act of friendship or filial piety, later as an act of worship (see ANCESTOR WORSHIP). Thesimple offering of food or shedding of blood at the grave develops into an elaborate system of sacrifice; evenwhere ancestor-worship is not found, the desire to provide the dead with comforts in the future life may leadto the sacrifice of wives, slaves, animals, &c., to the breaking or burning of objects at the grave or to theprovision of the ferryman's toll, a coin put in the mouth of the corpse to pay the travelling expenses of thesoul. But all is not finished with the passage of the soul to the land of the dead; the soul may return to avengeits death by helping to discover the murderer, or to wreak vengeance for itself; there is a widespread beliefthat those who die a violent death become malignant spirits and endanger the lives of those who come near thehaunted spot; the woman who dies in child-birth becomes a _pontianak_, and threatens the life of humanbeings; and man resorts to magical or religious means of repelling his spiritual dangers.

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Development of Animism.--If the phenomena of dreams were, as suggested above, of great importance for thedevelopment of animism, the belief, which must originally have been a doctrine of human psychology, cannothave failed to expand speedily into a general philosophy of nature. Not only human beings but animals andobjects are seen in dreams; and the conclusion would be that they too have souls; the same conclusion mayhave been reached by another line of argument; primitive psychology posited a spirit in a man to account,amongst other things, for his actions; a natural explanation of the changes in the external world would be thatthey are due to the operations and volitions of spirits.

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_Animal Souls._--But apart from considerations of this sort, it is probable that animals must, early in thehistory of animistic beliefs, have been regarded as possessing souls. Education has brought with it a sense ofthe great gulf between man and animals; but in the lower stages of culture this distinction is not adequatelyrecognized, if indeed it is recognized at all. The savage attributes to animals the same ideas, the same mentalprocesses as himself, and at the same time vastly greater power and cunning. The dead animal is credited witha knowledge of how its remains are treated and sometimes with a power of taking vengeance on the fortunatehunter. Powers of reasoning are not denied to animals nor even speech; the silence of the brute creation maybe put down to their superior cunning. We may assume that man attributed a soul to the beasts of the fieldalmost as soon as he claimed one for himself. It is therefore not surprising to find that many peoples on thelower planes of culture respect and even worship animals (see TOTEM; ANIMAL WORSHIP); though weneed not attribute an animistic origin to all the developments, it is clear that the widespread respect paid toanimals as the abode of dead ancestors, and much of the cult of dangerous animals, is traceable to thisprinciple. With the rise of species, deities and the cult of individual animals, the path towardsanthropomorphization and polytheism is opened and the respect paid to animals tends to lose its strictanimistic character.

_Plant Souls._--Just as human souls are assigned to animals, so primitive man often credits trees and plantswith souls in both human or animal form. All over the world agricultural peoples practise elaborateceremonies explicable, as Mannhardt has shown, on animistic principles. In Europe the corn spirit sometimesimmanent in the crop, sometimes a presiding deity whose life does not depend on that of the growing corn, isconceived in some districts in the form of an ox, hare or co*ck, in others as an old man or woman; in the EastIndies and America the rice or maize mother is a corresponding figure; in classical Europe and the East wehave in Ceres and Demeter, Adonis and Dionysus, and other deities, vegetation gods whose origin we canreadily trace back to the rustic corn spirit. Forest trees, no less than cereals, have their indwelling spirits; thefauns and satyrs of classical literature were goat-footed and the tree spirit of the Russian peasantry takes theform of a goat; in Bengal and the East Indies wood-cutters endeavour to propitiate the spirit of the tree whichthey cut down; and in many parts of the world trees are regarded as the abode of the spirits of the dead. Just asa process of syncretism has given rise to cults of animal gods, tree spirits tend to become detached from thetrees, which are thenceforward only their abodes; and here again animism has begun to pass into polytheism.

