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Presented to the

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO

LIBRARY

by the

ONTARIO LEGISLATIVE

LIBRARY

1980

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Digitized by the Internet Arciiive

in 2007 with funding from

IVIicrosoft Corporation

http://www.archive.org/details/danubeitshistoryOObeatuoft

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VIR^rtlB & C? .LONDON 4- NEW YOKK .

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^^THE DANUBE:^!

ITS HISTOEY, SCENEEY, AND TOPOGRAPHY.

BY WILLIAM BEATTIE/M.D.

^pknliJMg lUustratclr,

FROM SKETCHES TAKEN ON THE SPOT, BY ABRESCH,

DRAWN BY W. H. BARTLETT, ESQ.

VIRTUE AND CO., LONDON.

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DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER.

LIST OF PLATES.Vignette Title : Castle of Durrenstein, the Prison of Richard CffiUR-DE-LioN.

Portrait of Dr. Beattie . to face Vignette.

Map of the Danube . . . to face Page 1

City of Ulm, from the Heights .... 3

Cathedral of Ulm 8

Cathedral of Ulm—the Porch .... 12

Cathedral of Ulm—the Interior ... 14

Walls and Bridge of Ulm 16

Nedbueg, with the Palace and Cathe-

dral 26

The Devil's Wall, or Pfahlgraben, St.

John's 34

Scene near the Weltenberg 36

Scene in the Altmuhlthal 39

Brcnn Castle, Valley of the Altmuhl . 41

Ratisbon, or Regensburg—Bridge and

City 45

Cathedral, Ratisbon 47

Porch of the Cathedral, Ratisbon . . 52

Staircase to the Rath-haus, Ratisbon . 65

Interior of the Cathedral, Ratisbon . 58

Buda and Pesth, from the Blocksberg . 60

Walhalla, Temple of, near Ratisbon . 64

Stracbing 67

Passau 72Scene on the River Inn, Passau ... 74

Church of Maria-Hilf, Passau .... 76

Junction of the Inn with the Danube . 78

Kraempelstein Castle, or Schneider-

schlossel 81

Sarbling and Kirschan 83

The Castle of Neuhaus 84

LiNZ, City of 87

LiNZ, Bridge of 90

Approach to Passau from Linz .... 95

Castle of Spielberg 96

Grein, on the Danube 99

The Strudel (Whirlpool) 100

The Wirbel and Kaustein 105

Castle of Persenberg, NEAR Yps . . .111

MoLK, with the Castle OF Wbiteneck . 114

Monastery of Molk 1 16

Castle Weiteneck, from the Gallery of

Molk 118

Aggstein Castle 120

Castle of Spitz, Arensdorf 126

Castle of Hildegardsbebg 131

Castle of Greiffenstein 133

Kloster-neuberg, with the Cathedral

AND Monastery 135

View from the Leopoldsberg, looking to

Kloster-neuburg . . . to face Page

Scene from the Leopoldsberg, lookingTO Vienna

Vienna, looking across the Glacis . .

St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna . . .

Interior of the Cathedral, Vienna . .

St. Stephen's Chapel, in the Cathedral,Vienna

Funeral Vault of the Imperial Family,

Capuchin Church, ViennaVienna, from the Gloriette, Schon-

BRUNN

Vienna, from the Spinnerinn-Kreutz .

Vienna, from the Belvidere Gardens .

LiCHTENSTEIN CaSTLE

Castle of Wildenstein

Vienna, View from the Bastions . . .

Castle Theben

The Nun's Tower, Castle Theben . , .

Presburg

WiSSEGEAAD, CaSTLE OF

City of Buda, or Ofen

The Blocksberg, from PesthNew Suspension-Bridge, Pesth ....Procession of Pilgrims, with the old

Bridge, Pesth

Map of the Black Sea

Peterwardein

Belgrade

Babacai

Ruins of the Castle of Golumbacz . .

Drey-kule, or Tricola, Swinitza, with

Roman Remains

Entrance to the Defile of Kasan . . .

The Kasan Pass, with the Modern and

RomanRoads

Inscription on the Via Trajana . . .

Plains of Lower Wallachia

A Wedding at Orsova

Baths of Mehadia

Village of Gladova

Sozorney, with Remains of Trajan's

Bridge . , .

The Balkans

NlCOPOLI

rutzschuk

Turkish CafI? at Rutzschuk

SuLiMA, Mouth of the Danube ....

137

138

139

140

142

143

144

146

148

150

1.52

155

159

162

165

168

175

178

184

189

191

194

196

200

204

206

209

210

212214

214

216

218

220

222

223

224

227

228

230

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IV THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED.

appeared to justify ; but this, it is hoped, will be fully compensated by the

greater number, and deeper interest of the other scenes and topics, here

presented to the eye and mind of the reader, as well as by the taste and care

which have been manifested in their selection.

Along with the topography of the Upper and Lower Danube, statistical

notices have been interspersed, with various references to the results of steam

navigation, by which commercial intercourse is now established between the

kingdom of Wirtemberg and the Euxine Sea—an event which has led to

important consequences, both as it regards the advancement of trade, and

the general progress of civilization in the East.

With respect to the numerous engraved Views, which illustrate this

volume, the same talented Artists have been employed as in its predecessor,

and the same effects been obtained, of uniting high finish with close resem-

blance to the originals. In addition to the eighty steel engravings, the text

is further illustrated by nearly the same number of wood-cuts, which give a

new and striking feature to the work, and render it, in point of pictorial

embellishments, more rich and attractive than any of the popular series yet

issued by the same enterprising Publishers. Of these Illustrations, the greater

portion was taken on the spot by M. Abresch,—a German artist of well-known

talent and reputation,

—and drawn by

Mr. Bartlett, who has also contributedvarious original views, interspersed throughout the work.

The Author.

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9onaueat{)ingen.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. s

The tliird and smallest source is the Castle-spring of Donauescliingen, which

rises inthe court-yard of the palace of the prince of Fiirstenberg, m a quad-

rangle eighty feet in circumference, and is inclosed within a freestone basin. It

thence flows mto the open fields, and, during a course of a few minutes, is

joined by both the Brege and Brigach, when it is first called the Danube. Its Germanname is the Donau, or deep water, a designation suitable to its general character.

At the confluence of the three sources of the river, is situated the market-town of

THE HUUKCX OK TUB OANOBE AT DONAUKSCHLMOKM.

IBonaueU'tfingen, in the baihwick ofHufingen and the Grand duchy of Baden. It is

a plain coimtrj-, commanding extensive prospects, and is upwards of two thousand feet

above the level of the sea. The place is very old, Imown as early as the Carlovin-

gian age, by the name of Eschingen. a. d. 889, King Amulph presented it with the

church of Oberzell, then newly erected in the Reichenau. In the thirteenth cen-

tury, it was in the possession of the family Von Blumenfeldt, and continued until

the fifteenth century to be the residence of a branch of that family. In 1465, it

became the property of the family Von Stein, from whom it went to the Seigneurs

Von Hnbshurg, ancestors of the Austrian family, who sold it to the brothers Henry

and Wolfgang, counts of Fiirstenberg. Pait of the present town was, so late as the

last century, surrounded by a strong stone waU, and had two castles, one of which,

c

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$ THE DANUBE ILLCSTIUTED. [Bonaufsc^ingtn.

that on the Brigach, was in 1781 taken down, in order to allow a more open and ex-

tended prospect to the chateau, in wliich the prince resides, and to have the grounds

laid out in a pleasure-garden.

Tlie most interesting object of Donaueschingen is the residence of the prince,

which is a noble stnictme. The Archive-rooms are built on a particularly inge-

nious plan, so as to be perfectly fire-proof, and consist of five stories, of which two

are imder-ground. The theatre and the opera-house are richly decorated stmc-

tures, and were rebuilt in 1784 by the well-known architect Kaim. The piince's

garden, commonly called " die Alleen," or the alleys, is a place of public resort, laid

out with good taste in 1779, but was subsequently much enlarged, and embellished

witli various American and other exotic plants and shrubs. The arsenal contains,

among other cmiosities, a collection of Turkish and ancient annour, standards,

coats of mail &c., which the ancient Coimts of Fiirstenberg either wore themselves,

or acquired as trophies in war. The Prince's library is said to contain thirty thou-

sand volumes. The paiish-chmxh, the " Chancellerie" of the prince's domains, and

ilie stables are lai"ge and handsome buildings, which do credit to their architects.

The prince's brewery, which is the most extensive and best arranged in southern

Germany, is well worth seeing. It contains every possible accommodation for the

manufactory of beer, brandy, and malt. Ten thousand measm'es of beer are daily

brewed on the Bavarian plan, and sent to the neighboming pro\Tnces as far as

Freyberg, in the Brisgau.

Donaueschingen is the hereditary seat of the prince's household, and his domains

are under the management of a board ofdirectors. The town contains a post-office

of the grand duke of Baden, a gymnasium, a printing-office, and several workshops of

artists. Twen^ years ago, the population amounted to only two thousand in-

habitants, in three hundred and fifty houses ; now there aie three thousand and

twenty-tliree in fom- hundi-ed houses, fonning five hundred and tliirty-three families,

and were lately all of the Roman Catholic faith, with the exception of about ten Pro-

testants and six Jews.'

The view of Donauescliingen is highly picturesque ; including the prince's Schloss,

or Chateau, in the court of which, as already mentioned, the Danube makes its first

appearance. From a small beginning, it gathers strength and volume, till it fonns

the boundarj- hne between states and kingdoms—and

" With impetuous sweep

In foaming cataracts stems tlic Kuxine deep.''

The grand duchy of Baden, in which the Danube takes its rise, is a fertile cotm-

trj', particularly in the valleys, which are numerous and well watered. The scenery

' For a more particular account of tliis place, the reader is referred to the German Encyclopsedia,

now in the course of publication, which brings the statistics down to the present date.

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ffitUsingen.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED.

is Hghly diversified, and in the district of the Black Forest, part of which belongs to

Wirtemburg, there is a continued succession of classical sites and striking land-

scapes, which have all then- place in history, and awaken many interesting recollec-

tions in the traveller's mind, as he follows the stilfwidening channel of the Danube.

CBIBSINUKN.

(lS(Ci&&ingtnf quite distinct fi-om Geislingen, in the Wutemburg teiritoiy, but with

which it is often confounded—is a pretty httle town of the grand duchy, close to the

Danube, and affording a very good specimen of the village-towns of its class in this

part of Germany. Fortunately, the practice of building their villages almost en-

tirely of wood is gradually faUing into disuse, so that those frightful conflagrations

once of frequent rccuiTcnce, are every year becoming more and more rare. Single

houses, however, are still found here, Uke ships on the stocks, ready for sale, and

when finished, are transported on waggons to whatever jjart of the forest the pur-

chaser may choose to take up his residence.

This territory, fonnerly that of the Margraves of Baden, was only erected into a

duchy in the beginning of the present century, and holds the seventh place in the

Gennan Confederation. Chai'les-Frederick, the first Duke, was succeeded by liis

grandson, Chai-les, who married the princess Stephanie, now dowager grand-duch*ess

ofBaden. After the disastrous campaign in Russia, he joined the Confederation, and,by the influence exerted in his favour at the celebrated Congress of Vienna, by the

Emperor Alexander, had the fidl possession of his herecUtary domains confirmed to

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8 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [Gtfesinjtn.

him. This beautiful tract of countiy, bounded by the right bank of the Rhine,

and comprising the celebrated towns of Heidelberg, Manheim, Cailsnihe, Rastadt, and

Baden, is one of the richest and most pictiu-esque in Europe. We say this not from

hearsay, but after having made various excursions through the territory of Baden,'

and the neighboiuing principalities. The beautiful valley of Stcinach, with its

richly combined imagery, the fertility of the soil, the industry and happiness of the

people, never fails to make an agreeable impression on the stranger's mind.

The resources of this Duchy depend more upon its agricultiu-e than its ma-

nufactures ; but it is a country of extensive intercourse, and a vast quantity of

merchandise passes through its territory in the course of a year. We are informed

on recent authority that its " imports exceed twelve milhons of florins. In the terri-

tory are several iron mines, which add considerably to the revenue ; and in the

department of native manufacture, such as wooden clocks, toys, tobacco, paper,

earthenware, potash, glass, arms, hardware, and various other articles of trade,

considerable business is done in the circle of the Black Forest." Most of the wooden

clocks and toys sold in London, are manufactured here, and give employment to a

considerable portion of the village population.

There is no estabUshed rehgion in Baden. The Roman CathoUc, Lutheran, and

Refonned Christian Confessions enjoy equal privileges; but the first of these greatly

predominates ; and of Je*ws resident in the duchy, there were lately between eighteen

andnineteen

thousand;

thewhole population

amountingto

1,121,000. The grandattraction to strangers in this duchy is its mineral waters, too generaUy known to

require notice in this exciu-sive work. We must not omit to state, however, that the

encouragement given to pubUc education, is dcsen-ing ofall praise. But as the Umits

of our present work forbid our dilating upon subjects not absolutely connected with

the illustrations, we return to the notice of Geissingen.

The Banube, which is here of a diminutive volume, is crossed by one of those

wooden bridges, for which the neighbouring forests supply abundant materials, and

which are found, by the experience of ages, to be better suited to the purpose than

heavier and more elaborate stone structures; for, if swept away or injiu-ed by

winter-floods, they are easily replaced. The chiurch-spire, rising hke a landmark from

the centre of the town, is an object that frequently meets the eye in these parts. It

is uniformly constnicted of wood, and in many instances often carried to a height

which takes the traveller by surjjrise. In times when this country was a dense forest,

with only here and there a clear space around the village, or by the river-side, such

land-marks were indispensably necessary : by ascending a tree or rock, and markingthe

church-spires as they rose in particular directions, the strangerwas enabled to direct

his course. Towns, villages, castles, churches, were only known to each other by

some such distinctive feature, which, rising over the subject forest, pointed out its owe

' Tn a work by the present wTiter, entitled " A Residence at the Courts of Germany," the reader

will find more ample details on the Sceaerj- of the IJlack Forest and Baden.

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////// ' 'aM^i-///^/

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Stgmaringen.] THE DANUBE n.LUSTR.\TED.

particular district. Often, however, where there is no similar indication, the smoke

of the hamlets, as it is seen curling slowly upwards, like an exhalation from the

recesses of the forest, is a good substitute for the church-spire. The sound of the

evening bell in these leafy sohtudes, falls upon the ear of the traveller with a pecu-

liarly soothing effect ; and we can well recollect the morning melodies which used to

salute us, when, residing at a small court in the Black Forest, we sallied forth to enjov

the gradually expanding view firom the rocks of Sablestein, while

" The eddying echoes of the Jager's horn.

From cliff and covert welcomed back the mom.

When tolled the Slatin-bell, and Geissingen

Sent forth her flocks to roam the greenwood glen."

si(.MAl;t.\UK.'<r

^tgntfltinSCn, ofwhich a striking vifw is licre annexed, is ;;!i ancient town of his-

torical impcrtance, and occupies a clelii,'htfiil position on the Danube. Tlio bridge

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10 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [Sruttltngilt.

is a fine structure, consisting of six eliptic arches, and presenting an appearance

of gi'eat elegance. A Gothic bridge, however, would have been in better harmony

with the landscape ; which, in other respects, is amply seconded by the feudal

chateau, which crowns the isolated rock, and throws an air of venerable antiquity

over the whole scene. This chateau is the town residence of the Prince of Hohen-

zollem-Sigmaringen, who " holds the sixteenth place in the German Confederacy,

and has one vote in all questions that come under its supreme cognizance. Tlie

territory contains nearly forty thousand inhabitants, and famishes a military contingent

of three hundred and seventy men. The population of the town is under nine hun-

dred, and like that of the principality, is chiefly Catholic. The annual revenue

amounts to upwards of three hundred thousand florins ;" but as the agriculture is in

a state of gradual improvement, and the iron mines continue to be worked, there

is every prospect of progressive advancement in all the domestic resources. The

soil, however, is not fertile ; and the unldndliness of a great portion of it has to be

compensated by additional industrj'. Along the right bank of the Danube, never-

theless, there are exclusive tracts where the soil is as fertile as the scenery is pic-

turesque ; and around the town the traveller will notice much luxuriantmeadow-land,

such as is seldom observed out of England.

SruttUngtn> wluch forms another of the views illustrative of tliis part of the

Danube, is a town ofsix thousand inhabitants, or upwards, and extends along the right

bank of the Danube, which now begins to assume a gradual increase of volume, depth,

and rapidity. Tliis town was nearly all destroyed about forty years ago, by one of

those conflagrations to which we have already alluded, as so frequent in these

forest countries, where the buildings ai-e chiefly composed of timber. But out of the

ashes of the old town. New Tutthngen has arisen ; and with such manifest improve-

ments and precautions in the architectiure and materials, that no such calamitous

event, it is to be hoped, will again visit its thriving population. It is in the Wirtem-

biu-g territory, and being on the great road through the Black Forest, to Schaff"hau-

sen, enjoys all the advantages of a national thoroughfare, but has little trade of its

own. The mass of the population in this Circle is engaged in the va)ious depart-

ments of agriculture ; but, as this cannot afibrd anytliinghke a remuneration to all,

numbers are annually tempted to emigrate to the United States, and the British or

Dutch settlements.

The old castle of Romberg, which forms a bold feature in the landscape, is an in-

teresting relic of the feudal ages, and occupies a position which was long considered

impregnable. In ' the thirty years' war,' however, it shared the fate of its nume-

rous cotemporaries, and having ser>-ed for about three centuries as a fortress that over-

awed the district, its towers were dismantled, and its lower bidwarks levelled with the

ground; so that what was long an object of terror, became suddenly transformed into

a peaceful feature in the landscape.

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SaCvtcmbtttg.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 11

TDTTUlfOEN.

" No banner floats npon its keep

No warders line its wall

The shouts of war and wassail sleep,

In Ilomberg's roofless hall

The furze and lichen flourish wild

In Love's neglected bower,

And ruin frowns where beauty smiled

In Homberg's lofty tower."

From the heights of Engen, a very short distance from tliis, we obtain one of the

finest views that can well be imagined. Here we alighted, and moving from one point

to another, enjoyed the prospect under eveiy possible advantage. The grand and im-

posing features were the snow-clad Alps in the distance bounding the horizon ; the fron-

tier mountains of Tyrol, the lake of Constance, and the ruined castles ofHohentweil,

and Hohencracken—each crowning the summit of a i"ocky precipice—^with towns,

villages, wood, and water, filling up the foreground. The morning was delightfiil—the

sky clear, the atmosphere transparent, and nothing was wanting that could add to

the enchantment of the view.

But, to return to the banks of the Danube, we shall make a few general obsen'ations

on the country of Wirtemburg, through which we have now to proceed on our way

to Ulm, where the navigation of the Danube may be said to commence. It was our

fortune to spend part of three summers in this territory, at the coiul; of the late Queen

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12 . THE DANUBE ILLUSTIU.TED. IJCltmmbutg.

, Dowager—the Princess Royal of England ; and, from much pleasing intercom-se with

the people, we ai-e bound to record a most favourable opinion, both of the society

and the scenery which it presents. With few exceptions, as a late geographer of

the country has justly obsen'cd, " this is one of the best watered, and most fertile

countiies in Germany. It generally consists of champaign lands, and pleasant, well

irrigated valleys, which abound in every necessary of life:—com, wine, and fruit, ai-c

80 plentiful that the annual supply far exceeds the consumption, and enables the

growers to export their produce to a large amount. The banks of the principal river,

the Neckar, are covered with vineyards, which yield a wine little inferior to those of

the Rhine. The mountains are rich in minerals ; iron, silver, and copper, are found

in several distiicts ; and there salt, cobalt, sidphm-, coal, porcelain earth, &c., are

found in great quantity. But although Wirtcniburg is much more of an agii-

cultural than a manufacturing country, it has, nevertlieless, various branches of

domestic industry ; such as spinning, weaving, lace-making, and distilling." It

exports cattle, com, wine, oil, wood, tar, potash • and imports colonial produce, silk,

and different articles of foreign manufactm-e.

Tlie government of Wirtemburg is a constitutional monarchy, admitting its

subjects, of every reUgious denomination, to an equality of civil and rehgious rights.

Tliere is still in the district of the Black Forest, a remnant of that most interesting

people, the Waldenses, of whom we have had occasion to treat in a fomier work.^

But their numbers are now gi'eatly diminished, and the few that still cUng to the

soil—hallowed as it is by the dust of Henri Amaud—have for many j-cai's been sub-

jected to gi'cat privations, and quite unable to support their pastors and mstitutions

in anytiling like comfort and independence.

" Day after day tliey wane;—but still contented'

Intrepid champions of tlicir faith they stand,

AVhose martyr-church, by blood and toil cemented,

Brought truth and gladness to the stranger's laud"

The majority of the population here is of the Lutheran Church; but the RomanCatholics and Jews are also numerous and influential. Great attention is paid by

• government to the advancement of education, in all its branches, from those taught in

• the University, down to its first rudiments in the village school. The present king has

set a noble..^ example in promoting by hberal patronage this giand object; and in no

part of the German States are talents more cultivated, or is learning more respected,

than on the banks of the Neckai-. A special law directs that every child shall attend

school from the age of six to that of fourteen ; so that in Old Wirtemburg, at least,

* there is scarcely an individual to be found who cannot both read and write.' Amongthe names which have bequeathed immortal honour on their countiy, we need only

' The Waldenses, or Protestant Valleys of Piedmont Illustrated. G. A'i. ti;e, UJJO 2.

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c^^?/^?^1^- ^^^(/^a/^ 'f//m^.

.

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J&aul)tnstctn.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTIUTED. 13

mention those of Scliiller, Wieland, Danneckar : and at this moment there are others

following their steps on the same ground, whose labours are familiar to every scien-

tific reader of the day The tenitory in which the Danube takes its rise, and through

which it performs the first stage of its rapid coiurse, is rich in memorials of the

feudal age. Numerous chiefs who figm-ed in the Crusades, or, by daily practice

with their neighbours, kept up a love of the ' knightly art' at home, had their family

fortalices among the recesses of the Black Forest. From one or other of these

ancient ber9eaux men have descended who still hold sway in the country, and point,'

with excusable pride, to the donjon and embattled walls, on which was mounted the

original standard of their family. To one of these ancient land-marks of the middle

aces we have already alluded ; but that of Rauhenstein, here introduced, is one ofthe

BAUHBMSTEIN

most picturesque of its kind in Germany ; and, aided by the natmral landscape, wh.clj

is quite in harmony with the old haunts of robber chiefs, it fixes the attention, and

canoes back the mind to those scenes in its history when the ' red beacon of Rau-

henstein could bring a thousand spears to the rescue. But now although partial!,

repaired^ ^^^^ ^^.^^ ^^^ wreathed its ruined court,

The nightshade cl-uibs thewall;

And the wild fox doth nightly sport

Where chieftain strode in hall."

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^ THB DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [Cittt of ®Im.

Oue ofthe principal cities of Wirtembuvg, and that to which our present work more

obviously refers, is tliat of

(aim on the Danube. The territory which in 1810 accompanied the transfer of this

ancient city to the kingdom of Wu-tembm-g, contains forty bailiwicks and baronies

and comprises a space of about nine leagues in length by six m breadth. The

city is most advantageously situated, at the confluence of the Iller and Blau with

tlie Danube, where the river first becomes navigable for vessels of bm-then. Its

situation in a mihtary point of view is also of great importance ; and its emii-ons

have been, in om- own times, the theatre of more than one sangiunary engagement '

between rival armies. It was originally a free imperial city; but after ha^dng

experienced many reverses mider Bavaria and France, was at last ceded to Wir-

temburg. Its inglorious smi-ender to the French, five yeai-s previously, through the

pusillanimous conduct of General Mack, then in command of a most powerfid

garrison, forms a disgraceful incident in its mihtary annals ; but for the paiticulars

of wliich, and its subsequent occupation by the troops of Napoleon, we must refer

our readers to the detailed histoiy of tliat eventfiil period. The walls and boulevards

are now levelled, and transfonned mto agreeable walks for the use of the citizens ; and

from almost every point of the surroiuiding landscape, some interesting or liistorical

feature presents itself to the eye.

After ha\ing spent the eaily part of the day in a general survey of the town, we

proceeded to the cathedral

—the long-celebrated minster-church of Ulm, which is

justly pronounced one of the finest ecclesiastical structures in all Gennany. To

convey to the reader anything like an adequate and detailed account of this tnily

magnificent pile would far exceed oiur hmits ; but of its effect, as a bold imd im-

posing featm^e in the landscape, and of its stately elevation above every other build-

ing in the city, a con-ect idea may be formed from the engraved subject here

introduced. Tlie point from which the view is talvcn is the battle-field—a rising

ground on the Wu-temburg heights, commanding the city and Bavarian teiritory,

extending along the right bank of the Danube, with the Tjrolese Alps in the dis-

tance. Like the cathedrals of Cologne and Sti'asburg, that of Ulm was never

finished; but the bmlding was canied on for more than a ccntiuj', at the sole

expense of its own spirited citizens, and was only discontinued on the discovery ot

some flaw in the soil or foundation, which tlurcatened the stabiUty of the tower. The

architect was Matthew Ensmger, whose sldU in the science is practically Ulustratcd

in this splendid monument of his genius. The view fi'om the tower commands an

extensive and interesting panorama of the course of the Danube—the Wirtemburg

Alps, the great monasteiy of Boblingen, the field of battle already mentioned, and.

what is more interesting to the English traveller, the scene of Mailborough's

victorj' on the field of Blenheim. Tlie height of the tower is neaily two hundred

and forty feet, but had it been finished according to the original design, it

wouldhave had an elevation of nearly double that amoimt.

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Cite of aim.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED, 15

Germany is peculiarly rich in its monuments of ecclesiastical architecture ; and

among the chmxhes are many of very lai-ge dimensions ; but it has none to competewith the cathedral of Ulm, in width ofnave, or breadth of transepts ; while the nume-

rous massive and clustered pillars, wliich flank the aisles, produce a grand and imposing

effect on the spectator. In the choir the profiision of stained glass, with historical

subjects, through which the light penetrates from without in every imaginable

hue, has a rich and biilliant effect, and imparts a sort of magic colouring to every

object around. Statuary, caiTcd and tabernacle-work, painting, gilding, with an

almost imique specimen ofintcrlacing arches, are the objects of art wliich chiefly

aiTcst the attention ; and, as a whole, the impression left upon the mind, by a de-

liberate survey ofthis magnificent temple, seems in no hazard of being effaced by any

other cathedral on this side of the Alps.

The popidation of Ulm was lately stated at neai'ly fifteen thousand ; but now that

steam-navigation is fuUy established on the Danube, and trade and manufactures

appear on the increase, a considerable mflux of inhabitants may be safely predicted.

The channel of the river at this point has a breadth of two himdred feet or upwards,

with a depth sufficient for all the pm-poses of na^dgation ; and near the bridge, which

forms the connecting link between the Wii'tembm-g and Bavarian States, boats foi

passage and traffic are always to be foimd ready for liire. The public conveyances,

called ' Ordinari,' are barges, which leave on stated days, and are subject to the regula-

tions ofgovernment. The bridge is a handsome structure, built ofstone, and consisting

of four capacious arches. On the left, or lower side of the bridge, are the public and

private barges, stationed for the conveyance of passengers and merchandise. The

ciurent of the river tlu-oughout its whole course is so strong and rapid, that no boat,

as the reader is aware, can ascend the sti'eam—

"facihs descensus, sed inde retrorsum,

hie labor, hoc opus est." Steam, however, promises in a great measinre to over-

come this difficulty ; so that, with the aid of paddles, the phenomenon of a vessel

stemming the current of the Danube, is no longer a mhacle in the eyes of the

pubhc.