_Object Souls._--We distinguish between animate and inanimate nature, but this classification has no meaningfor the savage. The river speeding on its course to the sea, the sun and moon, if not the stars also, on theirnever-ceasing daily round, the lightning, fire, the wind, the sea, all are in motion and therefore animate; butthe savage does not stop short here; mountains and lakes, stones and manufactured articles, are for him alikeendowed with souls like his own; he deposits in the tomb weapons and food, clothes and implements, broken,it may be, in order to set free their souls; or he attains the same result by burning them, and thus sending themto the Other World for the use of the dead man. Here again, though to a less extent than in tree cults, thetheriomorphic aspect recurs; in the north of Europe, in ancient Greece, in China, the water or river spirit ishorse or bull-shaped; the water monster in serpent shape is even more widely found, but it is less strictly thespirit of the water. The spirit of syncretism manifests itself in this department of animism too; the immanentspirit of the earlier period becomes the presiding genius or local god of later times, and with the rise of thedoctrine of separable souls we again reach the confines of animism pure and simple.

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_Spirits in General._--Side by side with the doctrine of separable souls with which we have so far beenconcerned, exists the belief in a great host of unattached spirits; these are not immanent souls which havebecome detached from their abodes, but have every appearance of independent spirits. Thus, animism is insome directions little developed, so far as we can see, among the Australian aborigines; but from those whoknow them best we learn that they believe in innumerable spirits and bush bogies, which wander, especially atnight, and can be held at bay by means of fire; with this belief may be compared the ascription in Europeanfolk belief of prophylactic properties to iron. These spirits are at first mainly malevolent; and side by side withthem we find the spirits of the dead as hostile beings. At a higher stage the spirits of dead kinsmen are nolonger unfriendly, nor yet all non-human spirits; as fetishes (see FETISHISM), naguals (see TOTEM),familiars, gods or demi-gods (for which and the general question see DEMONOLOGY), they enter intorelations with man. On the other hand there still subsists a belief in innumerable evil spirits, which manifestthemselves in the phenomena of possession (_q.v._), lycanthropy (_q.v._), disease, &c. The fear of evil spiritshas given rise to ceremonies of expulsion of evils (see EXORCISM), designed to banish them from thecommunity.

_Animism and Religion._--Animism is commonly described as the most primitive form of religion; butproperly speaking it is not a religion at all, for religion implies, at any rate, some form of emotion (seeRELIGION), and animism is in the first instance an explanation of phenomena rather than an attitude of mindtoward the cause of them, a philosophy rather than a religion. The term may, however, be conveniently usedto describe the early stage of religion in which man endeavours to set up relations between himself and theunseen powers, conceived as spirits, but differing in many particulars from the gods of polytheism. As anexample of this stage in one of its aspects may be taken the European belief in the corn spirit, which is,however, the object of magical rather than religious rites; Dr. Frazer has thus defined the character of theanimistic pantheon, "they are restricted in their operations to definite departments of nature; their names aregeneral, not proper; their attributes are generic rather than individual; in other words, there is an indefinitenumber of spirits of each class, and the individuals of a class are much alike; they have no definitely markedindividuality; no accepted traditions are current as to their origin, life and character." This stage of religion iswell illustrated by the Red Indian custom of offering sacrifice to certain rocks, or whirlpools, or to theindwelling spirits connected with them; the rite is only performed in the neighbourhood of the object, it is anincident of a canoe or other voyage, and is not intended to secure any benefits beyond a safe passage past theobject in question; the spirit to be propitiated has a purely local sphere of influence, and powers of a verylimited nature. Animistic in many of their features too are the temporary gods of fetishism (_q.v._), naguals orfamiliars, genii and even the dead who receive a cult. With the rise of a belief in departmental gods comes theage of polytheism; the belief in elemental spirits may still persist, but they fall into the background andreceive no cult.

_Animism and the Origin of Religion._--Two animistic theories of the origin of religion have been putforward, the one, often termed the "ghost theory," mainly associated with the name of Herbert Spencer, butalso maintained by Grant Allen, refers the beginning of religion to the cult of dead human beings; the other,put forward by Dr. E.B. Tylor, makes the foundation of all religion animistic, but recognizes the non-humancharacter of polytheistic gods. Although ancestor-worship, or, more broadly, the cult of the dead, has in manycases overshadowed other cults or even extinguished them, we have no warrant, even in these cases, forasserting its priority, but rather the reverse; not only so, but in the majority of cases the pantheon is made upby a multitude of spirits in human, sometimes in animal form, which bear no signs of ever having beenincarnate; sun gods and moon goddesses, gods of fire, wind and water, gods of the sea, and above all gods ofthe sky, show no signs of having been ghost gods at any period in their history. They may, it is true, beassociated with ghost gods, but in Australia it cannot even be asserted that the gods are spirits at all, much lessthat they are the spirits of dead men; they are simply magnified magicians, super-men who have never died;we have no ground, therefore, for regarding the cult of the dead as the origin of religion in this area; thisconclusion is the more probable, as ancestor-worship and the cult of the dead generally cannot be said to existin Australia.

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The more general view that polytheistic and other gods are the elemental and other spirits of the later stages ofanimistic creeds, is equally inapplicable to Australia, where the belief seems to be neither animistic nor evenanimatistic in character. But we are hardly justified in arguing from the case of Australia to a generalconclusion as to the origin of religious ideas in all other parts of the world. It is perhaps safest to say that thescience of religions has no data on which to go, in formulating conclusions as to the original form of theobjects of religious emotion; in this connexion it must be remembered that not only is it very difficult to getprecise information of the subject of the religious ideas of people of low culture, perhaps for the simple reasonthat the ideas themselves are far from precise, but also that, as has been pointed out above, the conception ofspiritual often approximates very closely to that of material. Where the soul is regarded as no more than afiner sort of matter, it will obviously be far from easy to decide whether the gods are spiritual or material.Even, therefore, if we can say that at the present day the gods are entirely spiritual, it is clearly possible tomaintain that they have been spiritualized pari passu with the increasing importance of the animistic view ofnature and of the greater prominence of eschatological beliefs. The animistic origin of religion is therefore notproven.

Animism and Mythology.--But little need be said on the relation of animism and mythology (_q.v._). While alarge part of mythology has an animistic basis, it is possible to believe, _e.g._ in a sky world, peopled bycorporeal beings, as well as by spirits of the dead; the latter may even be entirely absent; the mythology of theAustralians relates largely to corporeal, non-spiritual beings; stories of transformation, deluge and doommyths, or myths of the origin of death, have not necessarily any animistic basis. At the same time, with therise of ideas as to a future life and spiritual beings, this field of mythology is immensely widened, though itcannot be said that a rich mythology is necessarily genetically associated with or combined with belief inmany spiritual beings.

Animism in Philosophy.--The term "animism" has been applied to many different philosophical systems. It isused to describe Aristotle's view of the relation of soul and body held also by the Stoics and Scholastics. Onthe other hand monadology (Leibnitz) has also been termed animistic. The name is most commonly applied tovitalism, a view mainly associated with G.E. Stahl and revived by F. Bouillier (1813-1899), which makes life,or life and mind, the directive principle in evolution and growth, holding that all cannot be traced back tochemical and mechanical processes, but that there is a directive force which guides energy without altering itsamount. An entirely different class of ideas, also termed animistic, is the belief in the world soul, held byPlato, Schelling and others.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Tyler, _Primitive Culture_; Frazer, _Golden Bough_; Id. on Burial Customs in _J.A. I_.xv.; Mannhardt, _Baumkultus_; G.A. Wilken, _Het Animisme_; Koch on the animism of S. America in_Internationales Archiv_, xiii., Suppl.; Andrew Lang, _Making of Religion_; Skeat, _Malay Magic_; Sir G.Campbell, "Spirit Basis of Belief and Custom," in _Indian Antiquary_, xxiii. and succeeding volumes;_Folklore_, iii. 289. xi. 162; Spencer, _Principles of Sociology_; Mind (1877), 141, 415 et seq. For animismin philosophy, Stahl, _Theoria_; Bouillier, Du Principe vital.