The trade of Ulm consists chiefly of wine, silk, paper, with various other articles

of minor importance ; but, as we have aheady obseiTed, there is every prospect of a

great increase of traffic in consequence ofthe vast facilities ofintercourse afforded by

the navigation of this majestic river. There is one branch of industry which is pe-

cuhar to Ulm and its vicinity, and that is the fattening of snails, which are exported

in casks to the extent of many millions, as a deficatc substitute for ' animal food

in those countries where that indulgence is forbidden at particular seasons ; and

being " neither fish nor flesh," the snail, imder such chc*mstances, is considered a

legitimate luxiny. In Lower Saxony, while residing at one of the petty courts, wc

remember seeing snail-soup daily prepared for the use of an illustrious personage as a

specific for cough, and no doubt, fiom its glutinous property, it may in some mea-

sure allay ii-ritation. But to an English palate few things could be less acceptable

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IQ THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [Baftaria.

than snail-soup, however skilfully prepared.' Every country, however, has its par-

tialities

"If corn or oil be scarce;—if vintage fails,

France luis licr frogs, and Germany her snails.

What need to fast ? Explore the marsh and wood,

And find in snail and frog a luscious food '.

' Eat flesh and perish !' cries my grave confessor,

But feed on snails, and thou art no transgressor.

But it is now time to proceed, and, leanng this item in the pubhc revenue under the

protection of government, wc shall notice the various subjects selected for illustra-

tion as they occur in our progress down the river.

U L M T L I N Z.

" Le Fleuve, en son heureux passage,

R^fl^chit de ses bords la fertile beaute,

Et baigne de ses eaux lenteraent fugitives

Tons ces monts de verdure eleves sur sos rives." La Harpe.

Leaving Ulm by the bridge, we hare Wirtemburg on the left, and Bavaria

on the right, a broad and flat expanse of country, bounded by a distant

chain of mountains, which mark the bold outline of the Tyrol. The objects

which diversify the landscape are few and inconsiderable ; the country has the

appearance of a vast plain, with here and there shght undulations of surface, a

clump of wood, a hamlet-church, a grey convent, a cluster of peasants' houses,

the schloss of a ' freyherr,' groups of peasants at labour in the field, cattle at

pasture ; but all so scattered that the animation which they would othei-wise com-

municate to the landscape is lost ; and the traveller feels as if he had commenced his

journeythrough a province from which the ancient settlers had been suddenly expelledor withdi'awn. Except in the more southern districts of the kingdom, where it com-

prises the Alpine range, Bavaiia is generally flat, but well watered, and fertile in

nearly all the varieties of agiicidtural produce. Tlic marshes, however, aie very ex-

tensive; that called the Donaumoos or gieat fen of the Danube, covers about thirty

square leagues. The climate varies according to the districts, which are divided

into upper and lower ; but in general the air is salubrious and of this the robust

appearance of the inhabitants arflbrds the best evidence. The soil, however, is much

neglected; and were it cultivated agreeably to the new system of agiiculture now so

' Fallicim, and Loiphini, on tlio Bavarian side of the river, enjoy a sort of hereditaryrenown as the

'leat siiail-fecding districts.

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\

V

I

-a

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iSabaria.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 17

generally adopted in other countries, its produce might be more than doubled. Fniits,

hops, and wine are gi-own and exported in considerable quantities. In nearly everydirection the traveller perceives extensive tracts of land exclusively devoted to the

cultivation of tobacco, which, in its progress to maturity, has all the appearance of a

turnip-field or cabbage-garden ; and, besides a vast consumption at home, is made a

chief article of traffic with the neighboiuing states. The other exports consist of

com, wood floated down the rivers, salt, raw hides, flax, and hemp. Great exertions

have been made by the present government to widen the sources of national industry,

while every encoiu-agement is given by the king personally, and by the representatives

of his government, to foster the arts, to superintend the general education of the

people, and to forward the estabUshment of scientific and benevolent institutions

throughout the country. As in Wirtemburg, so all subjects in this country, of what-

ever religious denomination, are equal in the eye of the law; and his Bavarian

Majesty, well known as a most liberal patron of artists and men of genius, is

himself an elegant poet, a man of excellent taste, and ofa higUy cultivated mind.

ITiese traits in the character of the sovereign are fully appreciated by his subjects,

and have produced the happiest effects upon the rising generation, who are thus

stimulated to constant exertion, by the certain rewards which are publicly held out

to all who attain to excellence in the various departments of science and the arts.

But to this we may have fiuther occasion to advert.

Between Ulm and this part of the Danube the traveller will often remark the sin-

gularity of costume worn by the peasantry,

male as well as female. It is probable that

little or no alteration in this respect has

taken place within a century. The French,

during their occupation of those parts, in-

troduced perhaps a few slight changes in

manner and costume ; but theh ascendancy

was too short-lived to leave any permanent

alteration in the hereditary cut and quality

which distinguish the various dresses of the

peasantry. The head-dresses of the females

are occasionally not merely pictm'esque but

elegant, and enriched with much curious em-

broidery. The shapes vary, but the prevailing

cap, as handed down fi'om mother to daughter,

is similar to what is worn by the peasants

of Franconia, a low triangular structure of

silk, or some less expensive material, embroidered and adorned with flowing

ribbons, which, by their gay colours, give an air of cheerfulness and vivacity to the

wearers, many of whom are very comely, and by no means deficient in the art of

pleasing. Others, who are in better circ*mstances, and more exposed to the

CCSTl'ME OF A VZMKLB PEASANT.

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18 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [Bonautoort!;.

COSTCME OF MALE r£ASANTS.

temptations of fjishion, the tiicks of the couturiere and coifTem-, adopt the sim-

pler and more elegant mode of dressing the hair in a simple braid, and finish-

ing with a smart fillet and rosette placed tastefully on one side of the head. But as

we are no adepts in the mysteries of the toilet, we shall not proceed further with

our descriptions on this head at present, but return to it fi-om time to time, as the

costiune changes with the change of government. With regard to the male peasants

their di'css is by no means unhke what it was

a century ago in England. The brim of the

hat no bad substitute for an umbrella ; the

coat long, loose, broad in the wake ; buttons

like crown-pieces; a scailet or other gay-

coloured vest, ' to correspond;

' the nether

department strongly cased in buckskin ; the

extremities covered with tluck worsted hose,

and substantially shod with wood and iron, or

when leather is to be had, the latchet is fin-

ished with broad, glaring buckles, which are

occasionally objects of much hereditary at-

tachment with the wearer. Although ver}'

coaise and homely, the dress of the peasantry is warm and comfortable, suited to the

chmate, and so far as we could observe, protecting the person fi-om many dangers, to

which, where the manufactures are cheap and flimsy, the wearers are inevitably

exposed on every change of temperature.

j!QonauU)Ott9> the next illustration of the Danube, is a place of considerable im-

portance, but more particularly interesting to the Enghsh reader, fiom its near vicinity

to the fields of Hochstadt and Blenheim. It occupies the left bank of the river,

and, originally, was a fiee imperial city. Its present condition, however, presents

a melancholy contrast to its former importance ; it is thinly peopled, and although

an air of departed gi-andem- lingers within its walls, it has little to interest the stranger,

and no immediate prospect of recovering that prosperity which once enhghtencd

and enriched its citizens. The part, however, which it took in the giand question

of the Reformation, and the manner in which it contributed to the support of the thirty

years' war, are incidents of no httle interest among the stirring events of that momen-

tous epoch. The new Lutheran doctrine introduced by the refoiiners, having been

warmly received m various cities and states of Germany, and openly professed in

Switzcriand, found also its able sui^porters at Ulm and Donauworth. But in the

latter, the pubUc opinion was so generally in favom- of the great mond change, that

the Catholic form of worslup was either laid aside, or restricted to one particular

convent, and the other churches appropriated to the reformed congregations. Butthe abbot

of the Holy Cross, who witnessed this sudden invasion of his rights,

determined to maintain liis authority at all risks; and forming a solemn iwoccssion of

monks and devotees, paraded the streets with the host, and aided the imposing

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BonaufcUOttf).] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 19

ceremony by a display of sacred banners, and all that outward pomp and circ*mstance

which had hitherto attended the gi-eat festivals of the chui'ch. He was aware, how-

ever, that all ' old things were now passing away ;' yet, determined to express his disap-

probation in the strongest terms, he headed the procession in person, and being

assailed by the mob, who had the feeling of slaves newly broken from their

chains, had no httle difficidty m extricating himself and liis brotherhood from the

iTide hands of the populace. The popular ferment occasioned by this treatment of a

distinguished ecclesiastic, was speedily augmented by the open conflict of parties

and so keenly resented by the church and state, that the ban of the empire was

pronoimced, and a powerful army marched to Donauworth, to execute judgment

upon that ' nest of daring reformers.' To this army, consisting of seventeen thousand

men, the citizens could offer no eifectual resistance, and their only course was to

submit ; and after having inflicted that measiu'e of chastisem*nt of which the now

victorious abbot thought them so richly deserving, the reformed worship was abol-

ished, the churches were restored, and the ancient privileges of the town confiscated.

The violence and injustice of tliis proceeding were so apparent, that, instead of

checking insubordination to the church, it only added redoubled energies to that

spirit of dissent which had now so strongly manifested itself among enUghtened men

of the time, and gave rise to that Protestant League which was destined to act so

firm and conspicuous a part in the affau's of that tumultuous crisis.

In the monastery of the Holy Cross is the tomb of Mary, Princess of Barbant, the

unfortunate consort of Louis the Severe, who, like our eighth Henry, was subject to

violent fits of jealousy, and in one of these ordered his suspected but innocent wife

to be deUvered over to the headsman. The blow was struck ; but the proof of her

innocence having been shortly afterwards substantiated, upon incontestible evidence,

the remorse and despair of the rash and credidous husband are recorded to have

been so poignant that he became grey in a single night.

" And still that mangled form so fair

Was present to liis mind ;

His cheek grew haggard with despair

No refuge could he find.

The furrows deepened on his brow

All sleep forsook his eye !

liis gait so proud to earth was bow'd.

But still he could not die I

A deadly weight, a dreary fate,

A voice that said ' Live on !'

Each wretched breast may hope for rest.

But thou canst hope for none."—MS.

The action of Donawert, or Donauworth, of which the Duke of Marlborough gave

the following relation by a letter to the States-General, is one of the mihtaiy events

for which the place is celebrated.

" High and Mighty Lords.—Upon our airival at Onderingen, on Tuesday, I un-

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20 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED [BonatDCtt.

derstood that the Elector of Bavaria had despatched the best of the foot to guard the

post of Schellenburg, where he had been casting up entrenchments for some days,

because it was of great importance ; I therefore resolved to attack liim there ; and

marclied yesterday morning by three o'clock, at the head of a detachment of six

thousand foot and thirty squadrons of oxu: troops, and three battalions of Imperial

grenadiers ; whereupon the army begun their march to follow us ; but the way being

very long and bad, we coidd not get to the river Wcrtz till about noon, and 'twas

fuU three o'clock before we could lay bridges for our troops and cannon, so that all

things being ready, we attacked them about six in the evening. The attack lasted

a full hour : the enemies defended themselves very vigorously, and were very strongly

intrenched, but at last were obhged to rethe by the valour of our men, and the good

God has given us a complete victory We have taken fifteen pieces of cannon, with

all their tents and baggage. The Count D'Arco, and the other generals that com-

manded them, were obliged to save themselves by swimming over the Danube. I

heartily wish your High Mightinesses good success from this hapjiy beginning, wliich

is so glorious for the arms of the aUies, and from which I hope, by the assistance of

Heaven, we may reap many advantages. We have lost very many brave officers, and

we cannot enough bewail the loss of the Sieurs Goor and Beinheim, who were killed

in the action. Tlie Prince of Baden and General Thungen are sUghtly wounded;

Count Stirum has received a wound across his body, but it is hoped he will recover

the hereditary Prince of Hesse-Cassel, Count Horn, Lieutenant-General, and

the Major-Generals Wood, and Pallandt are also wounded. A httle before the

attack begun, the Bai-on of Moltenburg, Adjutant-General to Piince Eugene, was

sent to me by his Highness, with advice that the Marshals of Villeroy and Tallard

were marched to Strasburg, having promised a great reinforcement to the Elector of

Bavaria, by way of the Black-Forest ; and I had advice, by another hand, that they

designed to send him fifty battalions and sixty squadrons of their best troops.

Since I was witness how much the Sieirr Mortagne distinguished himself in this

whole action, I could not omit douig liim the justice to recommend liim to your High

Mightinesses to make up to him the loss of his general ; wherefore I have pitched upon

him to bring this to your High Mightinesses, and to inform you of the particulars.

" Marlborough."

In this action it was computed that about five thousand men fell on each side;

but the consequences of the victory were very considerable, for the confederates

hereby opened a passage into the hcai-t of the Duke of Bavaria's country, and the

elector himself was obhged to retire under the cannon of Augsburg. After the

taking of SchcUenbrn-g, Donawert not being tenable, the elector sent orders to the

garrison to set fire to the town, and biun their bridges and magazines, and retire;

but the confederates, advancing into the suburbs, saved the town from being burnt,

and the Bavarians made such a precipitate retreat that they left two thousand sacks

of meal, and great quantities of oats and other provisions behind them.

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39Itnbrim.] the Danube illustuati;!). 21

On the fifth of July, the confederate army passed the Danube over several bridges of

pontoons, near Donawert, and encamped at Martingen, in the Elector of Bavaria's coun-

trj', and the sixth was obsen-ed as a day of thanksgiving in the army for their success.

Pre^-ious to his amval at Donauwiirth, the traveller's attention is powerfully arrested

by the sight of i3Ient|(tnt, or Hochstadt, as it is more generally called in the countiy.

But as the affaii- at Donauworth took place some time previously to the celebrated battle

to which Blenheim has given name, we have talcen these two classic scenes in tlieir

historical order. The amount of inhabitants is stated at two thousand three hun-

• dred, or upwards ; but the chief interest which it awakens in the traveller's mind

arises fi-om its having been the scene of the great victory gained by Marlborough,

over the French and Bavarians.

" From Blexiieim's towers, tho Gaul, with wild affrigUt,

Beheld the various Iiavoc of tlie fight

His waving banners, that so oft had stood

Planted in fields of death and streams of blood,

So wont the guarded enemy to reach.

Or rise triumphant in the fatal breach.

Or pierce the broken foes remotest lines.

The hardy veteran with tears resigns."

The battle of Blenheim was one of the most obstinate on record, and the victory

was the most complete and brilliant of its kind that had ever crowned the British

ai-ms. Ten thousand French and Bavarians were left dead on tho field ; the greater

part of thirty squadrons of horse and dragoons perished in the Danube : thirteen

thousand were made prisoners—one hundred pieces of cannon were taken, with

twenty-four mortars, one hundred and twenty-nine colours, one hundred and seventy-

one standards, seventeen pair of kettlc-diums, three thousand six hundred tents, four-

and-thirty coaches, three hundred laden mnles, two bridges ofboats, fifteen pontoons,

fifteen barrels and eight casks filled with silver. Of the allies, about four thousand

five hundred men were killed, and about eight thousand wounded, or taken prisoners.

The loss of the battle, so disastrous to Marshal Tallard and the Elector, was

imputed to two capital errors committed by the former—namely, his weakening the

centre, by detaching such a number of troops to the village of Blenheim ; and his

suffering the confederates to pass the ri\-uletand fonn unmolested. Certain it is, these

circ*mstances contributed to the success oftheDuke ofMarlborough, who rode through

the hottest of the fire, with the calmest intrepidity, giving his orders with that presence

of mind and deliberation which were so pccidiar to his character.* His subsequent

intenicw with Tallard, who had lost his son in the charge, was marked by those

cliivalrous sentiments, which did honour both to the \-ictor and the vanquished. " I

am sony," said Marlborough to the French Marshal, " that such a misfortune should

happen personally to one for whom, as a man and a soldier, I entertain a profound

esteem." " I congratulate you," replied Tallard, gratified by the compliment—" I

congratulate you, General, on having conquered the best troops in the world." The

* Ilnine.

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2-2 THE DANUBE ILLUSTKATED. {ISltnljcim.

Duke ackuowledgcd the compliment with a bow; but added, " Pardon me, Marshal

Tallard, if, on tlie present occasion, I think my own troops the best, seeing they

liave conquered those upon whom you have bestowed such an encomium."

It was by this celebrated victory that the house of Austria was saved from entire

destruction, and the aspect of affairs in the empu-e cnthely changed. With these

recoUectionsinhismind,every traveller, and especially the Enghshman, will pause as

he descends this magnificent stream, and spend at least one hour in walking over

the ground, and tracing out the position of the rival armies. Gazing on a scene

where the martial prowess of England was so conspicuous, the lines of Addison fall

upon the ear with double effect ; and, to minds in the least degree imaginative, bring

* the terrors and triumphs of the day' once more into dew.

" Jlethinks I hear the drums' tumultuous sound

The victors' shouts and dying groans confound.

The dreadful burst of cannon rend the skies,

And all the thunder of the battle rise.

Twas there great Marlboro's mighty soul was proved,

That, in the shock of charging hosts unmoved.

Amidst confusion, havoc, and despair.

Examined all the dreadful scenes of war;

In peaceful thought the field of death surveyed.

To fainting squadrons sent the timely aid

Inspired repulsed battalions to engage.

And taught the doubtful battle where to rage.

So when an angel by divine command

With rising tempests shakes a guilty land.

Such as of late o'er pale Britannia past,

Calm and serene lie drives the furious blast.

And pleased the Almighty's orders to perform,

Rides in the whirlwind and directs the storm."

We make no apology for quoting these magnificent lines : for here, though seldom

if ever mentioned in the books of tourists, they are in their proper place. We are

standing on the very soU, and looking around us on the very scenes where the hero

of the poem stood and achieved those martial deeds, from which the muse of

Addison drew his inspiration. To finish the pictui-e of Blenheim, such as it then

was, we indulge in a further extract from the same master, who with graphic power

unites historical accuracy. He describes the' martial character' and first charge of

the elite of the French troops :

" But see the haughty household troops advance !

Tlie dread of Europe and the pride of France,

The war's whole art each private soldier knows,

And with a general's love of conquest glows

Proudly he marches on, and void of fear,

Ijiughs at tlio sliaking of the British spear !

Vain insolence ! With native freedom brave,

The meanest Briton scorus the highest slave.

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13I(nf;eiin THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED.

Contempt and fury fire their souls by turns,

Eaclination's glory in each warrior burns :

Each fiijhts— as on his arm the important dayAnd all the fate of his gieat monarch lay:

A thousand glorious actions, that might claim

Triumpliant laurels and immortal fame.

Confused in crowds of glorious actions lie.

And troops of heroes undistinguished die . .

" The route begins—the Gallic squadrons run,

Compelled in crowds to meet the fate they shun !

Thousands of fiery steeds with wounds transfixed.

Floating in gore, with their dead masters mixed,

'Midstheaps of spears and standards driven around,

Lie in the Danube's bloody whirlpools drowned.

Troops of bold youths, born on the distant Saone,

Or sounding borders of the rapid Rhone

Or where the Seine her flowery fields divides.

Or where the Loire thro' winding vineyards glides

In heaps the rolling billows sweep away,

And into Scythian seas their bloated corps convey."

98

AlAKl.IlllltOtrGHS DrtAtilMINS.

Tliis battle was fought on the 4tli of May. The cannonade began at eight :

it became general at one o'clock, and, says ^Marlborough in his despatch, " lasted

with great vigour till sunset." It is painful to think of the wholesale destruction

upon which so many brave troops were driven, even before they had taken

an active part in the engagement ; for, besides the great numbers, continues the

general, " cut off in tln^ action as in the retreat, there were upwards of thirty squadrons

of the French, which I pushed into the Danube, where we saw the greatest

part of them perish 1" This was a painful admission ; and in the generous

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24 THE D.O.UBE ILLUSTIUTED. [®6crl)attStIU

heart of Marlborough must have thro^rn a damp over the glow of triumph. Super-

stition as usual has invested the sjiot with many shadowy teiTors;and here, it

is said, on every fourth of May, about sunset, when all other sounds are still, the

shouts of combatants, the clang of anas, the clatter of anned hoofs, troops of vision-

arj' horsem*n in mad career re-enact the battle and its closing scene, as when last—

" To the earth, to the sky, in their agouy

Their farewell looks they lifted

But here despair, destruction there.

Through the sulphurous gloom, like the voice of doom.

Pursued them where they drifted."

In constructing the post-roadwliich crosses part of the battle-field, the workmen

discovered, a few years back, a great quantity of bones ; the sad reliqucs of those

men and horses wliich the iron hand of war had that day struck down in their

pride, and thrust into one common giave. They were aftenvards retm-ned to their

kindred earth, and the highway is now canicd over tliem at one point, which may be

really described as the ' soldiers' sepulchre.'

Taking leave of Blenheim, and Donauworth, we now continue our route towai-ds

SitlJ. In this portion of the Danube, the principal objects which attract, and

merit the traveller's attention, are feudal and monastic ruins, with hers a rock,

a tree, or field, that point to scenes of blood expiated by votive altars, on which

'the sacred fire has blazed for ages.' Among the latter Heihgenkreuz, or the Abbey

of the Hcly Cross, already mentioned, is by far the most imposing ; but like

many other of its class and order, its halls have been invaded, its cloisters have

been appropriated to secular piu^oses, and the old spiritual abbots have given place

to the lords temporal of CEttingen-Wallerstein.'

The small town of Rain, is remarkable as the scene where Marshal Tilly was

mortally wounded, whilst defending the passage of the river Lech, against the

Swedish troops, mider their warlike sovereign, Gustavus Adolphus, who, on this

occasion, gave strong proofs of that military skill for wliich he was so distinguished.

The river Lech, which here throws its tribute into the Danube, gives name to

Ijcchsend, a village on the opposite bank, where the castle of Bertholdsheini

forms also a bold feature in the landscape. To these succeed Bui'ghcim,

Steppberg, Oberhausen, Altcnbm-g, Neuburg, with several other objects ofminorim-

portance, yet all of which have their names and places in history. With Oberhausen,

' I« Comte Kraft Ernest fut ^ev^ le 25 Mara, 1774 par Tempereur Joseph II., a la dignity de

prince do I'empire, et prit possession, 1798, par suite d'une convention do la succession de la ligue Jan-

vier, comtale cteinte d'CEttingen-Kazenstcin-Baldern. La scigneurie de Dachstuhl, htiitee par la

I'icce du dernier Comte, epouse du Conipte Rodoli)he Joseph de CoUoredo-lIansfeld, et acquise par

cEttingen-Wallcrstcin par un accord du 3 Octob. 1802, fut cedi-e a la France d'apres la traite de Lune-

ville, 1801, Eu dJdoramagement, ce Prince d'CEttingen-Wallerstein obtint do la dietc de 1803, VAblaye

de lleil'iyenkreux U Donawerl.—Geneal. Cojites D'CEttixgek.

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©un^barg.] THE danobk illustrated. 25

in particular, is associated the memory of a Frencli soldier, who, with a remarkable

uuion of military zeal and talent, prefen-ed obedience to command, and sacrificed

the allurements of rank and station, to the single ambition of being considered the

first grenadier of France. Tliis gallant soldier was Latour d'Auvergne, the darling

of the army, the model of modem chivalry—a second Bayard—who has obtained the

posthumous honour of a monument near the spot where he fell. His death is still

remembered by the few survivors ofthe Vieille-garde. D'Auvergne was as modest and

unassuming as he was brave. Napoleon, when First Consul, created him, in consider-

ation of his gallant exploits, " first grenadier of the French anny." But the word

" consideration" offended his modesty :" I am only proud," said he, " of sening

my countiy ; I care nothing for praise or honom- : my reward is in the consciousness

of performing my duty ; but thus to be praised to my face, it hurts my feelings—that

word ' consideration' will be the torment of my life !" On the cessation of hostilities

d'Auvergne had retired to Passy ; but the son of one of his old friends being drawn

as a conscript, he insisted on supplying his place. He accordingly set out

for the army of the Danube, and carefully concealing who he was, carried the

musket and knapsack of a common grenadier. On the 21st of June, 1800, when the

French and Austrians met in deadly conflict near tliis place, D'Auvergne, rushing

in advance of his comrades, to cut down the Hulan who bore the colours, was sur-

rounded andtransfixed

by alancer,

who attacked him from behind. For threedays the drums were covered with crape, and on the first Vendomaire, his sword of

honoiu- was suspended in the Church of the InvaUds at Paris. The forty-sixth

demi-brigade from that time forward carried his heart inclosed in a silver bo.x sus-

pended to the colours ofthe regiment; and on every muster his name was recalled in

these terms—

" Latour d'AIl^crgne mort au champ d'honneur! "—Kemember Latour

d'Auvergne who died on the field of honoiu'I MilUary Biog.

" Xay, heed not me," the hero ciletl,*

And faintly waved his hand

" Back to tlio charge ! till Austria's pride

Bo prostrate on the strand !

Clierish my fame—avenge my death

To day your laurels earn !

Glory survives the loss of breath—,

So died the brave d'Auvergne !

The tidings flew from line to line,

His comrades wept the while,

But what was all their grief to tliine,

Fair Blanche of Argentueil !—MS

Governed in some measm-e by the order in which the illustrations come to hand,

we sliall now take a retrospective glance at the ancient IJoman station of

tiKunjIlUrS ; and then proceed in the direct course ofthe Danube. Guntia is a

u

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26 THE PAXUBE ILLUSTR.U'EU. Li^tnbura.

foiined, not iVom inn to inn,

place of gi'eat antiqnity ; and, possessing many advantages in its immediate vicinity

to the river, was one of the points chosen by the Roman generals for planting

garrisons, which, by a continuous chain of intercourse and unwearied Adgilance,

tept the neighbouiing country in subjection and themselves in security

A nunnery, wliich still exists, although in a dif-

ferent form, and which at one time gave a

reli^ous character to the place, is an object which

has pecidiar claims on the English tourist, as

boasting of an English lady as its founder. In

the palmy days of miracle-working and monach-

ism, when the forms and ceremonies of the

whole church were cveiywhere the same, and

performed in the same language, a close inter-

course appears to have been kept up between

all the gi'cat continental monasteries and those

of England. Travelling in those times was per-

but from the gate of one hospitable abbey

to that of another ; and it was no unusual thing for a pious lady to make a dis-

tant pilgiimage of this kind, and, fixing upon some iavourite spot abroad, there

to foimd a religious house at the expense of her worldly fortune, and become the

head of a religious sisterhood. The lady who, in the present instance, lays claim

to the grateful remembrance of the pious, was Maria Ward, who, probably, after

visiting the Holy Land bj' the valley of the Danube, erected this nunnery as a

votive altar, on her return.

Resuming our course along tlie Danube, the next object after Rain, which demands

a plpce in these pages, is the picturesque town of Neubm'g. Like most others by which

this magnificent river is bordered, Neuburg lays claim to high antiquit}' ; but this is

onh' secondar\- to the beauty of its situation ; and were it only enlivened by some-

thing like commercial prosperity, there ai'e few places that on a small scale would

surpass it as a cheerfid residence. But what it has not in present enjoyment, it has

in prospect; and the increasing traffic which begins to animate the Danube, pro-

mises to visit, in due time, every town and hamlet in its course ; an event which will

infuse a spirit of life and industry among its half-employed but still actively disposed

inhabitants. Tlie chief ornament of the place is the Schloss, or castle of the ancient

Dukes of Bavaria ; a massive stnicture, with all the characteristic features of the feu-

dal age, and can-ymg back the spectator's mind to those times and events, when the

sovereign chiefs of Pfalz-Neuburg perished in the vain attempt to force a passage

through the defiles of Switzerland. It contains, among other objects of cmiosity,

' Tho cnt here introduced represents a head-dress usually worn here, and in the neighhourliood of

T:im.

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Sv-.,

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• <

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IngoblaBt.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 27

an armoury, composed of those ancient military weapons and accoutrements which

figured in campaigns against the infidel, and, having received the benediction of the

' Hennit,' were supposed to be endued with a charm which no Saracen blade could

dissolve—a belief which inspired those who wielded them with courage and strength

next to invincible. The great hall in the ducal palace is generally pointed out as one

of the finest in Gennany, exhibiting most of the striking features which distinguish

those of its class and epoch. The gardens—or hof-garten—are pleasantly laid out,

in a rather modem style, and command vaiious points of the landscape ; but by far

the most imposing view is that from the battlements of the castle, the towers of which

command the whole country adjacent.

About four miles from Neuburg, is a castellated remnant of the feudal ages, pic-

turesquely crowning an isolated rock, and commanding a free panorama of the

surrounding district. It is a complete ruin;quite pervious to shower and sunshine,

but is stUl an ornament, where it was once a protection, to the hamlet wluch retains

its ancient position under the ' castled crag' of Hiiting.

(<At»TLE or HUETINO.

SngoIOfaOt has been long remarkable for the beauty of its buildings, its straight

and broad strepts, and celebrared as the scat of a famous university. Tlie number

of students who frequented its halls, previous to the French revolution, amounted to

eight hundred or upwards. The order of Jesuits has long had a particular academy

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28 Tin; danube illustrated. [Engoturatit

here ; aiid their number was foniierly not less than a hundred and fiftj". Their

librarj', which was founded by Appian,the mathematician, is eighty paces in

length, and had a gallerj' which went round tlie upper part of it. It was embel-

lished with fine sculptiure and caning in oak ; and on the ceiling were the portraits

of Bellarmine and other celebrated Jesuits, so that it has always been, as Keysler

obsenes, a place wcll-desening of a Aasit. Adjoining the library was Father Uiban's

museum—a collection of cmiosities much celebrated in his da)-, and occupying a

rich and elegantly designed apartment. In this gallery the hero of Blenheim was

presented with a piece of a skull which had belonged to " no less a personage than

Oliver Cromwell, whose body, after the restoration, is said to have been dug up, and

dragged through the streets to Tyburn." '

This Father Urban, confessor to the Elector of Bavaria, was at the head of the

Jesuits of liis time ; and once appointed the following remarkable thesis :—

" Quid

sit Jesuita, nemo scit, nisi qui fiiit ipse Jesuita."—

" No man knows what a Jesuit is,

but he who has been a Jesuit." But what drew upon him the mortal hatred of the

order, says Keysler, was the hospital, or alms-houses, which he undertook to bu}ld,

and almost accomplished. He advised the Elector Palatine to demand of the

Dutch a hundred and sixty thousand guilders, which were actually due as arrears

for subsidies, but looked upon as an iiTccoverable debt. The elector once hinting

this. Father Urban observed that if the money was accounted as lost, his highness

had better bestow it on him ; and when the elector inquired what use he meant to

make of it. Urban rephed, that if he could recover such a sum, it was his intention

to build and endow an hospital for the poor with it. The elector not disliking his

confessor's good intentions, ordered the proper instraments to be made out for

empowering him to i-eceive the money ; and with these credentials, proceeding into

Holland, he managed matters so well, that he brought away with him one hundred

thousand guilders of the demand." Many other good deeds are related of this

learned Jesuit, which entitle him to a place in every notice of Ingolstadt and Lands-

hut ; for, although persecuted by his own order, he was a benefactor of mankind,

the friend and patron of Liebnitz, and, intellectually, much in advance of his age.

Ingolstadt has often taken part in the grand military operations of the countrv-

The troops of the league—the army of Gustavus Adolphus—and, latterly, the Frencli

legions, have all successively appeared under its walls. It was alwa}s a place of

great strength, and everj- means which could be devised by the old engineers was

liberally employed in aid of its natiu-al advantages. It sustained a siege in 1800,

from the French troops, under Moreau ; and having offered a spirited resistance for

neaj-ly three months, was at last compelled to surrender, and soon after witnessed

the demolition of its ramparts. The re-establishment of the old regniie. however,

' Keysler. « Keysler, vol. iv. 431.

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JEngolsfnlfl.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 29

brought with it the restoration of many of the strongholds along the Bavarian frontier;

and Ingolstadt, taking a prominent station among ther,e

has again resumed all the

iriK Knerz-TnoR

characteristics of a place-forte. The Kreuz-thor, or Cross-gate, leading over the

drawbridge and fosse, and surmounted by pointed tuiTets, is strikingly picturesque.

The citadel contains a garrison with an arsenal, and all the usual appendages of a

fortress of national importance—including a " tete-du-pont, and flanked by nume-

rous round towers of most solid constniction." These walls, however, fortified as

they are, and promising everything desirable for the security of the inhabitants,

impart to the whole a prison-like appearance, and conjure up in the stranger's mind

a thousand ideas of siege and storm, capitulation and captivity.

It was here that Coimt Tilly,' after his defeat, already mentioned, died of his

John Tilly—Count of Tzerklas, and one of tlio most celebrated generals of the sevontoenth

century—was a native of Brabant, and born in 1559. He rose by degrees to the command of the

" array of the League," and in the Seven Years' War, was appointed generalissimo of the imperial

troops. His character for military talents and bravery was of the highest kind, but he stained his

laurels by uncalled-for cruelty. After gaining thirty-six battles, he was entirely defeated by Gus-

tavus Adolphus, at Brettonfield, Sept. 7, 1031 ; and being wounded by a cannon-ball—as above-stated,

before the town of Uain—died in 1632

I

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80 THE DANUBE ILLOSTR.VTED. [ffll)att5 of St. JtVatp.

wounds in the Jesuits' college, "although he had fortified himself against the devilish

bullets of the Swedes, by means of a consecrated wafer." It was usual to wear

'

charms,' in those times ; and even in much later wars, from the commander-in-

chief to the common soldier, antidotes against accidents by ' steel' and * lead'

were purchased with boundless credulity; nor is their use entirely exploded even in

the present day among the subordinate sons of Mars

The university* of Ingolstadt, which continued to floiuish till the close of the last

century, and could boast of having enlightened even the renowned Doctor Faustus,

is now transferred to the Bavarian capital, and has its chairs filled with eminent

professors in every department. The pai-ochial cluuch of St. Mary's, with its

massive towers, is desen-ing of attention, on account of its sepulclu-al monuments, and

various other objects of histoiical interest. Among the former, is the monument

of Von Eck, one of the controversial theologians, who, by opposing Luther, vainly

attempted to arrest the progi-ess of refoiTuation, when—following the voice which

had first addressed him in the cloisters of Ei-fiirt,—he

" Obeyed tlie summons, and rejoiced to plc.id

The cause of truth, and ' combat for his creed.""

lu this church was formerly shown an image of the Virgin Mary, with one of the

Icings of France, in a long cerulean mantle, sprinlded with golden lilies, kneeling

' The following r61e gives a magnificent idea of its importance in former times :—"3000—4000 Stii-

denten soUen die Hoclischule zur zeit ihrer Bliithe besucht habcn, darunter Ferdinand II., von

Oestcrroicli (spater Kaiser,) 36 Grafen, 45 Baronc, 70Edellente; [3G Counts, 45 Barons, 70 Noblemen.]

Viel verdankte, die Ilochschule in ilirer crsten, IJIuthcnzeit deni gelehrten Kanzler Leonhard von Eck.

Als sie aber den Jesuiten anlicinifiel.wurdc die strenge dcs Dogmas der Forschung gefahrlich und mit

der Verknechtung der Wisscnscliaft begann dor Iloclisclmie VerfalL"

' "Im tJmalkaldischen Kriego bcscliossen der Landgiaf Von Ilcssen und der Ilerzog Johaiin von

Sachsen Ingolstadts Maueni. Das scUiine newo Landskrcchtlied vou Ji. d. xlvii, siiigt vun demLandgrafen :

" Zu morgen hub er zu schiessen an,

Wold vbor die Kaiserlich Kron

Jlit karlaunen und schlangen.Das trib er mer danu drey ganz tag,

Die weil er dann von Englstat lag,

Der schimpft der wolt sich maclicn.

" L'ud gibt dann dcm I<andgrafon die prophetischo warnung in Kaiif:—

" Landt graffdu darfstnit schiltonoch flucho,

Der kaiser tcird dichselbst noch suclic,

Auf manclicr giiener hayde,

Gschicht das nit baldt, mit grosscm wait

Zn yeder zeit in seiner gstalt

Wirztu liabcn gross laydc."- DoNAULAXtLii. Didter.

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apes ISctnailtt.l TUE DANUilE ILLUSTRATED. 31

before it. The whole work, including the pedestal, was of massive gold, eighteen

inches high, richly embeUished with enamel and jewels, and of immense value.

The shrine was fm-ther enriched with another image, that of St. Michael, of the same

material, and elaborately set with jewels. These, however, are no longer visible

and, like so many others of the continent, may have been exchanged, probably

during the revolution, for the more useful commodities of ' iron and lead.'

Neaily all the towns and bourgs which here skirt the Danube ai-e foimded on

the ruins of ancient militaiy stations occupied by the llomans ; where, fi-om time

to time, vestiges of ait are discovered, which have immediate reference to theii- occu-

pation, and evince the policy and refinement of that exti-aordinarj' people, whose

laws and language have become blended with those of every other nation in Europe.

Among the military positions in question, is that of Germanicum, the modern

Vohenburg, whose castle forms so striking a feature in the landscape, and addresses

the traveller in the voice of other times. It belonged to one of the ancient Bavaiian

fainiUes, who traced their origin to the time of Gcnnanicus, and, in a long succes-

sion of warhke counts—the Grafen v. Vohenbm-g—kept hercditaiy possession of this

domestic fortress. Feudal structiu'cs, however, present so close a resemblance

to each other, that it would be superfluous, in our very restiicted hmits, to enter

into a description of either its ancient outworks or the baronial splendour which

once animated its halls. But the story of Agnes Bemauer, wliich, witliin the

last five years has been made the subject of a dramatic poem, may be allowed to

occupy the place of mere landscape painting. The name is already familiar to the

readers of Planche ; but we shall here give it with some interesting variation from

the common edition of the story.

Agnes Bemauer, was the daughter of an Augsburg citizen, who neither piqued him-

self upon his descent, nor upon the number of heraldic quarterings which had

distinguished his great ancestor, Bernard von Bemauer.—She was universally admhcd

for the beauty and grace which distinguished her person. Her mental endowments

were no less conspicuous ; so that they who conversed with her for only a few minutes,

knew not which to admire most

—the Madonna-hke beauty of her countenance, or the

fascination which seemed to attend on everj'tliing she said or did. She was at once

the object of envy and the idol of admiration ; but happily, envy itself could dis-

cover nothing in the life of the fair Agnes but what was full of examjile and

honour to her sex. The fame of her beauty had reached the ears of Albert, son of

the DukeEmest, of Bavaria; and he, prizing vutue and beauty insohtude, before all

the splendour which invested the high-bom dames at liis father's court, laid aside the

ensigns of his station, and became the suitor of Agnes Bemauer. What he had

heai-d previously by mere fame and report, was more than confimied on acquaint-

ance; and, cheerfully hazarding all the resentment, and degi-adation which might

attend so unequal a match, he exchanged his troth with the fair object of his affec-

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82 THE DANUBE ILLUSTHATEO. [^ignts ISttnaticr.

tions ; and, in the very ruins now before us, the castle of Voheiibiirg, the marriage

of Albert and Agnes was solemnized by the family chaplain. The secret, however,

soon transpu-ed—the Duke was informed of the ill-stan-ed union, and resolved to

inflict liis pimishment at a time and place where it would be most keenly felt by his

son who gloried in the feats and institutions of chivalry. He proclaimed a tournament

to be held within his castle on a certain day ; and, according to the fashion of the

times, invited all true-born knights to break a spear on the occasion, in honour of

their lady-loves. On the morning of the fSte, the lists were crowded with knightly

combatants ; but one, only one, was denied admittance—and that was Albert, the

duke's own son, whose lowly maniage with the daughter of a citizen was sup])osed

to exclude him from all participation in the chivah-ous feats of the day. Exasperated

by this unexpected insult, he made no longer a secret

of his marriage, but proclaimed the name of Agnes

Bernauer, as the peerless object of his afi'ections—

^tho

lawful partner of his hfe and fortune.

This open avowal o^" what he called ' liis family

shame,' provoked the duke, whose secret agents were

soon employed in concerting means for the destruc-

tion of the beautiful and imsuspecting Agnes. He

concealed, however, his resentment, and sending his

son, with a body of horse under his command, to the

frontier, dispatched emissaries to seize the unhappy

wife, and make away with her by whatever secm'e

means might be offered. The assassins found her in

!ier bower, equally unsuspecting and imprepared for such a diabolical visit ; and as

their commands were peremptory, they dragged her to a fictitious tribunal, where,

being accused of witchcraft, foimd guilty, and condemned to die forthwith, she

was carried to the bridge of Straubing, and thence cast into the Danube—vainly

shrieking for mercy, and invoking the name of her husband. None present, how-

ever, dared to lift an arm in her defence, or to breathe a syllable in extenuation of

her sentence. She was earned along with the stream, till she reached a projecting

angle of the bank, where a mass of willows (hppiiig into the current offered some

slight resistance to its force, and retarded for a wlule the death of the victim. Her im-

placable enemies, however, who never lost sight of her, and dreaded above all things

the probability of her escape, now rushed to the spot. She had disengaged or

broken the cords which bound her wrists; and, though speecliless and nearly

exhausted, there is little doubt that she would have escaped, had not violent means

for her destniction been again resorted to. One of the assassins, with a barbarity

rare even in those times, twisted a long spear in her dishevelled locks—those

beautiful tresses which tliat very evening, in expectation of her husband's retmn, she

VRAR INUOrSTADT*

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iSK(I!)(tm.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 9i

had braided with so much care—forced her back into the stream, and thus per-

petrated as fold a murder as ever stained the bright waters of the Danube.

This tenible catastrophe was witnessed by one of his retainers and reported to

Albert, who was at the very moment in liis tent, contemplating in silent rapture a

picture of his ill-fated wife. The tidings were at first pronounced incredible ; but

as the messenger persisted in his statement, Albert began to tremble violently, and

taking horse, never drew rein till he had reached the fatal spot. Here the crowd,

still assembled, testified but too clcai'ly the melancholy tnith of all he had heard.

He now gave vent to his despair in a violent paroxysm of grief which no language

can describe : then, throwing off all fihal allegiance, and breathing vengeance against

themurderers

of his wife, he rushed to take sendee mider Louis Bai'batus

—his

father's implacable enemy—and with him brought the hon-ors of war to the very

liearths and altars of his country. The result was a long-continued scene of

bloodshed—a deadly and unnatural feud—in which Albert, always conspicuous

in the combat, took ample revenge on the authors of his misery, but found not the

death which he so eagerly sought. At last, by the intei-position of the imperial

authority, a peace was concluded between the belligerent Dukes ; but to Albert,

hopeless, and heart-stricken, no peace ever aiiived, till he found it in an early

gi'ave.

About six miles from Neuburg, ah-eady noticed, is another castellated nun, which

occilpies a commanding rocky precipice, as if to proclaim itself the ' feudal court' of

CiiltZ UP WELIIEIH.

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84 THK DANUBE ILLUSTIUTED. [^Tlje ^(aljlgtaScn

the district. It consists of a donjon tower, with a squaic mass of buildings, wliicli,

sufficiently indicate by their extent and military accommodation, the local authority

of the founder, and the number of his family and retainers.

Under the giuu-dianship of this venerable ruin, the village of Welheim in front of

the rock, and in its immediate neighboiuhood, commands some very pleasing and

romantic scenery. But to enjoy this, and other sceneiy of a hke description, the

traveller must be content to quit the river, and penetrate from time to time, the

interior of the country which is but little known ; for tourists in general, pursuing

the same tract, eitherby the river- conveyance or the great post-road, have no idea

of the picturesque scenes which devclope themselves in the interior, and therefore

retmii home with the very unjust conclusion that ' all is ban-en.' He, however, who

can quietly thread his way at some distance from the'

river,' will, in his progress to

Linz, reap an ample harvest for the sketch-book. The countiy is rich in the monu-

ments of chivalry and monachism, the sight of which will recall the well-known

apostrophe of Saumet

" Qa'ils etaieut beaux ces jonrs de gloire et de bonheur !

Ou les preux chevaliers s'cnflammaient a la voix de I'lionncur,

Et recevoient des mains do la bcaut(^ sensible.

L'ocliarpe favorite, etla lance invincible."

From the entrance to Neustadt,^ a small town, advantageously situated on the

Danube, the sceneiy begins to be more interesting, more vaiied, and at short inter-

\als presents features of a pictiu-esque and even striking character—the more so from

the well-known Roman stations which originally lined this part of the frontier, and still

form the groundwork ofthe modern towns and bourgs. The Donaumoos, or fens of

the Danube, alluded to in a fomier page, occupy an extensive tract, through which

the river has hitherto pursued its monotonous course, with httle or no variation of

appearance to mterest or enliven the tourist. But, now that scenes of cultivation,

symptoms oftrade and industry again meet the eye, it seems like a cheerful daybreak

after a melancholy night : we enter a new region, where nature appeai-s in her most

striking forms, which the ingenuity of art is ever employed in converting to the pur-

poses of civilized life. Of these, however, more paiticidars as we proceed.

One of the most extraordinarj' works of ai-t which the Romans have left behind, in

this or in any other country, is the Devil's Wall, or Pfahlgrabcn—a wall and ditcli

planted with watch-towers—which, like the ' great wall of China,' was earned from this

point, near the small town of Hohenheim, to the Rhine. It was fortified thioughout its

whole extent, and crossed rivers, morasses, and mountains in a direct line from begin-

Neiistadt in Anstria,_wliich is quite distinct from, tliongli often confounded witli the present town,

—contains about five thousand inhabitants, and is distinguislied in the history of the late war, for its

patriotic attachment to the crown of Austria. Soon after the commcneoniout of tlio Frcncii revolu-

tion, when it

became necessary to strengthen the frontier, and adopt sucli measures as wore p(-r-

cmptorily demanded by tlie violation of tlie Austrian frontier, Neustadt took the kc;:d in a voluutai v

contribution for the support of tlie war.

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4

4-^

^sN

J

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IWonastJvp of sadunficrs.] the Danube illustrated. 3.5

iiingto end—a distance ofmore than fifty leagues. It formed the grand line of demai-k-

ation between the subdued and unsubdued paits of Germany, by means of wliich the

fierce attacks of the natives were more easily repelled, and the Roman province on the

south of that bulwark, enabled to gain a more seciu-e footing. This extraordinary

rampart was completiKl by the legions under the emperor Probus, who gained many

important advantages over the Gcnnans, and reigned with much honour to himself, but

at last fell a victim to a mutiny of his own troops. On examination it appears to have

been erected on the same plan, and for a similar purpose, as that which in Eng-

land connected Carliilc with Newcastle, and is described as the Roman wall. In

both instances, however, the traces are becoming more and more indistinct ; for

even the vestiges of

Roman power andenterprise give

place to modem improve-ments

; and in another generation, probably, these remains will become of question

or uncertainty.

" Where now the patient antiquary pries,

With skilful mattocic and inquiring eyes,

A r.ace shall rise, whose plough sliall waste the spoil,

Nor leave one 'relic' to reward his toil."

The Benedictine Llonastery of Weltenberg, which next commands attention, was

one of the most celebrated of the German Empire. Its position is altogether

striking ; and this, taken in connexion with its history, never fails to awaken a lively

interest in the mind of every inquisitive stranger. Both above and below tliis part

of the river, its channel is so hemmed in by rocky precipices, which rise from

the water's edge to a height of five, or even six hundred feet, that at several points

tliey seem as if they i,rould meet, and thus give the Danube the appearance of a vast

canal, hollowed out of a solid mountain. At a point, however, where it makes a bend

to the right, there is an open space between the river and the precipices, and there

stand the monastic ruins of tt)t ^IltiCj). Few situations could have been found

better adapted to religious seclusion. Tlic melancholy gloom wluch invested the

defile ; the striking featm'cs which nature assumed in a region where her mysterious

operations were eveiyhoiur felt

and seen; the

peii^ctualrush of waters ; the occa-

sional stonn in the adjoining cliffs ; the change of seasons, which varied without

diminishing the native soUtude of the place—all contributed to render it pcculiai-ly

suited to men who had renounced the world, and fixed all their happiness in the

duties of a religious life.

" Loin du faste de Rome et des pompes mondaines,

Dos temples consacre's aux vaintes hnniaiucs,

Dont I'appareil supcrbo impose a runivcrs,

L humbb Religion sc cache en des deserts

Ellc y vit avcc Dieu dans uno paix profoudo."

BmI th?se were not the only recommendations in the eyes of tho founder; for, as

tl:o Romans had occupied the retreat long before, and left a temple of Minerva

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98 THE DANUIJE iLi.usTKATED. [Jttonasfrtt.) of a^cltcnberg.

to witness for their partiality to the spot, it was considered a laudable act to

purify the place by the erection of a house of Chiistian rites and disciplme;

and with this pious resolution originated the monastery in question. In these

latter days, however, monastic establishments have ceased to flourish as in

former times. When the feudal chief once deserted his airy tmiets on the rocks, for

more congenial quarters in the plain, monachism also underwent a material

change. As soon as men felt that they were safe under the protection of the law,

they had seldom recourse to fortress or monasteiy ; hence, in proportion as the

civil liberty of the subject increased, resort to chm-ch protection and privilege

became less frequent ; till at length, refusing to be led by their fomier guides, they

resolved to judge for themselves ; and from that moment, the dechnc and fall of the

monastic orders began. The Council of Constance, with the burning of John Hussand Jerome, of Prague—on the spot which is still shown to the stranger vfus the first

decisive blow given to the ecclesiastical Briavcus. The monastery of Wcltenberg,

however, long survived the dawn of the reformation; and, isolated in a great measure

from political turmoil and ecclesiastical schism, held on its course for more than a

ccntmy, without loss of revenue, or lack of devotees. Its works of chaiity, the

exemplary lives of its superiors, the piety of the brotherhood—whose active benevo-

lence had its witnesses in evciy surroimding village—seemed to avert the hour of

final dissolution, and to extend the period of its healthful existence beyond the term

allotted to many of its cotemporaiies. At b.st, however, the fatal mandate was

issued; the revenues were seculaiized, and the good monks of Wcltenberg were

driven from the sanctuary, at which, during the lapse of centuries, they and

their predecessors had served with unflinching zeal and fidelity, llie time, however,

had anived, when the fires, which for ages had glowed on its altai's, should be

finally extinguished. After perfonning the last mass, and singing the last halleluiali,

the Brethren took a last sad farewell of that sanctuary with wliich their hearts were

indissolubly imited ; and on the cliffs which overlooked and protected thcu' hallowed

home, spent an hour in melancholy reti-ospection, and then, with mutual benedic-

tions, took each his several route—never to meet again.

In this passing notice, we need only observe that the monastery of Weltenberg

is now a public * brasserie'—that this ancient house of prayer is transfonned

into a majuifactory of small-beer.—But recollecting the encouragement which was

unifoi-mly given by the Benedictine order to genius and the arts, we may justly ex-

claim, in the words of Delille,

" Sur CCS vastea rocliers, confusem*nt epars,

Jo ciois voir le genie appeler tous les arts .

Le peintre y vient chevelicr, sous des tcintcs saus nouibrc,

Les jets dc la lumiere, et les masses do Tombie.

1.0 poete y couyoit dcs plus sublimes cliants ;

La sago y voit des moenrB les spectacles toucliauts."'

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1

?s

P

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iWonastcro of saritcnburg.] the Danube illustkated. 37

But we must not leave Wcltenburg, without one or two additiouiil observations.

Compared with those of the Empire, however, this edifice presents few indications of

that monastic pomp and magnificence which characterized the great abbeys of the

fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. It is chiefly remarkable for the striking scenery

and sublime sohtude amidst wliich, like a vast sepulchral monument, it airests the

eye, and in a voice more edifying than that of its ancient abbots, seems to address the

traveller in these words :—

" Stranger ! mouldering in the dust beneath thee, repose

the ashes of a thousand brethren : for centuries I have echoed to their son'>-s of

praise ; to the evening, the midnight, the matin prayer. In my time I have seen

the rise and fall of states and dynasties : the victor in his exultation, the vanquished

in their despair, have alternately fallen prostrate before that shrine. On his

wayto

the Saviour's tomb—on his way to wrest that hallowed ground from heathen dese-

cration—^palmer and Christian knight have each halted to offer a prayer to our Lady

of Wcltenburg. Bannered hosts—whose barges seemed to form an immense

camp, under these precipices—have paused to receive the abbot's blessing, to join in

the evening sacrifice ; and then, immooring, have gUded softly down the stream, till the

mighty chorus of their miited voices fell fainter and fainter, till it was lost in the

rush of the stream. I have seen them too, on their return—but how few returned,

and that few how changed ! They have knelt again at the same shrine, they have

covered it with votive ofierings—spoUs torn from the Saracen at the price of nmch

blood; they have joined in the same prayer; but they themselves were no longer

the same. Many of them were maimed, all emaciated. Some like spectres, that

resembled warriors in nothing more than that they were cased in annour, and carried

themselves like men whose souls felt not, or defied, their bodily wounds. They

spoke with a fervent enthusiasm of the cause they had espoused, the sacred

banner under which they had fought ; and dwelt, with a feeling that approached

to almost envy, on then kinsmen and comrades who had fallen gloriously in the

contest, and now slept under the walls of Jerusalem. Here fathers returned

without their sons, sons without their fathers, soldiers without their chiefs ! but all

with honom-, all animated with one spirit, as the recognized champions of the Cross.

Stranger! many scenes Uke these have been witnessed under these majestic rocks,

within these mouldering walls. They were succeeded, in later times, by others,

over which it were well to draw the veil of obUvion. Tlie child-like sunpUcity and

fervent devotion of the crusader, were followed, at no distant interval, by the riots

and blasphemies with which armed and hcentious bands burst in upon the sohtude

of Wcltenburg, and desecrated its altar."—

" But it is written," said a bystander,

" that Wcltenburg shall rise again like a phoenix from its ashes ! that the pilgrim

shaU again bow at its altar ; that the abbot shall preside at the chapter ! and" ....

" Never !" exclaimed a man seated near us, in the costume of the country; " never!

Your abbots were mere men—sinners like others, and if they possessed any fervour,

it was but the natural warmth of the grape. I have listened," said the same indi-

L

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38 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [JWonasttiji of SHcItcnbutg.

vLdual, (now showing himself, with

a specimen of beer for our appro-

val ;)" I have listened with much

patience to what you have heard

about the crusades, and so forth

but I also know a httle ofthe liistory

of the place ; for, as ' successor to

the abbots,' several documents

have fallen into my hands, which

assure me that they wiU never

resume their old quarters ; and one

of the sti'ongcst reasons is, that

the old cellars are empty ; the old

vincyai'd uprooted, and that our

Bavaiian beer is too cold for their

stomachs.—Try it, sir," said he to

one of our company, " and tell

mu how you like the beverage of its

present abbot, the brewer Ernest

V. llapperschwyl. Depend upon

it, sir, if the abbots of old had re-

stricted themselves to sucli virtu-

ous potations, and been a Uttle

more chaiy of politics, I had not

this day bucn the ' brewing abbot

of Weltenburg.' These abbots,

sir, were jovial fellows ; most of them had worn casques in eaily life, and, although

afterwards taking shelter under the cowl, ended with the cask at last. In my early

days, one of their drinking songs ^\ as a special favourite at the AVirthshaus, andseem.s

almost projihetic of the breweiy that was to come."—It is still a liivomite.

Cfte afi6ot'0 Song." Brotliers, life is frail as grass

Dry clay is apt to moulilcr,

Uut inoisteiicd with a cheerful glass

Good wine's the best of solder :"

Then, brothers, driulc aud shout the wliilo,

Wacsheil ! Wacsheil !

' Urothers ! if the journey's rough,

And needs some snuiU concession,

To-morrow will be time cuougU

For penance and confession.

Slean time, we'll drink and shout tho while,

Waeshoil ! Waesheil

• Health to thoe 1

TBE AnsOTS Sl'CCB^SOH.

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\

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tirt* aUmiiljIi^al.] the danuisk illi'strated. S9

" Bi-otliers, prayer is vastly good,

So (after meals) is fasting.

'T is well to watch beside the rood;

But, while there's liquor Listing,

Well chant thro' sacristy and aisle,

WacsheU! Waesheil!"