ANIMUCCIA, GIOVANNI, Italian musical composer, was born at Florence in the last years of the 15thcentury. At the request of St. Filippo Neri he composed a number of _Laudi_, or hymns of praise, to be sungafter sermon time, which have given him an accidental prominence in musical history, since their performancein St. Filippo's Oratory eventually gave rise (on the disruption of 16th century schools of composition) tothose early forms of "oratorio" that are not traceable to the Gregorian-polyphonic "Passions." St. Filippoadmired Animuccia so warmly that he declared he had seen the soul of his friend fly upwards towards heaven.In 1555 Animuccia was appointed maestro di capella at St. Peter's, an office which he held until his death in1571. He was succeeded by Palestrina, who had been his friend and probably his pupil. The manuscript of

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many of Animuccia's compositions is still preserved in the Vatican Library. His chief published works wereMadrigali e Motetti a quattro e cinque voci (Ven. 1548) and Il primo Libra di Messe (Rom. 1567). From thelatter Padre Martini has taken two specimens for his Saggio di Contrapunto. A mass from the Primo Libra diMesse on the canto fermo of the hymn Conditor alme siderum is published in modern notation in the_Anthologie des maîtres religieux primitifs_ of the Chanteurs de Saint Gervais. It is solemn and noble inconception, and would be a great work but for a roughness which is more careless than archaic.

PAOLO ANIMUCCIA, a brother of Giovanni, was also celebrated as a composer; he is said by Fetis to havebeen maestro di capella at S. Giovanni in Laterano from the middle of January 1550 until 1552, and to havedied in 1563.

ANISE (_Pimpinella Anisum_), an umbelliferous plant found in Egypt and the Levant, and cultivated on thecontinent of Europe for medicinal purposes. The officinal part of the plant is the fruit, which consists of twounited carpels, called a cremocarp. It is known by the name of aniseed, and has a strong aromatic taste and apowerful odour. By distillation the fruit yields the volatile oil of anise, which is useful in the treatment offlatulence and colic in children. It may be given as _Aqua Anisi_, in doses of one or more ounces, or as the_Spiritus Anisi_, in doses of 5-20 minims. The main constituent of the oil (up to 90%) is anethol,C_{10}H_{12}O or C_{6}H_{4}[1.4](OCH_{3})(CH:CH.CH_{3}.) It also contains methyl chavicol, anisicaldehyde, anisic acid, and a terpene. Most of the oil of commerce, however, of which anethol is also the chiefconstituent, comes from Illicium verum (order _Magnoliaceae_, sub-order _Wintereae_), indigenous in N.E.China, the star-anise of liqueur makers. It receives its name from its flavour, and from its fruit spreading outlike a star. The anise of the Bible (Matt. xxiii. 23) is Anethum or _Peucedanum graveolens_, _i.e._ dill(_q.v._).

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Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Part 1, Slice 1

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Are Britannica encyclopedias worth anything? ›

The Internet has rendered vintage encyclopedias obsolete and today the value is primarily from people looking to have a set similar to the one that they grew up with. A complete 1967 white britannica encyclopedia sells for $50 or so at auction and for $120 to $150 from antique book dealers.

Can I download the Encyclopedia Britannica? ›

Free to download. Over 65,000 articles are available for free and users can get access to 100% of the content in an ad-free experience for a $14.99 annual subscription.

How many volumes are in the Encyclopedia Britannica 11th edition? ›

The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the real Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time.

Is the Encyclopedia Britannica online free? ›

Encyclopedia Britannica Online- Get it Free!

Is the Encyclopedia Britannica still in print? ›

The encyclopaedia is maintained by about 100 full-time editors and more than 4,000 contributors. The 2010 version of the 15th edition, which spans 32 volumes and 32,640 pages, was the last printed edition. Since 2016, it has been published exclusively as an online encyclopaedia.

Why was Encyclopedia Britannica discontinued? ›

We had no need for a wake because we weren't grieving. We had known for some time that this day was coming. Given how little revenue the print set generated, and given that we had long ago shifted to a digital-first editorial process, the bound volumes had become a distraction and a chore to put together.

What can I do with my 40 year old encyclopedia? ›

Older encyclopedias make great set dressing and help fill up bookcases." * Nancy Shore of Salt Lake City says: "I donated my encyclopedia set to a charitable foundation that sent it to a school in the Philippines. There are many countries that would love to have our old books."

Who buys old sets of encyclopedias? ›

Recycling encyclopedias

Call your local library and ask if you may donate your set to be sold. Put it up for giveaway on freecycle.org. If they're really old -- say, more than 100 years -- call a rare bookseller and ask if they're worth anything. Find out if a local recycler takes them.