We shall not halt, howevor, m this stage of our journey, to weigh the evidence of

Lutheran and Catholic, as to the real character of the abbots of Weltenbui-g. But if

the precincts be haimted, as the hierhauer affirms, the ' revcnant' can have but one

object—namely, to make an expeiimont of the new liquor,—which is excusable, pro-

vided the old brotherhood do not adopt the same practice. After the Weltenburg,

which is too frequently passed by tourists and others, almost without notice, we

i\xni aside to make a few brief remarks on the picturesque river and valley of

CftC ^Utniij^ltfjaU The entrance to tliis defile resembles, in many respects,

some parts of the Rhine. The remains of castles, and other places of feudal

strength, occupy most of the surromiding heights, and produce a very striking

effect. Among these, three or four are conspicuous objects, and were, no

doubt, the fortified residences of those native chiefs, who, for various and obvious

reasons, chose the summits of the rocks for their habitations. There, sccm'cd by

rugged precipices, and sun'ounded by vassals whose fidelity was guai'anteed byentire subjection to the pleasure and caprice of their lord—the latter, on being

summoned to the field, could leave his family in safety, and take pai't in the wai's

that were ravaging, with but short intermissions, these beautiful valleys, where at last

peace and prosperity have fixed then* abode. The castles of Braun, Randeck

and one or two others, are the principal features of this class ; Gross-Essing, and

Geissenbcrg fill up the pictm'e, so as to make it one of the most romantic scenes

on this portion of the Danube. The excavation of the Altmiihl river, as fai" as

Dietfurth, where it is to join the great canal, now near its completion, for uniting the

Danube witli the Main at Wm'zbiu-g, will open a new medium of traffic between

southern and northern Germany, and greatly contribute to the general prosperity

of the coimtry. It is a great enterprise, worthy of the patriotic sovereign whoso

name it bears, and during its progress, has afforded employment to some thousands

of industrious natives. The whole distzmce, fi'om its commencement at Kelheim to

its junction with the river Main, is about a hundred and fifteen English miles. As

far back as the days of Chaiicmague, this connecting link between the Black Sea

and the German Ocean, was one of the gi-and objects contemplated by govcnnnent.

The entei"prise, however, was deferred, then abandoned ; till at last, after the lapse

of centuries, the subject was happily revived, the plan laid, the surA-eys completed,

and the work commenced, under the" auspices of his present majesty, the King of

Bavaria, who has evinced the most lively interest in its progress, and anticipates,

from its completion, a vast accession of commercial prosperity. It is, undoubtedly.

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40 THE DAMUBE ILLUSTRATED [lAtlljtlm.

one of the greatest enterprises of modem times ; for, in its com'se, the engineers

have had to contend with manydifficulties, to overcome

manyobstacles,

andin

oneinstance to carry it through a tuiniel of more than three hundred yards. The great

inequality of soil and surface was another difficulty to be obviated by frequent

locks, nmety-four in all; but notwithstanding these interruptions, it is calculated

that seven or eight days will be sufficient to conduct barges fiom one extremity to the

other. Tlie chaimel is capacious, measuring upwards of fifty feet at the top and

thirty feet at bottom, so that hea\'y barges can pass each other with perfect ease and

safety. The day that this canal is thrown open in its whole extent will form an

epoch in the commercial history of Germany. The entire cost has been estimated

at nine millions of florins. The entrance to it is between the round tower and the

chmch

tttllftim, advantageously situated at the entrance to Ludwig's canal, is a place

of great antiquity, having, under its classic name, Celeusum, formed one of the long

chain of military stations, by which the right bank of the Danube was defended

aganist those formidable neighbours opposite, whose strength and skill it required

all the disfipUne of the

Roman legions to withstand. It is a small town of betweenthree and four thousand inhabitants ; but, fiom its newly-acquired importance, as a

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i^

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HeUsim.l THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED, 4]

trading station, and facilities for barge-building, it is likely to become a place of

great traffic and activity. But, owing to its natural position at the confluence of

the two rivers, it has always been exposed to inundations—so much so that the

inhabitants have been fi-equently compelled to seek shelter in the roofs of their

houses, or to escape from their \vindows by boats. The houses have, in several in-

stances, a pictiu-esque appearance, owing to their turreted roofs, square towers, and

steep gables. The banks of the river are generally covered with prepared timber, a

great quantity of which is now employed in the construction of barges.

The situation of Kelheim must have possessed many advantages to the Roman

legions as a mihtaiy station ; but, owing to the later system of warfare, the invention of

fa"e-arms, the construction of roads, and above all, to the arts of peace and the stimulus

given to agiiculture and commerce, it now presents advantages of amuch more pleas-

ing nature. A magnificent public road has been constructed, at great expense and

ingenuity, along the right bank of the Danube, fi'om this to Regensburg, much resem-

bhng that which connects Coblcnz with Bingen on the Rhine. It is another of the

great national Works so happily completed by order of his Bavarian majesty, whose

unwearied zeal to advance the prosperity of his subjects, by widening every avenue

of commercial intercourse, is universally acknowledged.—While alluding to this

subject, we have just learned, from an article in the AUgemeine Zeitung of this

month, that an ancient military road has been discovered near Neuburg, a town

already noticed in these pages. It is evidently of Roman construction, and tra-

verses the heights above the villages of Ried, Hasselohe, and Laisacker; past

the village of Attenfcldt and the hamlet of Ilstetten. It was partly noticed in the

map ofthe old Bailiwick ofNeuburg, by the geographer Aesberg, andstiU more accu-

rately in Bober's map of the present provincial court, or Landgericht ; but its continu-

ation from the road of Monheim was never fully investigated till within the last eight

years, when certain members of the Antiquarian Society (abranch of which is fomied

at Neuburg) took U2) the subject, and continued the investigation with complete

success. Under the patronage of the king, who embraces every occasion to foster

and encourage the fine arts, numerous societies have spnmg up in his dominionslike fruit under a genial sim—^who communicate with the central society at Munich,

and unite their laudable efibrts to investigate and illustrate the Roman antiquities

of the country—a study for which no district out of Italy can present a finer field

than the valley of the Danube. In their examination of the groimd in question, the

antiquarians of Neuburg found that the road extended to upwards of two leagues to

the west of that town, between the villages of Riedenstein, and Stettberg, a tract

consisting of forest, pasture, and heath. But the investigation thus prosecuted was

crowned with additional success, by the discoveiy of two small Roman colonics,

one in the open country, the other in the forest of Stettberg. The vestiges which

more clearly indicated their Roman origin, consisted of three different kinds of do-

mestic utensils, formed of red baked clay, and of several coins, stamped by the senate,

M

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42 THK DANUBE ILLUSTU-1TED. labAC^.

in honour ofthe Emperors Antoninus Pius and Mai-cus Aurelius. In tlio vicinity

of these stationsis a field, which, from time immemorial, has borne the name of the

' Kclleracker,' or cellar-field, on account of a tradition that underneath lay vaults

or cellai-s, which had never been discovered, but the existence of which was a sub-

ject of jiopulai- belief.—With this short digression, we retmii to the general route, the

first object of which, that demands attention, is

&bSltt)t alike remarkable for its monuments of ancient and modem art. These

consist of the feudal remains of Heinrichsbm-g, or Kaiser Henry's Castle, and the

modem road formed thiough rocks, shattered ' by the miners' blast,' and comme-

morated by an inscription to the honour of Charles Theodore, under wliose auspices

it was begun and completed. With regard to the first of these objects, Ilcinrichs-

bur", only a small ])onion of that vast and imposing structure now remains. Its

battlements and tuiTets, on which, for ages, the mailed sentinels kept watch, have

gi-adually crumbled down ;—the wide courts, where, in tilt and tournament, princes,

barons, and knights displayed their martial skill and corn-age, and where, under

silken canopies and gilded scaffolding, the beauty of the land distributed the

prize—the gi-ass waves, the silence of death presides, or if interrupted, it is only by

the night wind as it sweeps with rushing wing through the hollow arch, or when, in

derision of earthly grandeur, it gathers into a tempest, and threatens the destmcuon

of its last relic, the Hungerthurm. To him who will pause for half an hour in these

feudal precincts, and take into view their proud origin and the prostrate condition to

wliich they ai'e now reduced, the reflection may turn to good account. It is not

necessaiy to go either to ' the Capitol of Rome or the Acropolis of Athens,' in

order to acquire vivid impressions of the perishable and fleetuig nature of man's

proudest monuments. The ruins before us arc suificient to prove, that, whatever his

rank, station or connexion, man has here no certain ])lace of abode; no chance of

immortality, like that which follows the practice of virtue—here then, let the traveller

soliloquize in the expressive words of an old moralist

" Earth walks on earth, glittering in gold :

Earth goes to earth sooner than it wold ;

Earth builds on earth palaces and towers

!

Earth says to earth All shall be ours .'"

It has been conjectmed—for there is no absolute proof of the fact—that the above

ruins occupy the site of the Roman Abudiacum, another of the many fortresses

by which the legionaiy power was so effectually maintained. It became in after

limes the court residence of the old Dukes of Bavaria, whose warlike achievements

are so familiar to every reader. By Henry the Second, who was born within its

wiUls, great improvements were contributed ; and all the pomp and circ*mstance

which marked his age, were carefully obsen-ed in the internal regulations of his house-

hold. In tlxe latter portion of liis life, his character uudovwcut a considerable

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mbati).] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 43

change; the society of his confessor became more reUshed than that of liis cap-

tains. Often, it is said, he would quit thesewalls before day, and walking hke a

humble and devout pilgiim to the shrine of St. Emmeran, at Ratisbon, there

fall prostrate amidst the crowd of devotees, who, hke liimself, thus endcavoiu-eil

to allav the remonstrances of a mind ill at ease.

AVitli guilt and grief oppressed, to soothe his pain,

The leach prescribed—but he prescribed in vain;

Then came the priest: 'Arise' quoth he, 'unshod,

In pilgrim weeds approach the house of God !

There, prostrate to Saint Emmeran, confess

How thou hast revelled in unrighteousness

Denied thy heart nought that thy heart could crave I

And ask his help to snatch thee from the wave

Of heavenly wrath ! Nor grudge, if he demands

Some small accession to our Abbey lands;

That gift alone shall purge away thy crimes.

Blessed in thy life, renowned thro' after times,

If for each crime one acre thou wilt pay ?'

' An acre ! saidst thou, by our Lady—nay '.

If thus I pay—priest ! where were my domains

Thy cowl, methiuks, might cover what remaiixs !'.. .

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44 TIIE DANOBK ILLLSTKATED. [(PbctnBotf.

On rctiiniing to the entei-prise already noticed, for the construction of a perma-

nent and capacious road« along this part of the Danube, two granite pedestals,

surmounted by colossal lions—the work of Bavarian artists—arrest the traveller's

eye ; while tlic perpendicular face of the rock, after the manner of the Egyptians, is

covered with an inscription,' which commemorates the origin and completion of the

design. The precipice is lofty, hinged with trees, and from the vast quantity of

powder used by tlic miners hi forcing a passage, which for ages nature had denied,

the whole cliff" apjjears shivered and fissmed, and a temble blast it must have been

that ' irighteued' this stupendous chff from its propriety. But after a survey of

what engineering has accomplished in the Splugen and the Simplon, tliere is Utile

to create astonishment on the Danube. The next place of historical importance on

the same side of the river is

©tJCrntJOtf, where Otto of Wittelsbach— whose stoiy has been made the

subject of a German drama—attempted to conceal himself after his assassination of

the emperor. Flymg with guilty speed from the scene of murder, and placed under

the ban of the empke, he in vain looked for a sanctuary in the church—for there he

could expect neither shelter nor forbearance—and took refuge m one ofthe out-houses

belonging to the monastery of Ebrach. Here he was discovered, and after being

made the object of just indignation and ignominy, was dragged from his lui-kuig-

])lace, and killed on the spot. Hemi von Kalatin is recorded to have been the

actor in this stroke of retiibution, and to have inflicted with his own hand

that punishment which the enonnity of the crime demanded. The head of Otto

was aftenvards severed from his body, and cast into the Danube; but, refusing to

sink or to move down with the cim-ent, it continued to gnash its teeth, and to fix its

glaring eyes on the spectators, with a menacing look, which none but the ' black

friar of Ebrach' could withstand. This lioly man, however, well knew liow to deal

witli such traitors' heads. He held a black cross in his hand—a cross which had

been brought hither by an eagle fi'om Moimt Calvar\'—and, while the people were in

absolute consternation at the petrifying sight, he bravely took the lead, and moiuit-

' The new road alluded to near Abacli, is thus mentioned by Duller •—" "Wir schiffeu jetzt an llolien-

pfalil iind Affeking (am rechten) und Kelliciiuwinzer, am linkcn ufcr, vorbei, und erblicken liiil«s

IIeriensa.ll, recl*ts Ober-Saal und Post-Saal wo Adri.an von Riedl 1797 dmcli sprengung eincs 180 fuss

hohen Felsens, Statt der gefahrvoUeu alten, eino lionliclie ncue Strasse gewann. Josepli Graf von

Tcirring-Gronfeld liess dem ineister jcnes denkmal an dor Felswand crricl*ten, welches unsere Auf-

inerksamkcit fesselt : die Inschrift dcsselbcu lautet : Der Chvhfvbsti-iche obrist Genehal-Sthas-

SEx-uvD Wassebbav-Dihectob, auch IIoFKAMMEnATK Adrian vojf Riedl Fvkhte vnd

VOLLENDETE DiESSEN STRASSENBAV IM lAIIRE MDCCXCVII AUE BEFEIH."

' " nicht weit davon, wo die clmussee sich dicht zwischen der Douau und den Felsen liinziebt,

die beiden steinemen Lowen und in der Felswand die Gediichtnisstafel : Cabolo Theodoro C. P. It.

BOIOBUM. DlICI. ElECTOBI. OPTIMO. PHINCII'I. EVEBSA. DETECTA. IMMIXENTIU5I. SaXORUM MOI.E.

I.IMITE. DaVUBIO. POSITO. STRATA. A. SaAL. AD. AbaCII. VIA. NOVA. MONU MENTU M. StAT LI. CURAVIT.

Jos. Aug. Torring. Ai.r. Boic. Pr.'Eiect. mixxcvi."

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^^

J

v?^

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Uatisfior.] THE DANUBE ILLOSTEATED. 45

ing the river's bank, addressed the floating head in these awful words :—" Diis.

milabundus. Dom. infemis. presto, diabolormn!

"—On heaiing this the head instantly

whirled round, shook its clotted locks in the friar's face, and sank to the bottom of

the Danube ! The people fell prostrate at the miracle, right glad to be rid of such a

sight; but many of them averred that the whole of the following night and day blue

flames were distinctly observed issuing from the pool where the ' head' last appeared.

The friar, however, wasnot to be thwarted in his pious resolution ; and fixing the same

black cross on a bank right over the pool for seven days, the flames entirely vanished.

The people fi-om that day crowding to mass, loaded the altar with their gifts ; till

several worthy brothers and nuns in the same neighbourhood, becoming very

jealous of Ebrach, attempted to get up a ' head' on their

own account. But aftercareful examination of the authorities on this subject, it does not seem that Otto's head

made any second apparition in this vicinity. Now as to the body of the said Otto of

Wittelsbach, it was left to be ' blown by winds, and washed by rains' on the bare

heath, for nine tedious years ; no man daring to perform the burial rites over the

corpse of him against whom had been launched the anathemas of church and state.

The rock upon which his bones lay bleaching during that long period is still, in

memory of the fact, called the ' Murder-Stone'

" Where oft ye may hear the voice of death.

And oft yo may see dark Otto's form,

As he rides on tlie silver mists of the heath,

And chants a ghostly dirge in the storm."

But, with many apologies for ha^^ng detained the reader so long on ' haunted

ground,' we resume our journey; and leaving the windings of the Danube at some

distance, on oiu: left, proceed in a direct line to Regensburg, so that several objects of

minor importance must here be omitted, but which will be foimd careftilly noted down

in eveiy guide-book along the Danube. The approach to this ancient city from the

west is abundantly striking ; the scenery is picturesque ; an air of prosperity still

pervades the country, while the road and environs are all indicative of that

commercial activity, by which alone pubUc and private interests can be fostered and

upheld,

Regensburg, so called from its being built at the mouth of the river Regen, where

it imites with the Danube, was the Regina Castra* of the Romans, and in its time

has had ' twenty different names.' " That ofRatisbon, or Ratispona," says Planche,

' " Regenshurgs Geschichte steht auf romischen Grundfesten ; aus alien Flnthen der Geschicke, die

iiher der Stadt zusammernchliigen, ragen die Erinnemngenaltromischer Herrschaft wieLeiichtthiirme

liervor. Die Namen Augusta Tiberii ; Colonia Tiberia Augusta; Tiburina, bewahren das Anderken

ilirer stiftung durch den despoten, der andere. Quarlana jenes an die legio tertia Ilalica, die in den

castris quartanis hier haus'te ; die anderen lieginvm. Itegina Caslra ; Metropolis Ripariarum im Noricum

ripense zeiigen nicht minder deutlich." Duller.

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46 THE DANUBE ILLUSTBATED. [IRatiabmi.

quoting the authority of Giinther, in his Gemeiner's Reichs-stadt Regenburgiscbc

Chronik, "it owes to its convenience as a landing-place."

" Inde RatisboniB vetus ex hoc nomen habenti

Quod bona sit ratibus, vel q,uod consuevit in ilia

Poncre nauta rales."

" From Regensbiu-g," continues the same author, " the furious Frank, under the

banner of Charlemagne, rushed to his Pannonian ^'ictories. Under the govern-

ment of ' Arnold the Bastard' it became a flourishing town. It was here that in

HOC the unfortunate Emperor, Henry the Fom-th, resigned Ids cro^vn and sceptre to

his unnatural son ; and hither, in 1196, Richard Ca3ur-de-Lion was sent prisoner to

the Emperor Heniy the Sixth, by whom he was given up to his ' sworn foe and

captor, Leopold Duke of Austria.' " But of this more particularly when we come to

the notice of Durenstein. "Here, on the 12th of October, 1576, expired the emperor

Maximilian the Second, in whose favour Gennany revived the surname of Titus, or

the ' Delight of Mankind.' Of his great and amiable qualities no stronger proof

can be given than the concurring testimony of the several historians of Germany,

Hungary, Bohemia, and Austria, both Catholics and Protestants, who vie with each

other in his praises, and in representing him as a model of impartiality, wisdom, and

benignity." ' " It excites a melancholy regret," says Wraxall, in liis History of

France,"

to reflect that the reign of so excellent asovereign as

Maximilianwas

limited to the transitoiy period of twelve years, while Pliihp the Second, the scourge

of Ids own subjects and of Europe, occupied the throne dming more than forty."

The Romans might with equal reason have lamented that the tyranny of Tiberius

lasted above twenty years, while the benign administration of Titus scarcely

exceeded as many months. In 1633, Ratisbon was taken by Bernard, Duke of

Saxe-Weimar, but retaken in the foUowmg year by the allied Bavai'ians and Aus-

trians, commanded by Ferdinand, King of Hungary. In 1641, the Swedes midcr

the famous General Banner cannonaded it ; and on the 21st of April, 1809, it was

taken by the French, after a desperate conflict, being the fourteenth time in the

course ofnine hundred years that tlds unfortunate city had been visited by the united

horrors of war.* It was at Ratisbon that an arrM was issued by the Evangehcal body,

when the Protestant states were in arms against the comt of Vienna, and to wldch

they annexed the twentieth article of the capitulation signed by the emperor at his

election, in order to demonstrate that the Protestant states claimed nothing but

what was agi-eeable to the constitution. They declared that then- association was

no more than a mutual engagement, by which they obliged themselves to adhere to

the laws, without sufleiing, under any pretext, that the power of putting under the

' Planche's Danube—Cox's History of tlie House of Austria.

' Descent of the Danube, from Ratisbon tq Vienna. London, 183fl

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5s

4

9•«

•si

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ffiatisfion.l the Danube illustr^vtbd. 47

ban of the empire should reside wholly in the Emperor. They affirmed that this

power was renounced, in express tenns,

bythe

capitulation ; they therefore refusedto admit as legal any sentence of the ban, deficient in the requisite conditions

and infen-ed that, according to law, neither the Elector of Brandenburgh, nor the

Elector of Hanover, nor the Duke of Wolfenbuttel, nor the Landgrave of Hesse, nor

the Count of Lippe-Buckebom-g ought to be proscribed. The imperial Protestant

cities ha\-ing acceded to tliis arret or declaration made at Ratisbon, the emperor, in a

rescript, required them to retract their accession to the resolution of their EvangeU-

cal body. But this rescript havmg produced no effect, the arret was answered by

an imperial decree of commission carried to the Dictatm-e, importing that the impe-

rial court could no longer hesitate about the execution of the han.—But as the

result of these proceedings belongs to the public history of that period, v/e return

to the notice of such objects in Ratisbon as are more immediately connected with

the nature of the present work.

The brightest page in the history of Ratisbon, however, belongs to the past

it refers to that period when the free imperial cities of Germany had not only a

vast political influence among the states of Europe, but also an extensive trade, which

had its ramifications in all the great commercial ports of Europe and Asia. It had a

tide of prosjierity in its favoiu", during the lapse of several centuries ; and it was not

tin nearly the end of the seventeenth that it began to ebb and dinde itself into other

channels. The trade of the Euxine had proved a mine of wealth to the merchants

of Ratisbon ; and, conveyed through a thousand ramifications to the heart of

Gennany, and the countries adjacent, became the happy medium of conferring riches

on its less fortunate neighbours. Few cities in the history of the old empire occur so

frequently as those ofNiimberg, Augsburg, andRegensburg, orRatisbon ; each ofwhich

had attached to it the importance of a great capital, whose industry and resources

were inexhaustible. As the seat of numerous Diets—^more than sixty of which are

recorded to have been held mthin its walls—^Ratisbon assumes another featme of

importance ; and several of the streets and dwelling-houses bear ample testimony to

the wealth and rank of their original inhabitants. What has been said of a street in

Genoa, namely, that it ' appears as if built for a congress of princes,' might be

applied, with little exaggeration, to that in Ratisbon, called the Ambassadors'

Strasse ; where the houses, though gloomy and now dilapidated, still possess an air

of original grandeur, and would afford no mean accommodation even for an imperial

archduke and his suite.

Tlie pubhc buildings partake of the same style and ajipearance; they are lofty,

massive structures, and hai'monize admirably with the character of those times

when the horrors of the Vehm Gricht were in full vigour, and when a torture-

chamber was considered an indispensable adjunct to the hall of justice ! Looking

around us, we exclaim, with a shudder. What a terrible state of things, where a

man depended for personal safety, not on the strong arm of the law, but on the

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48 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [lRnt{s6on,

thickness of his walls, the strength of his fortalice, or the number of his household

when his life was at the mercy of a rival in trade, or an adversary in politics ; and

when the iimocent citizen could be dragged from the arms of his family, and

stretched on the rack ! Yet such was the case in thefree city of Ratisbon. Tliis

chamber, with the dungeons contiguous, is situated under the ground-floor of the

Great Hall, and the following is the account given of a visit paid to it by a late tra-

veller :—

" My guide was about to lead me through a long suite of rooms, but 1

begged her, in preference, to let me see the prisons. Accordingly, having descended

the stairs, she disappeared, and in a few minutes returned with a lantern and some

sheets of paper, with which she led the way to the vaults below the building. After

several turnuigs and windings, we came to a doorway, so low that I was obliged to

bend nearly double to enter it ; and on passing it, I found myself with my back still

bent,—for there was not room to stand upright,—^in a low, vaulted dungeon, six or

eight feet square, lined with wood, having a raised step at one end to sen^e for a

pillow to the inmate of tliis miserable cell. Dayhght was entirely denied to him,

and the only air that could reach him from the dark passage without, came thi'ough

a small grating in the door. On the outside of this chamber my guide stooped

down at a trap-door of iron gi-ating, strongly fastened with bolts and chains ; and

lighting one of the pieces of paper, pushed it through the bars. As it fell, I per-

ceived by its Ught a dungeon more horrible than the first ; a kind of well about

twelve feet deep, with no other entrance than this trap-door ; so that the prisoner

must have been let down into it as into a living tomb ! Of the former Idnd of cells

there are nineteen or twenty, of the latter three or foiu- ; but they are happily no

longer used. We passed hence through several strong iron doors to the

" KOttUTt'dStfiAXntttVt a lofty apartment with ample space for the exercise of the

apparatas of cruelty deposited in it, which, to my surprise, I find existing here in a

nearly perfect state. First, there is the common rack, resembling a long bedstead

or platform of boai-ds, upon which the accused was laid, his feet attached to one

end, and his arms fastened to a rope, wHch passed round a windlass at the other,

so as to stretch out his limbs to the utmost extent that agony would allow without

causing death. The second species of torture resembled the first, but was inflicted

vertically, instead of horizontally, by raising the victim by a rope attached to his

ai-ms, which were bound bchhid Ids back, to the roof; and then lettuig liim fall by

loosening the rope to withui a few inches of the ground. Two stones, so heavy that

I could not lift them, were previously attached to the feet, so that the jerk inflicted

by the sudden fall must have wrenched every joint out of its socket ! Tliis instru-

ment, (as correctly shewn in the annexed cut,) consists of an upright frame of wood,

with a windlass about two feet from the ground, to wliich the rope is still fastened

by one end, while the other dangles from a pulley in tlie roof, ^\-ith a triangle of

wood attached to it. To this the arms of the victims were fostcned. The third

instmment was a very high arai-chair, having, instead of a cushion, a seat stuck full

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l&atis&on.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED 49

of small sharp spikes of hai-d wood, about two inches high, upon which the prisoner was

made to sit with weights on his lap, and others hanging from liis feet !" " There is

also a wooden horse, on the sharp spine of which the criminal was compelled to

ride, and two or three other instruments equally horrible—the invention of which is

a disgrace to human natm'e. One side of the chamber is partitioned off by a screen

of wooden trellis-work; behind which may still be seen the desk atwliich the judges

sat, seeing and heaiing all that passed, but unseen themselves, and took down the

confessions extorted from the victims in the moment of agony.' I felt a thrill of

horror," continues the writer, " while I contemplated this infernal machinery, which

I think surpasses in iniquity the far-famed dungeons of Venice ; and is, I believe,

at the present day, the only example in Europe of such an apparatus perfectly pre-

served. And it desen'es to be preseiTcd, if only to show that, at least in judicial

proceedings, the world has improved. Tliis torture-chamber Ues immediately

under the Hall of the Diet, and had not the intervening floor been well lined, the

lOliTCFtE-CHAM DRU.

' In tlio Biitish Arcliajologia the reader will find described an apparatus of torture, much pa-

tronised in Germany during the reign of the ' Secret Tribunal,' under tlie name of the Yimg Frau,

wliich, in refinement of cruelty surpasses even that just mentioned. Nearly all the German castles had

dungeons and torturing apparatus. For the above (ipotation see Murray's Hand-Book, to the accu-

racy of which the editor bears willing testimony. The reader will find some other particulars of

interest in Duller's ' DoK.iu'- a rcry recent work - and the Devkiiuck.

O

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30 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [JJ^ie l^eiBe PalJ.

cries of the sufferers must have reached the ears of the assembly. The lining is now

removed,so that the hght actually appears through cracks in the cciUng above."

Such is a sketch of the Tortui-e-chamber of Ratisbon from actual sur\-ey.

" Still from yon dismal vault the groan

, Of agony is heard

The sudden shriek—the fainter moan

The pangs of death deferred 1"

But quitting a scene which inspires a natural horror in every reflecting mind, we

turn to

JTIjr HQtitit t^latj* so called from its hanng been the spot where a desperate

encounter took place between a formidable Pagan Him and a doughty biu-gher-

knight of Ilatisbon, named Hans Dolhngcr. The tradition handed down, and still

religiously cherished in the romantic annals of Bavaria, may be thus briefly told.

Craco, the heathen warrior, having rendered himself the terror of the crusading army,

by the number of goodly knights and soldiers who had fallen under his sword, boasted

at last that there was not a Christian lord or vassal who would dare to meet him in

single combat. This boast was proclaimed again and again, and stUl no champion

stepped forward to accept the challenge of the insolent barbarian. His gigantic

stature, ferocious aspect, and ponderous glaive—which had the character of dividing

a helmed head with as much ease as it would a water-melon—struck terror into

the bystander, and made even the emperor blush for the reputation of his chivalry.

" What !" said he, " do I hear an idolatrous Pagan insult the sacred banner, and thus

brave with impunity the champions of the cross ? If there be no warrior who will

adventmre his hfe in the cause, I myself will meet the audacious bravo, and punish

his insolence."—

" God forbid," said Hans DoUinger, " that whilst my liege is in

jeopardy, there should be one faithful subject who coidd look passively on." And

so saying, he made obeisance to the monarch, and \vith a loud voice and uplifted

arm, bid the Pagan a hearty defiance. Now DoUinger—though a brave soldier, and

right cunning in fence

—was ofrather diminutive stature, and appeared to little advan-

tage in the presence of this giant, who looked uponliim as Gohath once looked upon

the youthfid David, when he defied the armies of Israel. " Come on !" said the

blustering Hun, " come on ! Aheady have I pitched forty riders from their saddles,

and thinkest thou to conquer?" " I do!" said DoUinger, boldly, " 1 do!" and

suiting the action to the word, spun-ed his steed to the charge. Every spectator

gave him up for lost—the Him expected an easy prey. But great was his disappoint-

ment, when, instead of giving, he received a smart shock from the point of DoUin-

ger's lance, which half unbalanced his bulky form, and elicited a shout of applause

from the multitude. At the third charge botli lances were shivered, and then, each

drawing his sword, cried ' Havoc !' and rushed upon each other. So lately flushed

with victory, and now foaming with rage and the dread of discomfiture, the giant

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Sic ISedie Pat?.] THE Danube illustrated. 51

made a desperate effort to unhorse his adversary-. But Dollinger clingnig to his

steed like a centaiu", manojuvred his weapon so nimbly that the Pagan's stroke,

falling vvitli diminished force and frequency, clearly indicated the result of the

combat. Watching his opportunity, and moving round him till a gentle rise in the

ground gave him a momentary advantage, Dollinger thrust his sword between the

joints of his lower harness, and huiicd the Pagan to the ground. A shout of

triumph ensued, and thousands now rushed forward to congratulate Dolhnger, and

indulge in pious exultation over this vanquished idolater. None could imagine how

Hans Dolhnger, by liis single arm, could have achieved so marvellous a victory, till

it was ascertained that a certam cross had come in for a share of the conflict, and

then the mystery was satisfactorily cleared up. Now the cross here spoken of was

one that the Emperor Henry the Fomth used on all great and momentous occa-

sions ; and well knowing its virtues, it will be readily supposed that in the present

instance he had free recourse to its mysterious influence. Every time that the

Saracen made his chai'ge. Kaiser Henry held this cross full in his face ; and no

sooner did the Pagan look upon that hallowed symbol than he began to wince and

recoil before his Clrristian adversary. This operation of crossing the inftdel the

emperor performed thrice very cleverly, and then obser\'ing the good efiects, loft

Dollinger to despatch his rival in the manner above naiTated. Such was the popu-

lar behef ; and although others were hardy enough to explain the victory on other

grounds, they were soon taught that such impious interpretation would not be

tolerated in the enhghtencd city of Ilegcnsbm-g. This combat is the subject of

a popular baUad, which is still sung to wile away the winter evenings, and begins

thus :

• " Es rait ein Tiirck aus Tiirckealandt, rait gen Regensbui-g in die stadt."

It is also commemorated in a fresco opposite the Town-hall, where it is repre-

sented in plaster as large as life, with the Emperor Hcniy on horseback, with a

hawk in his hand, and the following lines underneath :

"Fertur equo celeri hie Henricus in ordine primusAucupio celeber, neo minus imperio,"

and above the representation of the single combat are these words :

" Ilans Dollinger Hatia Dccccxxx.

Barbarus liic solidis certant Germanus et armis,

Geimanus vicit, Barbai-us occubuit."

The spears of the two combatants were long jjreserved and exhibited in the

archives of Ratisbon to inquisitive travellers. The Platz, or square, where this

legendary combat took place, became, at a later period, the scene of one of those

tournaments which were the gi'and pastimes of the feudal ages, and tended so much

to foster a passion for military enteiinise. But on tliis occasionj the gi-aud question

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IJ2 THE DANUBE ILLCSTBATED. [STIje ffiatl|rttal.

was to maintain against all comers the character of Agnes Bemauer, which had been

basely aspersed, and which her cliivahous husband had resolved to vindicate at the

risk of his life. But to this subject we have aheady adverted ; and the only addition

to be made in this place, after looking into his liistory, is, that Albert survived the tra-

gical fate of his partner, married a piincess of Brunswick, and lived to see a family

of ten children grow up around him. These are facts which rather militate against the

romance of the story ; it were better to say ' he died broken hearted,' but history is

stubborn, and will not yield to the sentimental in such questions.

The entrance to the Town HaU is the only feature of that edifice which par-

ticularly arrests the traveller's attention. It is a Gothic portal of singular design and

execution, and such as may be much more readily delineated by the pencil than

described in words. It is a striking specimen of that style to which it belongs, and

carries the mind irresistibly back to^ the remote days of the empire. Among the

ecclesiastical stroctures with which this city is so liberally endowed, gi-eat alterations

have taken place within the last half-century : some have been partially re-edified and

adorned with elaborate pieces of sculptiu-e ; whilst others have been suffered to fall

into decay, and exliibit a melancholy proof of that waning enthusiasm, or lack of

means, by which in these times all the religious shrines and institutions have been

more or less powerfully affected. But amidst the changes of fortune which have

visited the once free and imperial city of Ratisbon,

^fft (HAf^tXlTlll remains a splendid monument of the thu-teenth century, and in

the traveller's eye takes precedence ofeveiy other object. It has, however, undergone

many repairs and embellishments, and among the latter ai'e the gorgeous windows of

stained glass, contributed by his present majesty, the patriotic King of Bavaria.

It contains various tombs, and objects of scid^jture in bronze as well as marble, one

of which, the mausoleiuu of Cardinal Philip, who died in the flower of liis age, is a

piece of elaborate design and workmansliip. At the entrance on the left, over the

tomb of Count Herberstein, is that of one of the bishops, in bas-rehef, representing

the mii'acidous feeding of the four thousand men, as related in the gospel. Near this

there formerly stood a large wooden crucifix, the hair of which, as the credulous

vulgar were taught to beheve in the time of Keysler, was continually growing. But

the other objects desen'ing of attention in this magnificent temple are too numerous

to be given in detail.—On one of the towers is the statue of a man apparently in the

act of throwing himself fi'om the summit, and wliich is said to represent the archi-

tect, who having lost a bet with another builder, respecting the time of finishing his

great undertaking, committed that rash act in a fit of despau-.^ The ascent to the

' Tlio legend is, that a rival architect observing the slow progress of the cathedral, made a jeering

boast, that impracticable as it was then considered, he would throw a bridge across the Danube, before

the other could finish the cathedral— a boast which it is said he verified, and thus drove his brother to

despair.But it is certain, nevertheless, that the bridge and the cathedral are buildings of very different

cpoclis. We shall, however, give the popular legend in a suhseciv.ent page.

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KSStB of St. lEmmetan.] THE D.VjNUBK ILLUSTKATED. 53

tower is an inclined plane, sothat, in its

construction, the materials to be employedin the works could be canied up on the backs of mules or asses, and hence it

retains the name of the Asses' Tower. In one of the side-chapels, carefully preserved

under glass, is an effigy of St. Jolm de Nepomuc, confessor of the Queen of Bohe-

mia, who refusing to divulge the secrets of the confessional to her husband, the

tyrannic Wenceslaus, was thrown into prison by his order, tortured, and finally cast

from the bridge of Prague into the Muldau, where he perished.* In the nave of the

chxurch is an elegant effigy of a Duke of Bavaiia, in bronze. The figure occupies

the top ofan altar-tomb, and is represented in a kneeling posture before the crucifix,

as one of the duces-episcopi of Ratisbon. The next object which awakens particu-

lar interest in the traveller's mind is the

^tif}tp of St. IStntn^tiin* one of the most remai'kable estabhshments of its kind

in Europe. Like that of the Heiligen Kreutz at Donauworth, it is now the residence

of one of the native grandees—the Prince of Thiun and Taxis ; and although its

ABBSY Ot BT. BMUERAM

' « Tandis que I'empire murmure centre les affreuses debauches de Wenceslas, la BohSme gem. sous

lo poids enorme des impots. L'iiuperatrice se charge de porter aux pieds de son epoux les plamtes et

les pleurs de ses sujets. Wenceslas n'y a aucun egard. L'hnperatrice, au desespor, t*mbo da.^ la

plusprofonden^elaLlie. L'ezupereur veut connaltre la cause ^' ^^'^'.'^'"''tl^^l^Z

seur de la princesse, et lui ordonnede ne l«i rien cacher de sa confession. J-^^^' ^^

'J^

de co^mettre uue action aussi indigue ; et I'Empereur outre de colere lefa.t prec.p.er dans aM U

dau."-Such is the concise account given by a Gem.an historian of the martyrdom of St Join

Nepomuc. whoso statue is so frequently met with as the protector-s..mt on the bndges of the Con-

tineat. _

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54 THK DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [abbcB of St. ^EmmeraH.

courts and cloisters present nothing pre-eminent in style or arcliitecture, it has still

sufficient to interest thereflecting visitor, who, in these striking changes, reads an

impressive lesson on the instability of human institutions, both civil and sacred.

The abbots of St. Emmeran were princes of the empii-e, and took their seats at the

Diet accordingly. This abbey had a duration nearly coeval with the repubUc of

Venice, having been founded by Theodo the Fourth, and enlarged by Chai-lemagne.

Here several of the greatest members of church and state were consigned to

holy ground, amidst all that is most imposing and splendid in the ceremonies of reli-

gion. Emperors and kings, prince and paladin, saints and soldiers here met

together in its sepulchral vaults—many of whom were moved by ' a true faith, while

others, no doubt, were actuated by an unavailing sentiment of remorse andten-or, in

their desire to have bmial here.' Among these princes' remains ai-e the bones of St.

Dionysius, the Areopagite, but which are said to have been ' purloined' from the

Abbey of Denys in the year dcccxciii., and Ertel informs us, that Pope Leo XI., in

a particular bull, absolutely threatened with excommunication all who shoidd dai-c to

question the identity of the holy corse. But the monks of St. Denis, as Keyslcr

informs us, would not give up the point, but obstinately insisted that the body of the

saint was actually in their possession, and that his head was shown in the thhd

shrine of their treasurj'. On the other hand, the monks of St. Emmeran as stoutly

maintained that the only pai-t wanting in their rcliques was the middle finger of the

right hand. Nevertheless, adds the same authority, ' an entke hand of this saint is

shown in a chapel at Munich : his head is also devoutly worshipped in the cathedral

of Bamberg; while at Prague another head of the saint is preseiTcd in the church

of St. Vitus, within the castle.' It is lamentable that in this momentous case there

should be such glaring discrepancy in the evidence ; and that the question cannot

be brought under one head. We cannot but suspect M. Keysler of attempting to

throw discredit on the ubiquity of this saint ; but it is not likely that he will make

many converts at Ratisbon, unless he adopt the same connncing arguments that

were used by a cei-tain carcUnal, whom he mentions. " I well remember," says he,

speaking of the Diet here assembled, "what passed between Cardinal Sax-Zcitz, and

a certain Protestant colonel. His eminence, it seems, used to give a dollar to every

one who became a convert to the Roman CathoUc faith, and by this means had

brought over to liis views a considerable number of the colonel's regiment. Pleased

with the success of his experiment, the cai-dinal began one day at table to try his

skill upon the colonel, and by way of argument alleged the example of most of his

soldiers. But the colonel rephcd, that these facts did not weigh much with him

and that if the cardinal laid any stress on such conversions, he would engage, with

six barrels of beer, to bring all his new converts again to Protestantism." But the

cardinal it seems, not relishing the proposal, the beer-experiment was not put into

execution.

Tliis abbey, wo are told, possessed at one time an altu- of sohd gold, with raanj

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^yfUy^^y//My .i^j /^^ K'y^a^y-./i^//^6^:

! Hitia'bor..;

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IBri'Dgt of l&athbon.l the Danube illustrated. 55

other objects that fully demonstrated the ample revenues with which it was endowed;

and in the sacristy were thesilver

shrines and crosiers of St. Emmeran and St.

Wolfgang. « i :. ., . .; ^ .

One of the other ecclesiastical structures which merits attention is the church of

the Scotch Benedictines, which has existed from very early times—as early probably

as the tenth century. But in its antiquity lies its principal claim to attention, for it

possesses nothing remarkable, except a grotesque porch—a circular aixh supported

at the sides by detached pillars resting on winged lions—the side-wall curiously

carved with fabulous monsters, and aU indicative of the remote period to which it

belongs. •' •* t , .,* .. v

Of all the interesting objects of arclutectural antiquity in Ratisbon, " nothing," say.s

Dr. Dibdin,* " struck me so forcibly (and indeed none is in itself so curious and sin-

gular) as the Monastery of St. James. The front of that portion of it connected

with the church should seem to be of an extremely remote antiquity. The orna-

ments which ai'e on the side of the door-way, or porch, are quite extraordinary, and

appear as if the building had been erected by Mexicans or Hindoos." " I had

conjectured the building to be of the twelfth century, and was pleased to have my

conjecture confinned by the assiuance of one of the members of the college, that

the foundations of the building were laid in the middle of the twelfth century ; and

that about twenty miles down the Danube there was another monastery now in

ruins, called Mosbm'g, which was built about the same period, and exhibited pre-

cisely the same style of architecture." " But," continues the same learn 'd author,

" if the entire college with the church, cloisters, sitting-rooms, and dormitories,

was productive of so much gi-atification, the contents of these rooms, including the

members themselves, were productive of yet greater. To begin with the head, or

president, Dr. Arbutlmot—one of the finest and healthiest-looking old gentlemen I

ever beheld, in his eighty-second yeai'.' I slioidd, however, premise that the mem-

bers of tliis college, only six or eight in niunbcr, and attached to the interests of the

Stuarts, have been settled here almost from then- infancy; some having anived at seven,

others at twelve years of age. Their method of spealdng their own language is very

singidar, and rather difficult of comjirehension. Nor is the French spoken by them of

much better prommciation. Of manners the most simple, and apparently of princi-

ples the most pure—they seem to be strangers to those wants and wishes which

frequently agitate a more numerous and polished cstabhshment, and to move as it

were from the cradle to the grave

f •» •

" Tlie world forgotten, liy the woilJ forgot" ,

' Bibliographical, Antiquarian, and Picturesque Tour in Germany, by the Rov. TIios. Frognal

Dibdin, F.R.S.

' This venerable head of the Monostci'y was gathered to his dci)ai-ted brctliren soon after Dr.

Dibdiu's visit.

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56 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [ISrilfge of ISatUbon.

In this monastery it has been usual to educate young Scotchmen for the

priesthood, and then send them home as missionai'ies ; but its revenue is veiy

limited, and the number of monks and students together did not amoimt lately to

more than six or seven. It has escaped seculaiization, however, and for this it is

most probably indebted to its well-known poverty. It has, or at least once had, a

good library, among the treasures of which was a Latin manuscript of the four

Evangelists, said to have belonged to St. Anascarius, who died about the middle

of the ninth century. Biit the antiquity of such writings must, in general, be calcu-

lated at a period much less remote than those ascribed to them.

©tl^ lSrt50^ J)f llXati»1>0n is a structure of the early part of tlie thii-tccnth

UKIDGI: op RATISUON.

ccnturj". It is massy, and heavy looking, and stretches across the river like a solid

wall. Had it been less substantial, however, it would probably have long since dis-

appeared ; and the better to accoimt for its diu-ability, his satanic majesty is men-

tioned, in the local history, as its chief architect. During his operations, says the

legend, he was much annoyed by two co*cks and a dog, the images of which are

to be seen on the balustrade ; but, as Planch6 has pointedly remarked, ' a co*ck and

a buU' would have figin-cd with more propriety in such a story. It is built of free-

stone, sui)portcd, according to Kcysler, on piles of oak, driven a considerable depth

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popular ICtgcnB.] THE DANUBE illustrated 57

into the bed of the river. It has fifteen arches, and measures a thousand and ninety-

one feet in length. Of the three principal bridges of Germany, it is commonly said

that the bridge of Dresden is the most elegant, that of Prague the longest ; but the

bridge of Ratisbon is the strongest—the best recommendation that a bridge can

weU possess.

Tlie town of Ratisbon is encircled by pleasant boulevards, laid out in shady

avenues, where the citizens enjoy the healthful luxurj' of a delightful promenade. In

a retired part of these is a monument erected to the memory of Kepler, the astro-

nomer, who died here in 1630 ; but there is nothing left to direct the inquiring

stranger to his gi-ave. The monument was raised on the anniversary of his birth,

the twenty-seventh of December, 1808, and escaped, almost miractilously, the

destruction which attended the assault of the town by the French troops, in the fol-

lowing year. The only remains of Roman fortification now left is a massive square

tower, near the cathedral, which is supposed to be part of the ancient castellmn, or

fort, in which was stationed the legionary force of the district. Among the vaiious

transformations already alluded to, may be mentioned the bishop's palace, in which

were lodged the emperors of former days, and in which expired Maximilian the

Second. This ancient pile is now, like the Abbey of Weltenburg already mentioned,

converted into a brewery ; whilst the Monastery of the Carmelites is metamorphosed

into the public gaol.

Ratisbon has, on several occasions, been visited b}' the plague—the ravages of

which, along the whole valley of the Danube, ai-e painfully frequent in the pages of

the elder historians. In one of these visitations, says a foreign writer, the fields

being left without culture, the horrors of pestilence were soon followed by those of

famine. Earthquakes, inundations, robberies, the descent of wolves and beasts of

prey—all augmented the general desolation ; and in the midst of these accumulated

horrors, the princes of the empire made war on each other !—On this, and similar

calamities, the Diet was temporarily transferred from Ratisbon to Augsbiu-g, and

also Frankfort, another of the free cities of the empire.

The manufactures of Ratisbon consist of several kinds of cloth, lace, silk and

' The Regen circle, in which is comprised this portion of Bavaria, possesses a surface computed at

3493 square miles, with a population of 432,068, including the population of the town, stated at upwards

of 20,000. In this department the Roman Catholic population outnumbers that of the Lutherans. It

contains twenty-eight towns, sixty-six boroughs, with three thousand one hundred and sixty villages

and hamlets. The north-east side, which touches the Bohemian Forest, is very mountainous; but on

the south-west of the Danube are extensive and fertile plains. The forests occupy a great portion of

the surface ; but these are gradually dirainisliing under the improved system of agriculture. This

circle is divided by the Danube into two unequal parts ; to its basin belong the Scheweuter, the Paar,

the Ilm, the Sulx, and the Regen. Agriculture is most productive on the south of the Danube, and

from DoriaustaufF to Ingolstadt, already mentioned. The soil contains some very rich mines, but those

only of coal and iron have been hitherto explored. On the whole, a much more active spirit prevails

here among the industrious classes, than in the two other circles—namely, the Iser and lower circles

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58 TUK DANLBE ILLUSTRATED. [l^Opnlat Ttgen'B.

worsted hose, needles, fishing-hooks, a quantity of which are sent to the Enghsh

markei—and fire-anns, for which the name of Kugclrcuth is so fumous. Pistols of this

manufacture fetch vciy high prices ; and it is necessary, in order to secure a first-

rate ai-ticle, to fonvai-d the order some months in advance. There is also here a

manufactme of small goblets, or cups, which ai-c exported in great quantities into the

Turkish provinces.

Keysler concludes one of his letters mth the following account of an odd custom

which prevailed in his time at the peasants' weddings in the villages near llatisbon

—^" When the bridesman, at the conclusion of the ceremony, attends the bridegroom

from the altar to the choir, he pulls him shai-jjly by the hair, and then hits him a

good box on the ear-, and all to remind him, it is said, of what the priest told him in

regai-d to the duty which he owes his wife, as well as to fix the marriage-contract more

ctfectually in his memoiy. For the same pirrpose it was foiinerly the custom, in

several provinces of Geiinany, that when the inhabitants visited the bounds or limits

of the several districts, any boys or young persons who happened to be present, were

soundly drubbed at the piincipal boundaries, in order to fix the idea of the place

more strongly in their memories! "—But not having met with any similar obseiT-

ances at the village weddings, or at the adjustment of the rm-al boundaries on the

Danube, it is but too likely that these edifying customs have been laid aside.

^t^enU, Among the popiUai* legends still current in the neiglibourhood is that

alluded to in our notice of the bridge. By this it appears that the chief aixhitect

of the cathedral had an apprentice of singular acquirements in the ait, and possess-

ing so much of his master's confidence that he was entrusted v/itli the erection of a

bridge over the Danube. He set to work with so Uttle doubt of his own abilities,

that he laid a heavy bet with his master that he woidd finish the bridge before the

other should anivc at the cope-stone of the cathedral, which was then building

under the skill and experience of the master, llie sacred pile, however, advanced

so rapidly, that the apprentice began to feel that he had entered into a very

rash and foohsh competition, in which he had only the prospect of defeat. Rendered

desperate by these reflections, and finding that bridge-building on the Danube was

not so simple a process as he had imagined, he gave vent to a fruitless volley of

imprecations, and wished the arch-fiend had charge of the works ! Now, speak of

the devil, says the old proverb, and he will appeal', and so it happened on this occa-

sion ; for no sooner had the speaker uttered the vnsh, than a venerable monk stood

of the Danube. Brewing is carried on to a very consideratle extent,* as m.ay he supposed fiom tlio

facts already mentioned, tliat the palace of the ancient princes and bi.sliops, and the Abbey of Weltcu-

berg liave both been converted into public breweries—among the best in Germany.

See Bell's Kingdom" and Statistics of Bavaria. System of Gcogr. vol. i. 1840.

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' /^///-'/,/i(//'4///i' // m^ 'W////i>//: ^^/a//.>r,,/.-:

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^Sopulat icgcntj.] TUE DANLBE ILtUSTlUTKD. 50

before him, and offered to take the work into his own hands. " Who, and what ai-t

thou .'"inquired the builder. "

Apoor friar," said

the fiend, "who in his youth havinglearnt something of thy craft, would gladly turn his knowledge to the advantage of

his convent." " So, so !" said the architect, examining liis sandals rather narrowly,

" I think I see a cloven hoof—aye, by our lady, and a whisking tail to boot !—But

no matter; since thou comestin search ofemployment, build me those fifteen arches

before May-day, and thou shalt have a devil's fee for thy pains." " And what ?"

inquired the fiend, pricking up his cars. " Why," answered the aixhitect coolly,

" as thou hast a particular affection for the souls of men, I will insm-c thee the first

two—male and female—that shall cross this bridge." " Say three, and done," said the

devil gi-ecdily, and at the same time throwing off his fiiar's habit.—" Well then,

three be it," said the architect; and hereupon the fiend giinned with joy, and

danced round him like a satyr.—Before night-fall the spandi-els of the ai-ches were set

—the stone came to hand ready hewn—the mortal' was ready mixed—the bridge

advanced so rapidly, that the master, watching his rival's progi-ess from the cathe-

dral, saw that the day was lost, and stung with jealousy and disappointment,

committed that fearfid act which is still perpetuated by the statue already men-

tioned. Now, this being May-day morning, and the bridge complete, a large crowd

was collected at the entrance, all eager to be the first to open so new and magnifi-

cent a thorouglifai'e across the Danube Delighted with his bargain, and ready to

poimce on the three first who shovdd set foot on the ai'ch, the devil lay in ambushunder the second pier, watching his prey. " Stop," said the aixhitect to the crowd;

" stand back : in the opening of this bridge we have a solemn ceremony to go

through, before it can be pronounced qiute safe for the public.—^Jacob," said he,

with a significant look to his foreman, " let the strangers take precedence." And at

these words, a rough wolf-dog, followed by a co*ck and hen, were set at large on the

bridge, and crossed the first aixh. At the same instant a dreadful noise was heard

under the piers, but the only word caught by the multitude was, " Cheated—cheated

of my fee!

" while the mangled remnants of the three animals were scattered in every

direction. All were struck with amazement, and would not be satisfied till a pro-

cession of monks had pronounced the bridge quite steadfast, and sprinkled it with

holy-water ; for some, more clear-sighted than others, had boldly afBmied that the

arch-fiend was seen on the bridge, at that very instant, in a bodily shape.—But no

matter for that, he had now " gone, and ta'en liis wages ;" and in memory of an act

in which he had so notably outwitted the prince of dai-kness, the architect caused

the figures of a dog, a co*ck, and a hen to be cai'vcd on the bridge, as may be seen

even unto tliis day.

Among the other legendary stories connected with Ratisbon, a hvely and popular

author has favoiu-ed us with the following irom Gemeiner's Chronicle :—

" A certain

worthy bishop of Ratisbon, not contented with fleecing his flock according to the

approved and legitimate method, made it a point ol' conscience to waylay and

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(50 THE DANUBE ILLUSTltATED. [Populst llcgGnU,

plunder liis beloved brethren, whenever they ventured near the castle of Doaaustauff,

in wliich he resided, on the banks of the Danube, a little below the town. In the

month of November, m.ccl.," says the chronicle, " tidings came to Donaustauff that

on the following morning the daughter of the Duke Albert of Saxony woidd pass that

way «-ith a gorgeous and gaUant escort. The bait was too tempting for the prelate. He

sallied out upon the glitteringcortege,and seizing the princess and forty of her noblest

attendants, led them captives to Donaustauff. The remainder, in astonishment, fled

for redress, some to Kuig Conrad and others to Duke Otho, at Landshut, who im-

mediately took arms, and carrying fire and sword into the episcopal tenitories, soon

compelled the mitred highwayman to make restitution, and sue for mercy. Conrad,

satisfied with his submission, forgave him ; in return for which the bishop bribed a

vassal, named Conrad Hohenfels, to murder his royal namesake. Accordingly, in

the night of the 28th of December, the traitor entered the Abbey of St. Emmcran,

already described, where the king had taken up his abode, and stealing into the

royal chamber stabbed the sleeper to the heart ! Then nmning to the gates of the

city, he threw them open to the bishop and his retainers, exclaiming that the Idng

was dead.

"The traitors, however, were sadly disappointed, Friedrich von Ewesheim, a devoted

servant of the king, suspecting some evil, had prevailed on the monarch to exchange

clothes and chambers with him, and the assassin's dagger had pierced the heart, not

of Conrad, but of his trae and gallant officer. The bishop escaped the royal ven-

geance by flight; but the Abbot of St. Emmeran, who had joined the conspu-ators,

was flung into chains, and the abbey, the houses of the chapter, and all the eccle-

siastical residences were plundered by the king's soldiery. The pope, as might be

expected, sided with the bishop, and excommunicated Conrad and Otho ; but the

murderer, Hohenfels, after having for some time eluded the hands of justice, was at

last killed by a thunderbolt." This tradition, abundantly characteristic of those

rsmote times, is also mentioned by Duller and other pictm-esque writers of the

Danube.'

Such, gentle reader, were the legends which used to circle round the winter

hearths of Donaustauff, and vary the monotony of a long voyage in raa oudinaki,

. '"in den tagon des Kampfes auf Leben und Tod zwiechcn geistlioher und weltliclier Macl*t ward in

Regensburg eiue ruclilose Thut vorsucht ; es war ira Jalire mccli. da der Konig der Deiitschcn,

Konrad, Friedric'hsII.,sobn, mit seincm Scbwiogervater,dem Baiem herzog Otto, gen Regensburg kamdaa Weinachtsfest dazubegeben. BiscliofAlbrecbt von Regensburg, des Kiinigs und der Regcnsburger

F^nd, welcber zu Donaustauff, in dera festen Scblosso sass besandto seinem Dienstmann Konrad von

llohcnfels nach Regensburg den Konig zu erniorden. Die Jleuchler schliclien in das stift St. Em-meram, wo der Kijnig gastetete, eriiundesebafteten dessen schlafgemach und drangen binein, indessen

der Biscbof vor der stadt des er^ninscl*ten Erfolges liarrte. Die Trcuo Fricdrichs von Eweslieim

rettete den Kiinig der sicb unter oiner Bank verbnrg, iudess seiu stelvcrtretcr in seinera Bette eniordet

ward. Den Bischof und den Abt. zu St. limmcram tiaf des Reiclies Acbt, und das stift biisste den

Freud denin seinem Maucrn versucht werden war, etc."— Dii-: Donau, 242.