Is Encyclopedia Britannica Online worth it? ›

The Encyclopedia Britannica contains carefully edited articles on all major topics. It fits the ideal purpose of a reference work as a place to get started, or to refer back to as you read and write. The articles in Britannica are written by expert authors who are both identifiable and credible.

How much does Encyclopedia Britannica cost? ›

You will not be charged during your free trial, and you can cancel at any time. If you decide not to cancel your subscription, your service will continue at $1.44 a week (billed annually at $74.95) for your first year and renew after that year at the then-current rate annually. All subscriptions are billed annually.

Is Britannica considered a good encyclopedia? ›

Britannica's content is among the most trusted in the world. Every article is written, and continually fact-checked, by our experts.

What was the last year of the Encyclopedia Britannica? ›

In 2012, after 244 years, Britannica ended the print editions, with the 32 volumes of the 2010 installment being the last on paper; future editions have been published exclusively online since.

How much did the Encyclopedia Britannica cost in 1980? ›

Back then, the Encyclopedia Britannica, one of the most popular versions of the books, sold anywhere from $1,000 to $3,000. It's hard to wrap your mind around the price 30 years later, but it was the go-to source for information at the time.

Who has read the entire Encyclopedia Britannica? ›

After reading all of its 18 volumes, the Shah extended his royal title to include "Most Formidable Lord and Master of the Encyclopædia Britannica". Roughly a century later, Amos Urban Shirk, an American businessman, read the entire 23-volume 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica over a period of four years.

Why does Britannica cost money? ›

Britannica's commitment to rigor, research, fact-checking, and editing is the prevailing reason we remain the pivotal place of knowledge. Honoring this commitment is time-consuming, expensive work. How do I donate to Encyclopaedia Britannica?

Is Britannica better than Wikipedia? ›

For serious errors, such as misinterpretations of important concepts, 4 were found in Wikipedia, and 4 in Britannica (1:1). The study concluded that "Wikipedia comes close to Britannica in terms of the accuracy of its science entries", although Wikipedia's articles were often "poorly structured".

Are old encyclopedias worth any money? ›

Old encyclopedias are attracting collectors primarily for two reasons: scarcity and information. As is the case with all rare books and other collectibles, the more scarce an edition is, the more likely it is to have a bigger spread between supply and demand, and thus the higher the monetary value.

Does anyone buy encyclopedias anymore? ›

Edwards wrote that Tom Evans, the encyclopedia's editor-in-chief, told him, "Because there is still a demand!" It is a demand, Evans told a reporter, that comes from librarians, teachers and families of students.

When was the 11th edition of Encyclopedia Britannica? ›

The eleventh edition of the Encylopaedia Britannica was published in 29 volumes in 1910 and 1911.

What to do with old encyclopedia sets? ›

How to dispose of old encyclopedias? Contact a local art gallery or studio and ask if there are any paper artists in your area. Tell them what you have and they may have suggestions. Some artists like to use books and upcycle them into works of art.

Can you still buy the Encyclopedia Britannica? ›

Enlarge / The Encyclopedia Britannica, a competitor of World Book, ended its print run in 2012. A World Book rep told Quartz in 2019 that the print encyclopedia sold mostly to schools, public libraries, and homeschooling families.

How many editions of Encyclopedia Britannica are there? ›

The Encyclopædia Britannica has been published continuously since 1768, appearing in fifteen official editions.

Who wants old Encyclopedia Britannica? ›

Places you might be able to donate or place old books: rare bookseller. old book collectors. local library.

How much is Encyclopedia Britannica 1969 worth? ›

Using my resources to look into your inquiry, I was able to find comparable sales that give your rare 1968 -69 "200th anniversary set" of Encyclopedia Britannica a current secondary market value of $100 - $200 USD at auction or in a private sale. I hope this answers your question!

Are old encyclopedias worth keeping? ›

Old encyclopedias are attracting collectors primarily for two reasons: scarcity and information. As is the case with all rare books and other collectibles, the more scarce an edition is, the more likely it is to have a bigger spread between supply and demand, and thus the higher the monetary value.

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