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?II)£ ©tUinari.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 61

between Ratisbon and Linz, before the introduction of steam-boats, and travelling

sceptics

" Vous etcs pourtant ma cadettc,

Pit la Fable, et, sans vanite,

Partout je suis fort bien rejue.

Mais aussi, dame Verite,

Pourquoi vous montrer tout nue ?"^

TBAFI'IC AND PASCAOE-roAT

Tlio old ]iassagc-boat, called ordinari, used to make the descent weekly from this

to Vienna; but the introduction

of steam conveyance has materiaally interfered with this branch of

industry. Boats of the old raft-

fasliion took seldom less than

seven or eight days to perform

the voyage, whilst the accommo-

dation they afforded made no

compensation for the delay. But

when a private party engaged a

boat for their own use, the descent

might generally be accomphsh-

ed in half the time mentioned.

This mode of travelling, however,

is now almost exploded by the

use of steamers, several of which,

under the management of a Bavarian company, have thrown open the means of ex-

peditious intercourse between Ratisbon and Linz. Three years ago, an attempt

was made to extend the chain of communication, by the same means, as high as

Ulm ; but the experiment was attended with some danger, and too much expense

to be continued at the time. It is understood, however, that the enterprise wasonly suspended, and will shortly be resumed with better success; although the

natural obstacles in the form of alternate rapid shallows and sand-banks, which

infest this part of the river, will make the passage often tedious if not dangerous.

But the last ten years have accomplished so much in this way, that it is impos-

sible to foresee what vast improvements may yet be introduced in the navigation of

the Upper Danube.

Among the public edifices deserving a second inspection, from association rather

than their present condition, is the Rathaus—the dungeons of which have been

already noticed. But how changed ai'e those apartments which once afforded

accommodation for the members of the imperial Diet ! The Hall of Assembly,

nevertheless, is a place ofdeep interest, particulai'ly to the historian, whose mind i4

n

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62 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [51 ^e IRatbans

lainiliar with the great political dramas which were here enacted during the lapse of

nearly two centuries. " Let every senator who enters this court to sit in judgment,

lay aside all private affections ; anger, violence, hatred, friendship, and adulation

Let thy whole attention be given to the public welfare : for as thou hast been equi-

table or unjust in passing thy judgment on others, so mayst thou expect to stand

acquitted or condemned before the awful tribunal of God."'—Such was the salutaiy

admonition wliich met the eye of the senator as he proceeded to the solemn duties

of his office in the Council-chamber, a new of which, with the costume of those

times, is here introduced.

In this Diet, or general assembly of the empire, " the principal commissioner, by

virtue of his office, took precedence of all the Emperor's ambassadors and others

except only the envoy from the court of Rome. His credentials were signed by

the Emperor, which he sent by a gentleman of rank to the envoy of the Elector of

Mentz, who published it per dictaturam, as it was called. Tliis high commission

made or returned no visits, nor gave the title of ' Excellency' to any of the envoys,

not even to those of the Electors. When an envoy from an electoral prince paid

him a visit, he ordered him to be received at his coach door by four gentlemen, two

< " Quisquis senator officii causa curiam ingproderis,

Ante hoc officium privatos effectus omncs abjiciDO

Ii'ain, vires, odium, amicitiam adulationem,

Publicrc rei personam ct curam suscipito.

Nam ut aliis toquus aut iniquus judex faeris,

If-a quoqnc, Dei judicium expectabis ct sustinc'ijia."

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tCTje IRaHaus.] the Danube illustrated. 63

pages, and a herald, and met Hm at the door of the second antechamber, walkmg

back a little before, and on the right hand of the envoy. In reconducting him to

his carriage the same superiority was assumed. His audience-chair stood under a

canopy, over which was the Emperor's pictm-e. On the floor was a carpet, round

the edge of which, arranged in due order, were the chairs for the electoral envoys.

The Elector of Mentz's envoy always gave notice whether he came in the quahty

of electoral envoy, or as deputy of the empne, to lay before him the opinion of

the Diet. If in the latter quality, he was received on his arrival by five gentlemen

belonging to the principal commissioner." Such are a very few of the points of

etiquette that were rigidly observed by the envoys, in their official intercourse with

the stately commissioner, as related by Keysler* and other writers of that day. But,

\vith the dissolution of the Diet, all this has vanished from the streets of Ratisbon, or

only survives in the memory of the ' oldest inhabitant.'

From its having been the port on the Danube at which so many of the knights-

crusaders commenced their voyage to the Holy Land, Ratisbon holds a distinguished

place in the early romances ; and fragments of old ballads are often met with, which

have immediate reference to the ages of Christian cliivahy

" There came a bold crusader

With fifty harnessed men,

Andhe's embarked at Batisbon

To fight the Saracen.

This gallant knight, Sir Gottfried hight

Leads forth a noble band.

Whose flag shall wave triumphantly

In Judah's hallowed land."

Taking leave of Ratisbon, the next scene which powerfully arrests the attention is

Donaustauff, crowned by the ruins of its ancient castle, and flanked by the noblest

edifice ofmodem times—the temple of Wallialla. The town has little to interest

the inquisitive stranger, except the beauty of its situation; but this, with its im-

mediate envii'ons, is sufficient to compensate for every other deficiency. Theold castle was the usual residence of the ancient Prince-Bishops of Ratisbon,

the adventures of one of whom have just been related. The fortress was taken

and dismantled in the Thuly years' war, by the famous Duke of Saxe Weimar

but its reduction was not accomphshcd without a vigorous and protracted resistance

on the part of the garrison. It commands one of the most extensive and variegated

prospects in Germany ; and, for the accommodation of tourists and the public, com-

modious foot-paths have been made by order of the Prince of Thurn and Taxis,

who has a beautiful summer residence here.

When the present King of Bavaria was prosecuting his studies at the University

' Vol. iv. Batisb. 414. Auoc. Gcnuaniqucs.

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04 TUB DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [JJfjf SBlalliaUa.

of Jona he took every occasion to evince that love of the fine arts and veneration

for men of genius wliich have distinguished his reign. We were informed, when

there, that the Prince's gi-eatest pleasure was in the society of Goethe ; and that it

was about tliis time that he first declared his intention to erect, should he ever come

to the throne, an edifice which should serve as a temple of Fame for all Germany.

Accordingly,' on his succeeding to the crown, his patriotic vow was not forgotten,

and an-augements were immediately entered into for the commencement of this

work. The celebrated ai-chitect, Leo von Idenze, to whose genius Munich is so

eminently indebted for its splendid embellishments—was considtcd, and under his

direction was commenced the building of

®50 SiZllAlfltlUa. It is impossible to imagine a finer situation than the hill

selected for this magnificent edifice—that of the Pai'thenon excepted. It is built

on a series of terraces, gi-adually receding fi-om each other as they ascend, and on

the last and highest of which stand the massive Doric columns of the temple,

with its majestic vestibule facing the river. With its outward grandeur of design

and elaborate execution, the interior admirably coiresponds, and leaves nothing to

be desu-ed. In the centre .is a statue of the royal founder, finely executed ; and all

roimd the walls are niches for the reception of the busts of those celebrated men

whose lives and actions have served, and shall hereafter serve, as models for imitation.

The space resen-ed for those memorials is so ample, that centuries must elapse before

it can be occupied in the manner designed ; for it is intended that none but men of

Emopean reputation—men of ths very highest standing in science, literatm'e, the

arts, &c., can ever hope for posthumous admission to this intellectual Pantheon.'

Lower down, however, there is a large chamber, called ' Halle der Erwartung,' or

Hall of Expectation, where the busts of living aspuants are admitted on probation-

ary terms, but whose right to a niche in the temple itself can only be determined

by a post-obit examination. But as the admission to tliis outer chamber is a jjubhc

acknowledgment of the high desert of the individual so honoured, it serves as a

stimulus to g;reater exertion, so as to ensure at last an entrance to the penetralia,

where^" aux ailes d'or, iiblouissaut Genie,

Ornaiit de rayous purs sou front inajostueux

Accompajjue Ics uoms des inortels vcrtuex,

£t leur offre ii jamais de reuaissauts Iiomuiagcs."

ITie roof of this temple is of wrought ii-on, luied with brass plates, painted after

the ancient Etruscan fashion, and richly gilded. The bas-rehefs on the w.alls

are considered first-rate specimens of sculpture ; and indeed nothing is wanting,

cither in design or execution, to render this edifice the wonder of modern times.

1 Only two EugUslimcn—King Alfred and Bacon—arc to have niches in the teraple. This, however,

allhoujj;h wo have it ou high authority, that of the Chevalier S , may be iritorrect.— En.

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-I

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C6« aatal^alla.] the Danube illustilited. ^

At the time of our waiting tliis, it is fast ai^proaching to its completion, the labour of

nearly twelve years having been aheady expended upon it; and in a future portion of

these sketches we hope to communicate some interesting particulai-s regarding a work

which, as a monument of art, is entitled to universal admiration. In proof of this it

needs only to be said, that the veiy ehtc of German talent has been employed hi its

construction and decoration.'

The wooden bridge over the Danube here is a structiu:e of great length, and so

ingeniously contrived that it can be taken to pieces dming the winter, when danger

is to be apprehended from the ice-floods, and again replaced when that danger is past.

Several others of these foot-bridges across the river are of the same moveable

constraction;and

althoughshght in appearance, and vibrating to the current, are

nevertheless so finnly and skilfully put together that accidents ai-e of very raie

occurrence. The one in question is among the best specimens on the Danube.

The chateau of Worth, the occasional residence of the Prince of Thum and

Taxis, is the next object that arrests attention, and, hke others already mentioned,

was the property of the old bishops of the diocese. The scenerj' on this part of the

Danube is finely variegated ; and owing to the white summer-houses, vmeyards,

gardens, and orchards, in which the citizens of Ratisbon seek relaxation from busi-

ness, the emirons present a cheerful and animated appearance. Like " most of the

castles and palaces in tliis part of the world, that of Worth has been bought and sold,

pledged and redeemed, for all sorts of sums by all sorts of people, as scrupulously set

down by Professor Schultes." Neaiiy opposite Worth, on the right bank, is the

small town of Pfatter, or Pfada as it is called in the dialect of the country. A

' While this sheet was passing through the press, the grand ceremony of opening the Walhalla

has taken place, as mentioned in the following letter, dated Ratisbon, Oct. 19, 1842,

" The Walhalla, or Temple built by the King in commemoration of distinguished Germans, was

solemnly inaugurated yesterday. The whole court arrived from Munich, and our town was crowded

with persons of rank. When the procession arrived at the foot of the elevation on which the monument

is erected, the King alighted from his carriage and ascended the steps, accompanied by the Princess

William of Prussia; next came Priuce William of Prussia, with Queen Theresa ; the Prince Royal

with his consort followed next ; then came Prince Leopold with his sister, the Grand duch*ess of

Hesse, and Prince Charles with the duch*ess of Wurtemberg. A band of musicians and a, chorus,

posted on the second terrace, began a hymn the moment the company entered within the gates. The

slow movement of the procession, in ascending the numerous steps which lead to the portico of the

temple, formed a highly interesting spectacle. When the King reached the entrance, the President of

the Government addressed His Majesty in a speech in which he dwelt on the importance to Germany,

in a national respect, of this work, which had been first conceived by his majesty, and was now executed

under his auspices. He said—' The Walhalla will be the palladium of modern Germany, and the name

of its Royal founder will, until the most remote ages, fill a large place in the recollection of every one

who has a German heart, and who wishes for the welfare of his country.'

" His majesty replied, ' May the Walhalla contribute to extend and consolidate the feelings of Ger-

man nationality! May all Germans of every race henceforth feel they have a common country—

country of which they may be proud, and let each individual labour according to Ids faculties to pro-

mote its glory.'

S

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06 THE DANUBE ILLUSTBATED. [aabttij.

streamlet of the same name faUs into the Danube beside it. The stream here

doubles itself in numerous fantastic meanders—like the celebrated Links of

Forth, as seen from the walls of Stirling Cas-

tle. Tlie great plain, extending from the

gates of Ratisbon, is supposed, says Mr.

Planche, " to have been once a morass, and

which, on being drained, has left a rich

black soil, several feet deep, and celebrated as

the ' Dunkelboden.'" The " peasantry of

this favoured district," he observes, " are

fond of all kinds of finery. The best Swiss

and Dutch linen, silk and satin kerchiefs of

the gayest hues, Brabant lace, and gold and

silver stuffs of all descriptions, are in constant

requisition. The men wear gold rings, and

generally two gold watches. The black

velvet or embroidered silk boddice of the

women is laced with massive silver chains,

from which hang a profusion of gold and

silver trinkets, hearts, crosses^ coins, medals

and the custom of tying a black silk hand-w-obt-j.

kerchief round the neck, with the bow behind, and the ends hanging down the back,

seems peculiar to Bavaria. A wedding here," continues the

same authority, "is a scene of great extravagance and uproar;

many tables accommodating at least a dozen persons each, are set

out with all manner of good things, and the feasting continues

for several days without inteiTuption." Ignorant as they are

wealthy and luxurious, few even of the most respectable among

them can either read or write, and are therefore, on the testimony

wimTH. of Schultes, their own countryman, entitled in every resi^ect to

the appellation of ' Bauem von Dunkelboden,' that is—peasants of the dark earth.'

Sosan is only remarkable as the subject of a legend, which states that the image

of the Blessed Virgin that now, with sanctifying influence, adorns the church, was

brought thither on the wings of angels from the neighbouring chapel, which had apos-

tatized from the pope, and, to the great scandal of the said image, gone over to

the ' Monk of Erfurt.' Another version mentions that the tiauspoit was accom-

plished, not through the sky, but by means of a boat; that whilst the seraphic

crew were plying their oars on the auspicious occasion, they were attended by

angelic choirs, and that the country was quite inundated by a flood of ravishing

1 Descent of tlie Danube, p. i.*a j—also " Die Donau," hy Duller,

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^yT^t^^/Jz/l^:

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SSttauSina.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED, 67

music, such as had never been heard before or since. Tlie image, when once

established in the new chmxh, soon became reconciled to the change ; but it is a

well-authenticated fact, that if by any chance a Lutheran came within sight of it, its

aspect became instantly changed, and instead of the sweet Madonna-hke smile, with

which it uniformly regarded the pious brotherhood, it assumed a terrific frown, and

on one occasion actually stepped down from the altar.

^trautltn^) the next town of any historical interest after leaving Ratisbon, has

many vestiges of antiquity, and other recommendations, well calculated to interest the

stranger. It is ])leasantly situated on an arm of the river—the Danube having been

brought immediately under its walls by means of an artificial canal, a great and

laborious undertaking accomplished by its citizens about the end of the fifteenth

century. The town is divided into two departments, the old and the new, and is

known to have been the Castra Augustana of the ancient Romans, whose handy-

work is still visible beyond the walls. It has maintained many struggles for inde-

pendence, sustained several sieges, and holds no inconsiderable place in the histoiy

of the feudal ages. It is now a cheerfid and industrious town, but from the air of

antiquity wliich pervades its streets, and the primitive aixhitecture which distin-

guishes its churches and Town-Hall, it forms a striking contrast to most other towns

of its class. On entering the principal street " the eye is attracted by a quadrangidar

tower, forming part of the Town-Hall, and much prized by the inhabitants, who con-

sider it the most ancient relic in the place, but to which Professor Schultes expresses

gi'eat antipathy and surprise " that mere reverence for antiquity should prevent

people from looking tlu'ough the town like a telescope. This tower is two hundred

feet liigh, and simnounted by a tin spire, with four smaller pinnacles at the comers."

The date of its erection is M.ccviii. and that of its re-edification m.dcclxxxiii. The

collegiate church is a large and rather imposing edifice of the fifteenth century. In

the church-yard of St. Peter's is a small chapel with a red marble tablet, with an

inscription to the memory of Agnes Bemauer, the story of whose melancholy fate, as

already noticed, is the subject of one of the well-known popidar ballads.

" Es reiten drei Reiter zu MUnchen herans,

Siereiten wohl von der Bemauer ihr Hans,

Bernauerin, bist dn drinnen ?

Ja drinnen ? &c. &c."

Continuing his route from Straubing, the traveller's attention is successively

engaged by castles and convents, all of which possess historical as well as tradi-

tionaiy interest. Among the latter is the Benedictine Monastery of Ober-Altaich,

close upon the river, and remarkable for its fi'escos, in which the painter has exer-

cised his ingenuity in caricaturing the leaders of the Reformation in the shapes of

beasts of prey ; while the monks themselves were the innocent sheep, whose imma-

culate fleece was stripjicd and torn by these ravening wolves It was thus that the

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QQ. THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [BegSenUntt

worthy abbots, who were always liberal in the embeUishment of the sanctuary,

retaliated upon men whose doctrines had so materiaUy interfered with the ancient

revenues of the chiu-ch. The round castle of Bogenberg, on the left bank of the

river, is another of these feudal or predatory stations with which the Danube,

like the Rhine, is so plentifully furnished ; and from wliich, in ancient times, their

lawless possessors levied a heavy toll on the merchandise transported through those

channels. It is told, in one of the old chronicles of the place, that the last chief who

inhabited the castle was miraculously converted by a personal visit fiom a statue ofthe

Blessed Virgin, which had travelled a considerable distance for that purjiose ;and

that, in token of his sincerity, he immediately abandoned his wicked courses,

discharged his bandits, and bestowed his substance upon the church, which still

attests his piety within the original enclosm-e. This church, owing to the high

reputation of the said statue, was long a favourite place of pilgrimage, and several

crowned heads, it is said, aiiived in solemn procession to offer gifts and cultivate a

friendly understanding with our ' Lady of Bogen.'

Metten, on the same side of the river, belonged also to the Benedictine order of

monks, and dates from the reign of Charlemagne. Regarding the foundation of this

monastery the popular legend mentions, that the monarch, hunting one day in the neigh-

bouring forest, fell in with a holyman, a hermit, who had there erected, in honom- of the

archangel Michael, a small oratory, at wliich he was constant in liis devotions. When

surprised by the king, he was employing himself, by way of relaxation, in cutting

wood ; and to make a salutary impression on the royal visitor, he suspended his

hatchet—not upon the branches that oiTered every convenience for that piu-pose

but upon a sunbeam. At a sight so inexplicable the king was at first struck

with amazement ; but rightly intci-preting it according to the test of miraculous

agency, he asked the holy man to name a boon ; and the latter suggesting that a

monastery would look remarkably well in that solitary place, the monaixh graciously

complied, and with his own hand laid the first stone of Kloster-Metten.'

The to^\Ti of Deggendorf is situated in a lich and beautiful \alley—

" in einen lie-

blichen thale, von sanften, Hiigeln umgeben, im Hintergnmde durch einem hoheren

miichtigen Bergwall geschiizt"—through the middle, in its capacious channel, rushes

the majestic Danube ; and gazing upon the scene before him, the spectator's mind

wiD revert to that fearful incident in its liistoiy which has been rendered so familiar

to the public by one of her nati^e poets.

". . Legt ein Jud cs in seiiicm Mund

Das sacrament, die himel spcis;

' The legends on this part of tlie Danube are numerous ; hul neither the limits nor plan of the pre-

sent work permit us to indulge so freely in the eastle-and-abbey traditions as some of our readera

wight wish ; but we have iileasure in again rcfen-ing to the 'DonaulSnder'and 'Denkbuch,' very recentpublications in German, in which they are detailed in amusing variety.

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Srjtfetr.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTR^iTED. (JP

Gott in eines Kindleins weis'

Auf dcin brot stund hindan . .

" Maria Kam mit grossen Leid,

Sie sprach : ihr falschen Juden blind,

Wie martert ihr mir mein liebes Kind ?

Mit ilir so kam der Engel Schaar

Ein licht viel lauter und audi klar.

Der Juden Mord das bracli da ans." &c.

The story referred to is thus told by Planche from the original, wliich may be

seen in DuUer's work, already mentioned:—

" Pilgrims from all pai-ts of Germany flock

to Deggcndorf upon St. Michael's eve, which is a celebrated ' gnade-zeit,' or time of

grace, when absolution is granted to all comers, in consequence of some miraculous

circ*mstances that in m.cccxxxvii. attended the pmloining and insulting of the

host, by a woman and some Jews, who, having bought the consecrated wafer from

her, scratched it with thorns till it bled, and the image of a child appeared—baked it

in an oven—^liammered it upon an anvil, the block of which is still shown to the

pilgi-im—then attempted to cram it down their accursed throats, but were prevented

by the hands and feet of the vision aforesaid ; and finally, despairing of being able

to destroy it, flung it into a well, which was immediately smTounded by a ' radiant

glory.' The result of this monkish fabrication, which inflamed the populace against

them, was the indiscriminate massacre of all the wretched Jews in the place,* whichinfamous and sanguinary deed was pei-petrated at Michaelmas, sanctioned by Christian

priests,—who in grand procession caiTied back the indestractible wafer to the church

and solemnly approved by Pope Innocent VIII., who, in 1489, issued his bull for the

general absolution above mentioned. The whole of these cuxumstances, fi'om the

stealing of the host to the gi'anting of the bull, are represented in paintings on the

walls of the church. From the same authority we learn that in 1801 fifty thousand

pilgrims assembled here ; and so great were their numbers in 1815, that the

major part of them passed the night in the streets of the town, and in the neigh-

bouring fields."*

Not far from Niittemberg, the Danube receives a powerfiil tribute in the accumu-

lated waters of the Iser—a name familiar as household words to every reader of

English ])oetry. This river takes its rise in the distant recesses of the Tyrol, runs

along the base of the mountains that skirt the valley of Inspruck, and, after winding

past Munich, here terminates its rapid course. The " Hohenlinden" of the poet,

tvith which the Iser is so indissolubly associated, lies a considerable way inland ; but,

having thus necessarily adverted to it, we shall be readily excused for here intro-

ducing the stanzas by which it is immortalized in the " Drinking-Song of Munich."

* It appears that the Deggendoifers " owed tlie Jews a considerable sum of money ; it is therefore

most probable that the story was got up to enable them, as the debt grew troublesome, to wash it

out in blood."

' Descent of the Danube, 56. Die Donau, 266. DenUbnch.—1842.

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"0 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [IjoikllC^Cn.

" Sweet User ! were thy sunny realm

Anil flowery gardens mine.

Thy waters I would shade with elm

To prop the tender vine ;

Sly golden flagons I would fill

"With rosy draughts from every hill

And under every myrtle bower,

Jly gay companions should prolong

The laugli, the revel, and the song,

To many an idle hour.

Like rivers crimson'd with the beam

Of yonder planet bright,

Our balmy cui>s should ever stream

Profusion of delight

Ko care should touch the mellow heart,

And sad or sober none depart

For wine can triumph over woo.

And Love and Bacchus, brother i>owers,

Could build in Iser's sunny bowers

A paradise below." Campbell.

The principal objects which now successively invite the stranger's attention, in

descending to Passau are Osterhofen, Winzer Castle, Hofldrchen, Kinzig, and

Vilshofen, with several others of minor consideration, which arc all described, more

or less minutely, in the Guides along the Danube. ITie nunneiy at Osterhofen

stands on tlie spot where an important victory was obtained over the Avars. Winzer

Castle " was destroyed by the wild Pandours in the service of Maria Theresa, and

commanded by Baron Trenck ;" and that of Hofkirchen is chiefly remarkable as

having been for ages the stronghold of robber-chiefs, who upheld their lordly

honours by plundering the vessels wliich unsl<ilful pilots, or a dangerous navigation

threw in their way. Like the eagle from his eyrie, they could watch the boats

gradually descending the stream, and when whu-led round by the eddies, or diiveii

against the rocks, by which the passage is beset, these magnanimous guardians of

the river had onlv to dispatch a body of their retainers, to profit by the boatmen's

distress, and secure the cargo for their own use.

TRAFFIC O.V THK ttANl'llii

After Vilsliofcn, a walled town with gates and towers, and pictm-csquely situated

at tlie confluence of the Vilx and Danube, the scenerybecomes more and more

interesting. Tlip dianncl of the river becomes giadually naiTower, till the rocks on

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ffistttl^oftn.] THE DANUBE ILI.USTRATKD. 71

either side rise almost peiiieiuliculaily fiom the water, which, impeded and confined

in its bed, now assumes the appeai-ance of a rapid torrent, covered with foam, and

filling the nan-ow defdewith the llmnder of its course; but the effect is often subhme,

when the mountain-torrents, pouring down the rocks at the close of autumn, give

depth and impetus to the master-flood. It was while witnessing a scene like this

that Campbell wrote those well-known lines :

" For pallid autumn once again

Hath swelled each torrent of the liill;

Her clouds collect, her shadows sail,

And watery winds that sweep the vale

Grow loud and louder still.

But not the storm dethroning fast

Yon monarch oalc of massy pile,

Nor river roaring to the blast

Ai'onnd its darlc and desert isle.

Nor chureh-ljell tolling to beguile

The cloud-borne tliundcr passing by,

Can sound in discord to my soul

EoU on, ye mighty watei-s, roll !

And rage, thou darkened sky."'

In harmony with the Alpine sccneiy which here prevails —and which might

cliallenge comparison with that of vaiious passes in Switzerland—the houses are

generally of wood, in the picturesque Helvetian style, with projecting roofs, open

galleries and staircases, and built on artificial platforms, or rocks overhanging the

river. The dress of the peasantry is rather picturesque than otherwise; but owing

to the dailj' increase of traffic on the Danube, and the influx of strangers, it is pro-

bable that then- costume, like then- primitive character, will by and by undergo the

usual modification in such circ*mstances. There is here a point in the river, which,

until the government interfered and jjartly removed the obtrucUng rocks, was a place

of no small danger to the boatmen. The legend says, that when the Crasaders were

descending the river, in their flotilla, and were proceeding to rescue the Holy Landfi-om its Pagan oppressors, his satanic majesty was so enraged that he plucked up

rocks from the neighbouring cliff's, and pitched them right into the channel of llio

river, thereby hoping to airest their progress. But in this he was completely

deceived ; for after the first rock came plunging down amongst them, every man

made the sign of the cross, and uniting their voices in a holy anthem, the fiend was

instantly paralyzed, and slunk away without fmther resistance. So huge, however,

was the first stone which he threw, that for ages it caused a whirl and swell in this

part of the river, which nothing but the skill and perseverance of Bavarian en-

gineers could remove.

' On leaving a scone in Bavaria.

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n THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [\SaSsan.

)|d00{tU» the capital of the lower circle of the Danube, and about eighty miles

south-east of Ratisbon, is a town of great interest to strangers. It occupies a penin-

sula formed by the junction of thelser and the Danube, and, according to a recent

statement, contains a population ofnearly eleven thousand souls. It is a place of high

antiquity,and from time immemorial has enjoyed most of tliose commercial advantages

which result from a position so peculiarly favoured by nature. It is proverbial,

indeed, for the romantic beauty of the scenery, of which it forms the attractive centre,

auid by which it commands the admiration of every tra\eller on the Danube. From

the castle of the Oberhaus, commanding the whole town, the bridges, the Dom, and

picturesque natural frame in which they are set, the view is most imposing, and in

general makes a stronger impression on the memory than probably any other scene

in the whole course of the Danube. The town is divided into foui' jjarts, namely,

Passau proper, Ilzstadt, and Instadt—so called from the two tributaries, the Ilz and

the Inn—and the fortress of Oberhaus, on the mountain of St. George. Passau was

formerly a bishopric, with ecclesiastical revenues of great value attached to it, and is

said to have numbered a popidation little short of sixty thousand. The great histori-

cal event in the annals of Passau is the treaty of religious toleration signed here, in

M.DHi., between the Arch-Duke Ferdinand, brother of the Emperor, and Maurice,

Elector of Saxony ; ten years after which, the town, including the cathedral, wiis

almost entirely destroyed by fire. In m.dc.x. the Emperor Rudolph levied an anny of

recruits in the episcopal tenitor}' of Passau, which, on reconciUation the same yearwith his brother Matthias, he affected to disband ; but having other objects in view,

while he gave them their dischai-ge, he withheld their pay, so that they might have

a pretext for levying contributions in Bohemia. Accordingly, imder their leader

Ramee, they burst into Upper Austria, spreading themselves over the country

beyond the Daiuibe, and after committing every species of devastation, passed into

Bohemia, where they were at last defeated near Prague, after they had extorted three

hundred thousand florins from the Emperor.' During the last war, when the legions

of Napoleon made a triumphant mairh along the Danube, Passau, hke its prede-

cessors, was taken by them in m.dcccix., and strongly fortified, but soon aftenvai'ds

abandoned in despair

" For hark ! nitli brand and buckler,

And maddening from his fear.

The Ituss, so late a truckler,

I lath poised tlie Cossack spear.

And now, like vultures swooping

On the struggling host of France,

Dark rutliless hordes are trooping.

With brand and barbed lance

Tlie prey turns on its beagles,

The pui-suer is pursued," &c.

' Planche—quoting Cox's History of the Housb of Austria. Vol. ii. p. 419.—Compare also Culler's

account.- Statist. Bavaria.

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X

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Nassau.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTR.VTED. 73

Passau, in point of situation, is frequently compared with that of Coblentz ; the

former, however, must be allowed the preference in the jjicturesque beauty of its

site. There ai-e three towns which are usually comprehended under the name of

Passau :—the ancient Boiodurum, now Innstadt, on the right bank of the dark green

waters of the Inn, at their confluence with the Danube;—next, Passau proper, occu-

pying a tongue of land between the Danube and Inn, where the Roman camp of the

Batavian cohorts—Castra Batava—once stood; and lastly Ilz-stadt, upon the rocky

delta which the Ilz forms with the Danube, where it discharges its waters into it

from the north. The Maria-Hilf-Berg, on whose summit stands the Pilgrim

Church,—as seen on the right bank of the Inn,—and the Georgcnberg, cro^vned with

the rocky fortress of Oberhaus, already mentioned, present to the lo^er of beautiful

scenery the most engaging points of view. From Georgcnberg, in particular, the

vaiied prospect is enchanting. It extends over the forest-skirted valley of the

Inn, Instadt, the Maria-Hilf-Berg, and St. Nicolas ; thence, over the vale of the

BOATS ON THK OANCDB

Danube, and down upon the dimpled Ilz, which, after leaving the Castle of ill|al0^

and debouching from the naiTOW valley, finds a wider and more capacious

channel.

The annals of Passau, as we have already shown, extend as far back as the time

of the Roman emperors. These masters of the world found upon the Inn the ancient

Boiodurum, and lost no time in fortifying it. They built also the Castra Batava

opposite. The remains of the Roman fastness, the " Romei-wehr," at Domplatz, are

still to be seen. The castle"

Am Ort" has a foimdation of Roman workmanship.The memory of St. Severin is still cherished in Passau, and in thetomi of Innstadt,

the Boiodui-um—St. Severin's church is yet standing on the very spot where that

n

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.] THE DANUlfE ILLUSTR.\TED. 75

fortress was devoted to the punisliinent of the denounced sect called Anabaptists,

who expiated their religious lieresy in dismal vaults, to which the light of day could

never penetrate. Alas, that the ear of man was obstinately closed to eveiy sigh poured

forth by the hopeless prisoner of Oberhaus to the throne ofthe All-merciful—express-

ing feelings far beyond the power of words ! ITie enduring memory of this barbarity

leads us at once to that ofsuperstition. Who has not already heard ofthe " Passau-

spell," so famous in the Thirty Years' War, by which faint-hearted waiTiors secured

themselves by a charm against sword and bullet ? The discovery was made, either by a

student or an executioner, and consisted in this : the timid or disheartened wanior

swallowed a slip of paper, on which were written certain magic sentences, with the

words ' Tcufcl hdf mir ; Lieb und Seel gcb, ich dir,'

—' Devil help mc : body and soul

give I thee.' The spell did not operate, however, till the following day ; and he who

swallowed it, and died before the expiration of that period, went of course to the

devil. Many fearful tales are still related of wicked soldiers, who put theh trust in

the Passau-craft or spell.—See Duller.

The character of the present inhabitants of Passau, subdued and Imraanized in

its tone, shows in pleasing contrast vnih the darker annals of the city. The perse-

cutors and destroyers of Jew and Anabaptist have all disappeared : we can indeed

scarcely be brought to regard them as the forefathers of the present generation ; the

posterity they left have not inherited their ruthless bigotry, and Passau has no

longer any fellowship or sympathy with the unhallowed ravings of superstition and

fanaticism. The people maintain the character of ' good Catholics,' but are frank.

hearty, and withal as active citizens as ever. Tlie poor restless ghost indeed of the

so called ' good olden time' will hardly find in all Bavaria fewer ' Erloser' than in

Passau,—cs miissten den die ' Drotteln,' oder 'Fexen' sein, deren wir manclic hier

finden.

Almost the entire way fi'om Vilshofen, the exterior of the houses along the

Danube forcibly reminds us of the Alpine tracts of Salzburg ; and in proportion as

the Alpine scenery prevails, so does the more frequent appeai'ance—nearly all the

way from Passau to Linz—of those Cretins whose features ai"e so painfully familiar

to travellers in the Aljjs. Alas, that tlie noblest work of creation—the human

form divine—should be thus degraded to a mere vehicle of ribaldry! "On the bridge,

between Passau and Ilzstadt," says Duller, " you observe human creatures ofeither sex

taunting and scoffing at each other by turns. But how is it possible to bestow a look,

save that of pity or aversion, upon their ungainly gestiues, and bmtal gibberish'

We arc not fastidious or over delicate, but this degradation of humanity is too revolting.

we disclaim all misanthropy ; but consider it not only desuablc, but a most imperative

duty to our fellow-men, and to the eienial God, whose presence hallows that temple

of flesh and bone on which he has stamped his own image, to withdraw by evciy pos-

sible means such creatures from the jjale of human society.—But away at once from

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7(J THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. l^OsSSatl

these loathsome objects;"' and let us find relief in the pure aspect of nature, in the

busy traffic and bustle always to be metwith in Passau, and

amongthe monuments

on which is traced her earlier history.

In the middle of the tongue of land described by the Danube and Inn, and on a

height from which the streets, ramifying into naiTow defiles on either hand, descend

more or.less steeply towards the water, stands

'

JCfje <K<lt!)rt)tal ; and in front of it, on the promenade, the statue of " King Max,"

in his coronation robes, the left hand extended in benediction,—a monument of his

people's love :" As history perpetuates his deeds, so may this metal hand down liis

image to generations to come," is the inscription on the pedestal. This work was the

joint production of three artists in Passau; Eichler supplied the design, Jorhan the

model, Samassa the casting of the bronze statue. The cathedral, however, is no longer

decked with those three towers, in the pm'e Gennau style of architecture, as we see

it in an old engraving, now lying before us. The conflagi'ation already mentioned

extended its ravages as far as the choir of this fonnerly much admired building

and Passau is moreover indebted for this loss to the unhappy bigotry of its own

citizens of the seventeenth and eighteenth century,—who in defiance of good taste

modernized the siuviving portion by the merest patching together of almost all the

rest of this originally noble edifice.

Facing the cathedral, on the promenade, stands the building,—now taken into the

post-office,—in which the treaty of Passau was deposited. Besides these, in this

quarter of the city are the bishop's residence, the Senate-house, St. Paul's Church, St.

Michael's Church, with the Jesuits' College, and tlie Nicdemburg Nunnery, for

English ladies—all of which excite our attention ; and in Innstadt, quite upon the

bank, are St. Severin's and St. Gertrude's Churches.

Before we again diverge from the Danube to explore the coimtry bordering on

the Inn, towai-ds its source, let us make an excursion up the Ilz. In about an hour we

shall aiTive at f^al&, where the Ilz, rushing through its rocky bed in abnipt wind-

ings, encompasses two tongues of land, one of wliich is surmounted by the castle of

Hals, the residence of those powerful * grafen' who became extinct in m.ccclxxv. At

the foot of the lleschenstein is the outlet of the canal ' TriftspeiTe,' formed with gi'eat

laboiur by blasting the solid granite during the years m.dcccxxvii. to m.dcccxxxi.

The scenery here presented to the view is unique in its features. Nature, revelling

in wild magnificence, appears in beautiful harmony with the trophies won from her

by the labour and ingenuity of man.*

I^illd <2^a8tl0 is the ber^eau of an ancient family of counts, whose warUke repre-

sentatives were long distinguished both in the camp and the cabinet ; but at last, like

so many others, whose roofless halls are now only pointed to as landmaiks, tba

' Die Donau. Art. Passau. • Die Malerischen und Romantischen Donauliindcr,

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I

^^5^

§-i

^

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^a\s ffiastU.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED 77

succession failed ; the feudal standard was lowered from its walls, and the castle

served no longer but as the monument of its departed owners. The family is said to

n.ALS CASTLa

have acquu'ed its renown in the first ciiisade—the grand epoch in mai'tial genealogies

—and to have perpetuated its claims to national distinction in the brilliant exploits

of Albert the Valiant.

When Rudolph of Hapsburgh and hold Luitprandt,

Went forth to tlie rescue with buckler and brand

Saying—

' Soon shall the Moslem our altar restore,

Or the Ilz's dark waters shall see me no more.'

The bugles are sounding, the banners are reared.

And down the blue Danube the army is steered.

Our Lady be with them ! and, followed with prayers,

What triumphs await them—what conquests are theirs !

They have landed at last where the crescent on higli.

Profaned, as it flaunted, the Syrian sky;

And they wept as they traversed the vaUeys and streams,

That had warmed their devotions a:id lightened their dreams

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78 THE DANUBE ItLUSTRATED. LlPaSM"-

They have fought—tliey have fallen—but true to the Cross,

They count not the peril, nor reckon the loss.

Triumphant in death— so their dust but repose.

In tlie land where tlie bright Star of Bethle'm arose

They have fought—they have conquered ! But where is their Chief?

Must so brilliant a triumph be clouded witli grief ?

Yes—clouded with sorrow that triumph sliall be.

For his sepulclire rises on fair Galilee !

The tidings flew fast to the Castle of Halz,

Saying—' Lo, like a gallant crusader he falls

"We have hallowed his grave upon Galilee's shore.

But the Ilz's dark waters shall see him no more !'

His Lady looked out from her desolate bower,

She heard the sad tidings, and drooped like a flower :

And at morn, when the summer-sun gladdened its walls.

There were silence and death in the Castle of Halz.

?ri^0 VitUj at the confluence of the Inn with the Danube is exceedingly beau-

tiful, so much so as to be preferred by many to that from the heights aheady

mentioned; and of both the reader may form a veiy coiTect judgment by casting

his eye over the admirable engraving here introduced. The eifect produced on

his taldng leave of this enchanting scene is thus described by the gi-aphic pen of a

recent traveller. " Standing in the stem of the boat," says he, " and looking back

on the too rapidly disappearing scene, on our right rose the long walls and round

towers of Obcrhaus, upon a range of precipices richly hung with wood, and full four

hundred fathoms high. On om* left stood the Maria-Hilf-berg (Our Lady of Suc-

cour) crowned with its church, and the houses of the Innstadt picturesquely

grouped at its foot. In the centre lay the town of Passau, forming a salient angle

upon a plane of water nearly two thousand feet in width, and standing like an island

between two of the noblest rivers in Germany. The time allowed us to contemplate

this lovely scene was as brief as the enjoyment was exquisite. The Danube, rehi-

forced by the waves of the Inn and the Ilz, i-ushes with redoubled speed round a

rocky cape, and in an instant your boat is gliding between banks so savage andsolitary that you scairely believe but that some necromantic speD has transported

you in the twinkling of an eye hundi'eds of miles from that peopled city, the hum of

which stUl lingers in your ear. In its eccentric course the river now seems to form

itself into a chain of beautiftd lakes, each apparently shut in on all sides b}' preci-

pitous hills, clothed with black firs that grow down to the very water's edge, wlule

from amongst them peeps out here and there a Swiss-looking cottage, with perhaps

a mstic bridge thrown across a small cleft or chasm, through which a moimtain-

ri^Tilet falls like a silver thread into the flood below."

From Passau, the river Danube continues for a mile to i-un tlu'ough a narrow,

level country, and then the mountains on both sides draw nearer together. On the

right bank we notice the manor ofKiaempeistein (or Kraempenstein) with the ruins of

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©ttens^sim.] thk danubk iLLUSXitATED. 79

its castle, situated on high rocks ; and a quarter of a mile further the village of

Pirschwang, with the Austrian custom-house. Both banks are occupied by woody

moimtains, gradually increasing in height, and exhibiting a striking change of mag-

nificent rocks and forest scenery. The banks successively contracting as we de-

scend, the river becomes deeper and more rapid, and then flows past the Jochenstein,

or Joachim's Stone, which is a cubical rock, projecting irom the channel of the

Danube, and probably precipitated by some remote convulsion into the stream. It

bears an obehsk with the arms of Austria and Bavaria. The river then reaches

the market-town of Engelhardzell, where is the principal Austrian custom-house,

called in German das Haupsteinbruchs und commercial Granze-zollamt, After

having formed the boundary between the Austrian Inviertel and the kingdom of

Bavaria, the Danube enters the Hausrackviertel, and separates it fi'om the

Muhlviersel, which is situated on the left bank, and begins a short distance below

the Jochenstein. From Engelhardzell both banks belong to Austria, and also below

this market-town, the banks of the river continue high, mountainous, and rocky,

covered with forests, while the precipices, which rise fi'om the very brink of the

river, siuTound it like high walls. But at Aschach the chain of steep granite

mountains and rocky precipices, which, chiefly near the villages of Schlogen and

Unter-Michel, greatly confine the Danube, gradually recede ; and the river entering

the extensive andlevel valley

of Feldkirchen,gradually expands, and rolls on its

magnificent volume of water.

From Aschach to Ottensheim, the Danube contains a labyrinth of islands, sands,

and shallows ; and in this district the course of the river, in its width and depth, is

subject to many variations and periodical changes. Thus below Aschach the river

is three hundred and forty fathoms wide, and two fathoms deep ; but from Schaden

to the Geisau it has a width of a thousand fathoms, and a depth of eleven feet;

whilst, in front of the market-place of Ottensheim, near the Keltenstein, its channel

is again diminished in breadth to one hundred fathoms.

Near Aschach we meet with the first vineyards, whose wine, however, is only

good for the table after a hot

summer. The neighbourhood

abounds in com, and at a point

where the river is only a hun-

di-ed and sixty-one fathoms

wide, there is a ferry-boat at

a place called Landshaag, for

conveying agricultiural produce and cattle to the ' Muhlviersel.' Below this place

the mountains on either side gradually recede firom the banks of the Danube, a fine

level country presents itself to the view, for about two miles and a half, and the river,

divided into many arms, forms a multitude of islands, covered with a profusion of

alders and willows. But it is not easy to run the boat safely between them, when after

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80 THE DANUBE ILLDSTRATED. [ffiastlc of UratmpelMcfn.

the periodical inundation, the usual channel has beenrendered doubtful or impractica-

ble. The floods in these cases often obliterate ihe old, and form new courses, through

flats and islands. This irregularity of the Danube extends as far as Ottensheim,

and on account of its perijlexing sinuosities, there is no means of employing horses

for dragging the boats- -for the channel continually varies after each successive

inundation.

Near Ottensheim the mountains again confine the expanded waters, and compress

them into a deep, powcrfid stream. The channel, which measures at some points

one thousand fathoms inwidth, at others, one thousand four hundred, or one thousand

six himdred, is now confined to one hundred and eight, or little more, and the waters

being prevented from flowing off", rise to a great height. Vessels are seen in their

com-se, under the Benedictine convent of Wilhering and other picturesque places,

passing on to the capital of the province of the Upper Ens. From Ottensheim to the

bridge of Linz, the Danube has a descent of ten feet three inches in the space of

lour thousand eight hundred fathoms.

We now retm-n from this brief and general outline of the passage, to notice a few

of those prominent features which pai-ticulaily interest the traveller in his descent

from Passau to Linz ; and one of the most striking objects in this romantic district

is the Schloss, already named—the castle ofKraempelstein, or Schneiderschossel as

it is called by the boatmen. It stands on a rocky precipice, richly fringed by

copse-wood, with a back-ground of daik pine-forest, through wliich the naked rocks

are seen piled in groups that bear no distant resemblance to the shattered remains

of some colossal fortress of antiquity. Tlie scene is highly picturesque, and presents

a tempting subject to the painter ; while, as a locale on which imaginarion might

erect some airj' and splendid structxu-e, the romance writer could hardly fix on a

more congenial spot. Respecting this ancient fortress, however, history is almost

silent, and only adverts to it occasionally as the residence of the Prince-bishops of

Passau, who, during the lapse of more than four centuries, maintained their epis-

copal dignity among these savage rocks. Their vicinity to the river was, of course,

nolittle

advantageto their revenue ; for if a richly freighted barge appeared under

the cliffs, no further progress could be effected till a handsome offering was pre-

sented to the bishop or his representative, who, like the temporal baron, imposed a

tax on every kind of traffic that passed through his territory.

The name of Schneiderschossel, by which it is familiarly known in the district,

originated, says the tradition, from its connexion with an unfortmiatc tailor, who in

attempting to tlu-ow a dead goat over the precipice, lost his balance, fell headlong

from tlie rocks, and the river being much swollen at the time, his mangled body was

carried rapidly down by the ciurent, and tliat in the presence of liis patron, for

whom he had that very morning been exercising Ms genius in cutting out 'a suit of

new brocade.' From certain mysterious hints and appearances, however, which

afterwards occurred, it was sunnised, and even affirmed, that the said goat was none

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ffiaStU of Stacmptlstein.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 81

Other than the ' fiend' himself, who merely assumed the appearance of a defunct

animal of that species, the better to entrap the poor tailor, who, as it certainly

turned out, did not throw the goat, but was himself thrown, from the battlements

while the former, soon reviving from his pretended lethargy, was seen half running

half flying up the steep rocks within five minutes after the catastrophe had taken

place. This appalling circ*mstance being told to the bishop's chaplain, he shook

his head three times, and making the sign of the cross, ordered a pail of holy water

to be sprinkled over the precipice, and the goat was no more seen. But early in

the morning, when the brocade was measm^ed, it was discovered that in cutting it

out for the bishop's robe, as already stated, the crafty Schneider had cabbaged at

least a third of the precious material. All were amazed ; and now the sudden de-

struction that had overtaken the deUnquent was no longer a mystery ; for the goat,

as the chaplain clearly explained, had here acted the part both ofjudge and execu-

tioner, and carried ofi" the tailor in the very midst of his wickedness. " And so will

it ever happen," he added, " to all who shall attempt thus impiously and dishonestly

to curtail the bishop either in his robe or liis revenue." That same year, as it was

afterwards proved, the ofierings made to the Bishop at Kraempelstein, were nearly

doubled ; rents and imposts were paid three days before they became due ; while the

story of the ' brocade' had so good an effect upon the schneider-craft, that thence-

foi-ward little more than half the former quantity of buckskin was found sufficient for

the stoutest loiight in Bavaria.'

' The tradition here given, differs materially from the following, as recorded by a German poet :

" Die Scliiffer nennen das alte Schlosslein das, ' Schneiders chlossl,' und erzUhlen davon die sage,

welche Platen in folgende Roman ze verwandelte :

" Ein Schneider flink mit der Ziege seiu

Behauste den 'Srcmpcnsttfn,

Sah oft von der felsigen Schwelle

Hinab zu der Donauwelle

In reissende Wirbel hinein.

So sass er oft uud so sang er dabei}

Wie leb'ich sorgenfrei

!

Meine Ziege, die niihrt und letzt niich,

Manch Liedchen klingt und ergiitzt micli,

Fiihrt unten ein Schiffer vorbei.

Docli ach, die Ziege, sie starb, und ihr

Kief, nach er ! Welie mir !

So wirst du mich nicht mehr laben.

So muss ich dicli hier begraben

Im Bette der Donau hier ?

Doch als er sie schleudern will hinein,

Verwickelt, o Todespein !

Ihr Horn sich ihm in die Kleider

Nun liegen Zieg', und Schneider

Tief unter dem IStEmptnstein i

Y

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82 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [lEnBlt^art^tU.

The ^OCfitn&ttin, already mentioned, is an isolated rock in the channel of the

river, and rises to a considerable elevation above its surface. It is a striking

feature, and ser\*es as the point of dcmarkation between Austria and Bavaiia, the arms

of which arc respectively emblazoned on opposite sides of the rock. In the dis-

tance, the small building with which it is crowned has the appearance of a chapel ; and

the whole scene to the right and left is a combmation of great magnificence.

Abrupt and steep, from either shore,

The pine-clad precipices soar

While oft, emerging from the wood,

In foam descends the mountain-flood.—But sweetest far these rocks among,

When wakes at eve the pilgrim's song,

And yonder rudely fashioned bark.

With crowded deck, 'twixt light and dark.

And pine-tree oars its course to guide

Floats slowly down the rippling tide.

tua JQCBBXST01N.

Englchardzcll is the well-known station of t}ie Austrian Custom-house, where

passports, baggage, and merchandize are examined—and these at times so leisurely,

that a delay of many hours is often occasioned to travellers. Since the introduction

of the present steamers, however, this inconvenience has been at least partially

remedied, and sometliinghke an air of despatch introduced into the scmtiny, so that

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lEnglclSiatBjril.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 83

passengers by this conveyance are passed muster with unwonted expedition. The

Cistercian Convent, for which Englehardzell was long celebrated, has now—like that

at Donauworth, and several others—^become the residence, or rather hunting-seat,

of the Prince of Wrede, raised to that dignity by the late King of Bavai-ia, and

inspector-general of the amiy. The monasteiy was founded about the close of the

thirteenth century, with the title of " Cella Angelonini," or Church of the Angels ; but

after the lapse of neai"ly three hundred years, it was ^sited by the plague, which,

after ravaging the neighbouring towns and villages, entered the sacred enclosure, and

carried off so many of the brotherhood, that the place was deserted, and allowed to

remain in ruins dining the tluree following generations. Tt was then rebuilt, but its

calamities were not ended, for a fire breaking out in the abbot's kitchen, reduced

the edifice to a heap of ashes, in which condition it remained till the beginning of

the seventeenth century.

Nearly opposite to this is the ancient tower of Hied, the real landmark, according

to the boatmen, between the Austrian and Bavarian territories, and supposed to derive

its name from that of the early inhabitants of this district, which is still described as

the ' Riedermark.' During the revolt ofthe peasantry in m.dcxxvi., this district became

the scene of many warhke operations. An attempt was made to intercept all inter-

course, by throwing a heavy chain- cable across the river ; but some floating batteries

being directed against it, the baiTier gave way, and the scheme was entirely fmstrated.

Of the objects that successively attract notice, and conjure up various themes

of history and romance, between this town and Linz, the limits of our present work

will admit of little more than a brief enumeration. Rana-Riedl, on the left bank

of the river and serving as a barbican to the Alpine vaUey which it still seems to

protect, is one of the few castles now inhabited ; and from its pictiuresque situation

and turretted roof, adds much interest to the landscape. Crowning a promontory,

at the base of which the Danube boils and roars with the velocity and force of a

cataract, are the ruins of Kirschbaum. This is a striking point of view, and opens

into another, which is justly admired by travellers of taste, two of the latest of

whom have noticed it in neai'Iy the following terms :

—Opposite this promontory is

the Mill of Schliigen, from which a footpath runs to Aschach, avoiding the

windings of the river, and not a quarter of the distance by water. On tui'ning

round this corner, the river, now contracted to nearly half its previous width, enters

a majestic defile, shut in by wooded mountains, almost precipitous, and vaiying

between six hundred and a thousand feet in height. The sinuosities of its course

arc so comjilicated, that within the space of twelve or fifteen miles, it flows towards

all the four points of the compass. The current, increased in force by being pent up,

boils and rages over the rocks, formijig rapids and whulpools.' For upwards of

' Hand-book. p. IfiT-

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84 THE DAN0BE ILLUSTRATED. [?lscl)ac5

an hour, we glided through scenes increasing in sublimity, and calling forth excla-

mations of wonder and delight. The romantic, I may say awful beauty of this defile

surpasses every description. My companion and I mutually confessed that we

had exhausted our stock of epithets, and stood gazing in far more expressive

silence on the stupendous precipices that towered above us, almost to the ex-

clusion of dayhght.' The expedition, however, with which the traveller is now

carried down the river by steam, leaves but short time for the contemplation of

this magnificent pass. But those who remember the passage in an ' Ordinaii'

floating with the stream— here loitering imder the shadow of colossal rocks,

there shooting along the contracted channel ; whirled at times, by adverse cur-

rents, round some beetUng precipice, and then slowly regaining its balance and

direction— have had the best opportunity of seeing tliis defile in all its native

grandeur.

The next object of paramoimt interest in this part of the Danube is the Castle, or

rather Palace, of Neuhaus—an edifice of vast dimensions, and the baronial residence

of the ancient family ofSchaumburg,—whose feudal keep is observed at a more con-

venient vicinity to the river—and occupying nearly the whole of the eminence on

which it stands. It is an imposing mass of building—contrasting well with the

more primitive stronghold in the ascent, and conveying no inadequate idea of

the power and influence of a family in which the sovereign Dukes of Austria

found not only a political rival, but a formidable enemy. During that inroad of

the Turks, which in the reign of Chailes V. carried dismay along the whole valley

of the Danube—and of which some particulars will be found in a subsequent page

—the Castle of Neuhuas was set apart as an asyhim for the aged men, the women,

and children, and was placed under a strong guard.

30Cf|acI| on the opposite bank of the river, stretches along the water's edge,

and, with its chateau and lofty tower, presents a pleasing featiu-e in the landscape.

In the rear, embosomed in pine-forests, rises the embattled towers of Schaumburg,*

with an extensive range of buildings, which still demonstrate the princely state and

condition of its ancient founders, whose name is ofsuch firequent recurrence in the

page of German history.

' Descent of tlie Danube, p. 105. Duller, p. 394.

' Henry de Schaumburg, Marshal of France, was a descendant of tliis family. He served in

Piedmont under Marshal D'Estr(?es, and afterwards against the Huguenots in the civil wars. In

M.Dcxxv. he was made Field-Marslial, and two years later, defeated the English at the Isle of Rhe.

Ho forced the passage of Susa, where he was severely wounded. The next year he took Pignerol,

and relieved Casal. In m.dcxxxii. he defeated the rebels in Languedoc, at the famous battle of

Castel-Naudari, for which he was made governor of the province. He wrote a narrative of the war in

Italy, and died in m.dcxxxii.— But of the chiefs of the house of Schaumburg, further notice will be

found in another portion of this work.

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n:-

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El)t Salftarttnietg.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 88

In the twelfth century, the names of the Counts of Schaumburg* appear in many

public documents. " As late as the middle of the sixteenth century," says Planche,

" they were free Counts of the Empire, and then- names are entered in the Reichs-

Matrikel, as bound to furnish six horse, and twenty-six footmen at arms—a slender

contingent for a family that by Ufting a single finger could have brought thousands

into the field. Their domains extended from the Bavarian frontier, beyond Linz,

and included a great number of market-towns and castles—in fact, nearly the whole

valley of the Danube between this and Passau." This magnificent ruin is now the

property of the Prince of Stahrenberg.

The channel of the Danube is here interspersed with numerous woody islands,

which improve the scenery, but rather perplex the navigation ; for the latter, as

already mentioned, is rendered more intricate by every successive flood. On the

right bank, and about half a league distant, is the scene of Pappenheim's victory

over the insurgent peasants, about three thousand of whom were left dead on the

field, near the village of Efferding, where the action, or rather massacre, took place.

Among the slain was the rebel captain, Fadinger, whose body was afterwards igno-

miniously dragged from the grave, and exposed on a gibbet, by order of the imperial

general, Herbertstorft, who thus endeavoured to strike salutary terror into the

remaining followers of the ' Hatter-chief

The Convent of Wilhering, a monastic establishment of the Bemardine order, is

a striking edifice on the right bank of the river, between the upper and lower roads.

It lies at the foot of the pine-clad Kii'nberg, and was originally the feudal keep of the

ancient counts of that name ; one of whom having, about the middle of the twelfth

centurj', established a small fi-aternity of monks here, proceeded afterwards to the

Holy Land, where he died, and his family becoming extinct, his castle and its

domains descended to the Abbot of Wilhering. The whole of the district, as far as

Linz, is richly wooded, and in several points very romantic

" A vale of Tempe it might seem,

A Tempe—with a nobler stream." .

On leaving this scene the Danube skirts the Zauberthal, a valley of great beauty,

and on the right hand presenting a succession of bold picturesque features, ani-

mated by cottages, gardens, and summer-houses, which, by the taste and luxmy^

displayed in their decoration, bear testimony to the near vicinity of Linz. These

are the favourite and most fi-equented environs of the city ;and hither, in holiday-

time, the citizens resort in great numbers, for the enjoyment of rural festivities.

The most striking point, and that to which the eye of the stranger is more particu-

larly directed in this stage of his voyage, is the Kalvarieuberg, or Mount Calvary, the

' Der name dieser Bnrg und der gleichnamigen Fiimilie, im Mittelalter auf sehr verschiedene Weisa

gosclirieben, dlirfte urspriinglich wohl Schonberg geheissen haben. jEneas Sylvius neunt das ges-

chlecl*t.—

" Do moute puUhro."

Z

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86 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. lVLi)t IKalbarimbctg.

Tocky pinnacle of which is surmounted by a colossal crucifix. Along the base,

peeping through the ravines, and chmbing the face of the rocks, are small chapels

and pleasure-houses, strikingly grouped or isolated, where the showy ceremonies of

religion, and the animated pictures of social life move hand-in-hand, and, during the

iHi. kaltahikmikku.

fine season, attract innumerable votaries to the place. Shortly after passing this

romantic scene, and rounding a point of land which conceals it from the eye, we

come in sight of Linz, whose " fairj'-looking bridge," as a distinguished critic has

justly observed,"might make the spectator fancy that the broad expanse of the

Danube was chained by gossamer, and that the passengers, in various equijiages,

were but spiders on their way."

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lin?.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 87

LINZ TO VIENNA.

A blending of all beauties : streams and dells,

Fruit, foliage, crag, wood, cornfield, mountain, vine,

And chiefless castles, breathing stern farewells

From grey but leafy walls, where Ruin greenly dwells.

^itl}, the Roman Lentia,' was a place of some importance as early as the time

of Louis-the-Infant, at least tribute was collected there in his reign. The castle

upon the height belonged to the Counts of Kimberg, the last of whom sold the

earldom to the Margraves of Austria. Linz was already a walled and fortified town,

in M.xcvm. ; and in m.cvi. a bridge was erected. There is a tradition that our

English Richard Cceur-de-Lion was entertained at this castle on his return from

Diirrenstein. In m.ccxxxvi., when the ban of the empire was in force against

Frederick the WarUke, the town was besieged by the King of Bohemia, the Duke of

Bavaria, the Bishops of Passau, Freising, and Bamberg, and the Patriarch of Aquileja,

till Frederick the Warlike and Albrecht of Bogen raised the siege. In the time

of Rudolph of Hapsburg, it was taken by Duke Henry of Bavaria ; but, in m.cccliii.

a penal juiisdiction was granted to it, with the privilege of perfecting its own civil

constitution. In m.cccclxxvi. the troops of Lichtenstein came upon it by surprise,

and set the suburbs in flames. The emperor Frederick extended and beautified it

in M.ccccxc. ; elevated it to the rank of chief city of the territory around Enns, and

died there on the second of August, m.ccccxciii. Ferdinand I. celebrated his nup-

tials in Linz in m.dxxi. ; and afterwaids enlarged and adorned the old archducal

castie. The city was desolated by a dreadful conflagration in m.dix. ; and in m.dxli.,

as well as subsequently in m.dlxii. and m.dlxxxv. by the plague. The Reformation

found here almost all hearts open for its reception, and in m.dl. the population pro-

fessed the evangelical doctrines. In m.dcxxvi. the place was besieged by an army

of insurgents, but held out against them. The French occupied it in m.dccxli., for

Charles VII., and homage was done to him there, as archduke, on the 2nd of

October; but on the 23rd of January in the following year, Linz surrendered by

' Roman Antiquities have been found on the Castle-hill.

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8^ THF, DANUBE ILLDSTRATED. IXllT}.

capitulation to Maria Tlieresa's Field-marshal, Count Khevenhiller. In m.dcclxxxv.

the Emperor Joseph emancipated Linz from the jurisdiction of the chapter of

Passau, to which, till then, it had belonged, and gave it a bishopric of its own ;in

M.DCCCV.,the French upon the defeat of the Russian rear-guard, entered Linz. The

completion of the railroads to Budweis and Gmunden, at Traunsee, and the

union of the Austrian with the Bavarian-Wurtembm-g steam-navigation'—^both in

our own times—close the catalogue of memorable events of the chief city of Upper

Austria, being events of as great influence towards the material prosperity of the

country, as of importance for the advancement of that intellectual energy in Austria,

wliich our tourists, beset by old prejudices, take so little pains to estimate ;*—^proba-

bly fromthis

cause,namely, that in Austria no effort is made to display ostentatiously

that which arising from the operation of two powerful agents,—time and popula-

tion,—must develope itself. And in this moderation we discern the noblest pride !

Permanent circ*mstances are esteemed, not merely as such ; they claim our regard

• The Danube steam-navigation, whicli, according to the last accounts, will soon extend up to Ulm,

and if connected with the Rliine-steamers, by a railroad from Ulm by Stuttgard to the Illiine,* will

afford the shortest passage from the Northern Ocean to the Black Sea, proceeding up the llhine and

down the Danube. As early as m.dcccxix. Anton Beruhard and the Chevalier St. Leon had the

Bteam-navigatiou of the Danube secured to them, by patent rights from Austria : the first attempts, how-

ever, failed,from a combination ofunfavourable circ*mstances, and their rights expired in m.dcccxxviii.

and M.DCccxxix. Almost at the same moment (on the 17tli of April, m Dcccxxviii.) anew patent for

fifteen years was gr.anted by Austria, to John Andrews and Joseph Prichard, which was disposed of

by them to a company with shares, which was incorporated and entitled " By Imperial Patent, First

Danube Steam-Navigation-Conipany." Their undertaking sped so well, that on the 17th of September,

1830, their steam-boat, " Francis I.," of sixty horse-power, made her first trial with perfect success.

Prejudices soon vanished,and the tide of public confidencesetin,infavour of the new enterprise. In 1832,

it was resolved to build two new steam-boats, one to run between Raab and Pesth, the other between

Pesth and Semlin ; and now was formed and cherished the noble idea of using steamers on the lower

Danube, as far as its outlet into the Black Sea. The first impulse was given by Prince Metternich,

and the plan was brought into operation with energetic spirit and praiseworthy perseverance. To

Count Stephen Szecheny is due the merit of being one of the most active of its supporters. At the

close of the year 1833, beside the " Francis the First," the "Pannonia," of thirty-six horse-power,

and the " Argo," of fifty horse-power, were brought into use; the last of these, early in the spring of

1834, passed the dangerous falls of the Iser, at the Iron Gate, and reached Gallacz in safety.t

* DonaulSnder.

* There are already proposals for a railroad from Stuttgard to the Rhine, on the part of the Wur-

tembui-g government, to be conducted at the public expense : another from Ulm to Stuttgard was in

previous contemplation.

+ The Steam-navigation of the Danube was reopened on the 18th of March, in the last year,

1842, as annoimcod in the AUgemeino Zoitung of that date. The distance between Ratisbon and

Linz, touching at various pl.ices, is performed in a day, and from Linz to Vienna the voyage occupies

less than twelve hours, wliich by land would take more than double the time. The fare from Ratisbon

to Linz in the best cabin is twelve florins, and in the second, eight florins; but to those who go and re-

turn by the same vessel a considerable reduction is allowed.

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Xitt} to Tienna.] the Danube illustratkd. (i9

only as results of au internal organization, in so far as our hopes are raised by them,as embryos of future developements. The appearance of what we term material

prosperity does not satisfy us, unless we can discern the organic connected with

the moral,—with the best interests of the people—with knowledge. In this alone

lies the guarantee of that highest and noblest tranquillity, the main-spring of the

whole, the grand pledge of existence. From this point of ^dew, filled with joyous

hopes,we look upon that famous land, Austria : the countenance ofwhose vigorous young

population is ruddy with the breath of spring. Thousands, with ever-increasing

perceptions of the highest interests of man, are strugghng towards the nearest goal:

firom the enfolding bud ofmaterial success, expands the flower of intellectual dgour

and Austria, with heart and hand, participates in working out the great task appointed

to man.'

One of the finest and most characteristic features by which the stranger's attention

is arrested on his approach to Linz, is the great number of fortified towers, which

command the heights to the extent of nearly a league. The military works are

recent, having only been completed about four years ago, under the direction of

Prince Maximilian of Este, who had recommended a new system of fortification to

government, which it adopted, and made the first experiment in the bastions and

isolated forts, by which the town is now placed in a state of thorough defence. Tliis

new style appears to resemble, in its principal features, the chain of forts by which

the Prussian government has latterly invested the town of Coblenz on the Rhine.

Between the towers, which amount to upwards of thirty, around Linz, there is a fi^ee

intercommunication by means of covered ways ; so that in cases of emergency the

whole strength of the garrison could be made to bear upon one point, and thus act

against an assailant with irresistible effect. The result of the last campaign in the

valley of the Danube proved the necessity of erecting strong fortifications along the

fi-ontier—so that an invading army might on no future occasion find the capital of

Upper Austria so iU provided with the resources of military engineering. In

appearance, at least, the town of Linz has now an impregnable air ; and shoidd the

new system answer the expectations of the inventor, and his veteran companions,

nothing shon of treachery is ever likely to place it again under the dominion of a

rival power. Every tower is of itself a fortress, and must be taken separately before

the town can be captured ; and had there existed any similar barrier to oppose the

legions of Napoleon, when they first assailed the Austrian fi-ontier, it is more than

probable that their march upon Vienna would have been effectually impeded. But

Ulm having once surrendered, there was not left in the whole course of the Danube,

fi-om Donauworth to the Austrian capital, a fort or a gun that could be turned to

the least account, in checking their ^dctorious career.

The pubhc buildings of Linz are not of a character to awaken much interest in

' This subject is treated at large in a long article of Christian Wilhem Huber, in the "Austrian

.Tonmal of History and Politics," of 1836.

A A

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\ 'A

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ffiflB nl Xltl}.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 91

was built about the close of the fifteenth century ; but there can be no doubt that a

bridge of boats must have connected the opposite shores at a period greatly anterior

to this. The present bridge is upwards of a thousand feet in length, and commands

a very beautiful view ; but whoever would wish to see the surrounding country

from the most striking point, should cross the bridge, ascend the hill behind the

town, near the gothic tower, and there enjoy the magnificent picture of the Danube,

the town and fortifications, the citadel, the Postlingberg Chiu-ch ; £uid under the brow

of the hill, see the river winding, in a deep, majestic volume, through the narrow defile

by which it is walled in as it approaches the town. It may be saiid, indeed, that

Linz possesses nothing so fine as this and other magnificent landscapes in its im-

mediate environs, among which the admirers of nature may linger for days, with-

out feeling for a moment either sameness or satiety.

Afar the Salzburg and the Stj-rian Alps

In forms gigantic rear their frozen scalps :

And there the rugged Traunstein loves to throw

His mingling shadows o'er the lake below.

While mountain, river, forest, field proclaim

A glorious landscape in a magic frame.

The city of Linz has experienced the fortune of war under all the varieties of siege

and storm—but which it would far exceed the limits of the present work to particu-

larize. In M.DCCXLI., while the Grand-duke of Tuscany, Francis of Lorraine, was

pressing the siege of Linz, with an ardour and obstinacy almost unprecedented, the

French persisted in its defence, with an equal share of courage and intrepidity. For-

tune, however, favoured the imperialists ; for, while the French troops were busied

in securing themselves by a strong entrenchment in one part of the city, the impe-

rialists, with burning torches in their hands, entered at another. Duch&tel, the

Lieutenant-General, was immediately charged, on the pait of the ganison,

with the important duty of arranging the terms of an honourable capitulation. " I

have decided," said the Grand-duke, " that the garrison shall surrender themselves into

my hands, at discretion, as prisoners of wai-." " If that be yourhighness's intention,"

coolly answered Duchatel, " proceed with your torches, and we at the same instant

will return to oiu: guns." This hai'dy proposition brought the Duke to reason ; and

after a brief parley, the garrison marched out with all the honoiu-s of war.

Close to the wooden bridge, which here connects the Austrian and Bohemian

shores of the Danube, two railroads meet, one of which runs northward to Budweis,

and the other in the opposite direction, to Wels and Gmunden in Bavaria. Tliis

means of intercourse was much wanted ; and, since the completion of the design, it

has been attended with the happiest effects, wherever the commercial interests ofthe

country were concerned. It had long been vi<?wed as an object of great interest to

adopt some means by which a free commercial intercourse between Germany and

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92 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [VL^t KalUoaU.

the Turkish empire might be permanently estabUshed. The obstacles which had

hitherto prevented the navigation ofthe Elbe have been at last removed by the com-

mittee for regulatmg that important question; and there exists not the smallest

doubt that the commercial steam-packets on the Lower Danube wiU greatly faciUlate

and extend the commercial relations of the Austrian monai-chy. The example set

by the Bavarian Government, in opening a communication by canal between

BOATAIBN, PASSAU A .\ D LINZ,

Kelheim and the Rhine, has stimiUated the Austrian executive to effect a similar

jimction between its own principal rivers. It had long been suggested, as an

importaiit desideratum, that the Betscoa should be connected with the Oder, at a

place between the towns of Hustopetsch and Mankendorff, where the actual

distance between the two rivers does not exceed two mUes. Such a junction

between the principal rivers, and consequently between the seas of Austria, Prussia,

and all Germany, would greatly promote the interests of commerce with the Levant.

Formerly, no such result was to be accomphshed, unless by means of a canal ; but

now, happily, the greater portion of the advantages anticipated, is attainable by rail-

road.

Ever since the reign of King Ottaker IV., the connexion of the Danube and

Moklau by water has been a frequent and jjopular tojiic with the legislature ; and as

early as the eleventh century, the question of excavating a navigable canal has been

repeatedly agitated. Dubravius positively states that the levels ofthe country betweenthe two rivers had been cai-efully taken, and that the digging of the canal had been

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&f)t laailroal).] the Danube illustrated. 93

actually commenced under the auspices of a wealthy family of the name of Rosen^

berg ; but that, owing to war and the jealousies of that body of the people who lived

by means of the river-traffic, and thought that if a canal were once opened their

occupation would be at an end, this great enterprise was unfortunately dropped.

Since that time the project was successively revived by Count Waldstein, in the

reign of Ferdinand II., by Count Zinzendorf, in the reign of Leopold I., and by

Count Wratislau in the reign of Joseph I. ; but more particularly in the reign of

Charles II. and that of his celebrated daughter, Maria Theresa. By some the

enterprise was considered feasible, by others very questionable ; but all were unani-

mous as to the vast expenditure which must be incurred ; and on that account it

was again laid aside. But the shortest and least expensive plan was that recom-

mended by M. Walcher, the Austrian assessor, to the board of officers for con-

structing and sm-veying public buildings. He proposed to construct a canal from

the Moldau at Hoheniuith, to run through the Haselgraben and terminate at

Linz. Various other plans were submitted to government by eminent engineers,

but, like their predecessors, they were all suffered to drop. At last, however, when

Professor von Gerstner proposed to accomplish this grand desideratum by means of

a railroad, the subject was warmly taken up by persons of science and influence,

who were extremely desirous of thus remedying an evil which was every day becom-

ing more inconvenient to the public, and detrimental to commerce. The professor

stood deservedly high in the estimation of his countrymen, and possessing much of

the public confidence, his plan was ably seconded by many influential and weU-

informed gentlemen of Bohemia. With the probability of thus seeing his plan carried

into effect, the professor set to work, and assisted by his son, made a complete

survey of the line proposed, with a minute calculation of the expenses to be

incurred. In the mean time, his son, the Chevalier v. Gerstner, being called to

fill the chair of practical geometry in the Polytechnic School of Vienna, found, in

the centre of Austrian commerce, a most favourable occasion for bringing his plan

under the immediate eye of government. He published an essay on the subject,

which was eagerly read, and so highly approved, that in the month of September,

M.DCCCXXiv., it obtained the Emperor's sanction, who granted him the exclusive

privilege of constructing a railway between Ilauthauser and Budweis, thereby

uniting the Danube with the Moldau. This privilege was to continue in force for a

term of fifty years, and included various additional grants for the prompt execution

of the plan, with the right of establishing a company of shareholders. At the

expiration of the above period, the railroad, with all its appurtenances, was to

become the fi'eehold of the originator and his heirs, who might then dispose of it to

the government, or in such manner as the circ*mstances of the time should warrant

Accordingly, in the spring of the following year, Chevalier v. Gerstner formed a rail-

way company, whose capital consisted of a thousand shares, at one thousand florins

each ; thus making a sum of a million of convention florins ; an amount which was

B B

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94 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [iraTjita of %ilV}.

subsequently much increased, to meet the expense. The work was commenced in

due form on the 28th of July, the same year ; and during its five years' progress,

Professor Gerstner published several interesting reports,* for the information of the

shareholders, in which he has detailed the various operations by which he so

speedily and successfully established a rapid medium intercourse between the

Danube and Moldau.

Linz has been long celebrated for the beauty of its women, who, like the fair dames

of Passau, have had their praises sung and recited by various tourists of the last cen-

tury, who found it a question of no little difficulty where to bestow the palm. That

there is much in both places that deserves to be classed with the 'beautiful' is not to

be disputed ; but still it is of a character which will captivate only the most sus-

ceptible tourist ; for aU who are ' transcendently beautifid' are so carefully guarded

from the pubhc eye, that he may spend a month at Linz without seeing a face

that could endanger his peace. Poets, nevertheless, have caught much inspiration

on the spot, and foimd a prolific theme in the fair maids of Linz, and tourists under

the old regime have lent their willing aid Ln propagating their fame. The annexed

ballad relates the fate of one, who, in her day, was the ' pride of Linz'

Her cheek was bright, her eye was blue,

Her smile inspired such nameless rapture,

That not a swain who met her view

But she could fascinate and capture.

By men of war and men of fame,

By ' stars and medals' she was courted :

But still the fair and cruel dame

With all their wounds and sorrows sported

For her the soldier fought and swore.

The statefc-man lied, the lawyer cheated;

And bards their rhymes in anguish tore,

To find their schemes were so defeated !—

But years flew by—the homage ceased

And now with age and sorrow laden,

In cloister weeds she tells her beads—Alas ! for LiNz's fairest maiden !

Below the immediate environs of Linz the landscape assumes a new and pleasing

aspect; on the right hand are seen verdant meadows, plough and pasture-lands,

extending as far as the eye can reach. On the opposite shore the scenery is of a

balder and more Alpine character, presenting a series of mountains, vaiiously grouped

—^here dipping down into the stream, and there receding into the interior, clothed

with wood and animated with small towns and villages, which derive no little pros-

purity from the daily traffic on the river. Numerous islands, most of them richly

wooded, divide the stream into separate channels, and add much to the pictur-

I Anton von Gerstner ubor die vortlieilc, &c. &c. Wien, 1829.

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^

I

.^

\"?

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SStCBtHtfc.—TEnnS.] THE DANLMJE ILLUSTRATED. 95

esque effect of the landscape, into which new objects are continuallycoming

forward, so that it passes before the eye like a moving panorama—the features of

which become more or less variegated at every turn of the river. The first town

on the right, deserving of note, is Traun, where the tributary of that name pours a

considerable volume of waters into the Danube.

On the left—as we pass the mouth of the Traun and enter a cluster of islands on

either hand—the Castle of Steyereck, with its massive outworks and richly wooded

ravines, presents a striking feature in the landscape. On this side the Alpine cha-

racter of the scenery remains the same ; but for many miles the opposite shore is

level and pastoral, with few objects that strike the fancy or appeal to history or tra-

dition. Villages, plantations, cidtivated fields, £md isolated churches are the

prevailing features. But on the north bank, pine-clad rocks, lowering precipices,

dark ravines—each pouring its tribute into the Danube,—villages clustering along

the water's edge, and almost every commanding eminence crowned with a chiu-ch,

or fortified with some ancient castle, are the objects which successively appear and

disappear, as we descend towards Mauthausen and Enns.

The ancient city of Enns is seated in the plain on the right bank, and with its lofly

tower and spires has the appearance of a strong and well-built capital. It is

understood to be of Roman foundation, and identical with the Lauriacum mentioned

by Ammianus Marcellinus.It was

aplace

of some importance as early as the reignof Charlemagne, who encamped here in D.ccxci., and after three days' fasting

and humiliation, proceeded in his expedition against the Huns, whose ravages on

the opposite shore had spread alarm throughout the whole province. For two cen-

turies afterwards, Enns appears to have enjoyed intervals of great prosperity j for

though often dismantled and plundered, it as often sprang up afresh fi-om its ashes,

and recovered that prosperity and importance to which its natural position, on the

banks of a great navigable river, and in the centre of a rich and productive country,

could not fail to create. Its military history is full of interest. On more than one

occasion the Turks have been repulsed from its walls; and twice, during the insur-

rection of the peasants, so often alluded to, it was attacked and cannonaded, but

without once opening its gates to the enemy. The last prominent event in its

history was the arrival of Napoleon within its walls, in his victorious career through

Upper Austria. From Enns he had threatened to throw his shells across the river,

and destroy Mauthausen ; but a deputation having waited upon him fi-om that town,

and accepted his terms, the fatal blow was averted, and the bombs were reserved for

less phant citizens. But to an English tourist, perhaps, the tradition that the " walls

of Enns were built by Leopold out of the ransom paid for Richard Coeur-de-Lion,"

will give it more interest than any other circ*mstance connected with its history.

Various antiquities, consisting of coins, sculpture, &c.which have been discovered

in the town and its vicinity, leave no doubt of its having been a Roman station.

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96 THE DAXLUK ILLUSTRATED. [Splclbtrg.-^riUBSbctg.

Nearly opposite Enns,* and built on the upper angle of an island in the river, where

it is divided into two branches, stands the ancient

Q^d&tlt of ^IfiClbetQt now a roofless and deserted ruin. Like its feudal neigh-

bours, this was once a stronghold of no small importance—where the grand object of

its' reever-chief was to collect toll from the merchant-barges that kept up a preca-

rious traffic between Ratisbon and Vienna. Considering the number of these ' tolls'

—baronial and monastic—with which the whole passage was Uned, and the tribute

extorted by each, it appears strange that anything valuable should have remained to

the owner, after having been so often pounced upon by these vultm'es of the rocks.

The ruin is embowered in trees, and, with its square tower, far overtopping the outer

buildings, is a fine subject for the pencil. The pile of rocks on which the castle is

built in the river, is generally visible at low-water; but when the stream is swoln,

considerable risk is incurred by the boatmen—particularly as the stream at this

point gradually increases to a ' rapid,' and requires much skill and precaution in the

management of the oar.

Previous to his arrival at Spielberg, the stranger's attention is directed to the

Castle of Tillysberg, and the Monastery of St. Florian—both objects of interest as

connected with historical events of moment. The former was so named, in com-

pliment to Mare5hal TUly, to whom it was presented by the Emperor, in whose

service he had been ' atrociously successful.' To this much-honoured, and more

execrated leader we have already adverted; but the annexed particidars may

be briefly introduced.* This extraordinary man, the founder of the Bavarian

array, and the terror of the Protestant League, used to boast, before the battle

of Leipsic, of three things—that he had never been in love, never been drunk,

and had never lost a battle. His strange and tenific aspect, says Schiller, was in

unison with his character ; of low stature, thin, with hollow cheeks, a long nose, a

broad and wrinkled forehead, large whiskers, and a pointed chin ; he was generally

attired in a Spanish doublet of green, with slashed sleeves, wiih a small and peaked

hat on his head, surmounted by a red feather, which hung down his back. His

whole aspect recalled to memory that of the Duke of Alva, the scourge of Flanders,

and his actions were by no means calculated to remove the impression.'

' The river Enns forms the boundary line between Upper and Lower Austria.—die Griinze zwischen

Ober u. Unter Ostreiche.

' L'llistoiredo Gustavo Adolphe. Descent of theDanube, p. IfiV. Diinran's ThirtyYears'War, 1S28.

' When Marehal de Gramraont paid him a visit of curiosity, he met liim at the head of his army,

attired iis above described, and mounted on a little grey hackney, and with only one pistol at his saddle-

bow. When the marshal sahited him, Tilly observing his astonishment at finding him thus accoutred,

8 lid, " I perceive. Monsieur le JIarecjhal, that you think my uniform rather extraoidinary : I admit that

it isuot quite in conformity with the reigning fashion in Paris, but as it suits my own taste, I am sa-

tisfied. I see also that my charger and this single pistol in my holster are matter of sui'prise to you

but, that you may not retire with an unfavourable opinion of Count Tilly, whom you have liad the

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^

-5v.

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Si. JFlorian.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 9^

Of the Monastery and Abbot of St. Florian" an interesting account is given by

the Rev. Dr. Dibdin :—The monastery stands on a commanding eminence, and

looked nobly as we neared it. The walls were massive, and seemed to be em-

bedded in a foundation of granite. Some pleasing little cultivated spots, like

private gardens, are observed between the outer walls and the main body of

the building. As we rolled under the archway an old man and woman de-

manded, rather with astonishment than severity, what was the object of our

A-isit. Having received a satisfactory answer, the gates were thrown open, and

we stopped between two magnificent flights of steps, leading on each side to the

cloisters. Several yoimg monks, excited by the noise of the carriage, came

trooping towards the stairs, looking down upon us, and then retreating with the nim-

bleness and apparent timidity of deer. Their white streamers or long lappets sus-

pended from the back of the black gown—the badge of the Augustine order—had a

very singular appearance. " Having received," continues the same author, " a letter

ofrecommendation to the libraiian, I delivered it to the porter ; and in a few seconds,

observed two short and large-headed monks, imcovered, advancing towaids me ; and

on walking along the cloisters, the librarian took me by the ann, to conduct me to

the abbot. * But you have doubtless dined ?' observed he, turning sharply upon

me. But as it was only two o'clock, I thought I might be pardoned, even by the

severest of their own order, for answering in the negative. My guide then whispered

to his attendant, who quickly disappeared, and carried me direct to the abbot. Such a

xdsit was worth paying ; I entered with great solemnity, squeezing my travelling-cap

in a variety of forms, as I made obeisance, on observing a venerable man, nearer four-

score than seventy, sitting with a black cap quite at the top of the back part of his

head, and surrounded by half-a-dozen young monks who were standing and waiting

upon him with coffee after dinner, which was placed upon the table before the prin-

cipal. The old gentleman's countenance was wan, and rather severely indented,

but lighted up by a dark and intelligent pair of eyes. His shoulders were shrouded

in alarge grey flu: tippet ; and on receiving me he demonstrated every mark of

attention, by giving his unfinished cup of coffee to his attendants, and pulling off his

cap, endeavoured to rise, till I advanced and prevented all fmther movement. As he

spoke French, we quickly understood each other. He bade me see eveiything that

was worth seeing; and on his renewing the dinner-question, and receiving an

answer in the negative, he commanded that a meal should be forthwith got ready; but

curiosity to visit, I will only remind you that I have gained seven decisive victories without heingonce

obliged to draw the trigger of that pistol ; and as for my little hackney, he has never once made a

stumble under me, nor winced in the perfonnance of his duty.

' St. Florian, the gr.'ut fiie-extinguisliing saint in tlie calendar, was a soldier and sufferer in the

time of till' Rnipcror Dioclosian, and in the tenth and last persecution of the Christian church, was

thrown into the river with a stone tied rojind liis neck. Tlie form of invocation is,—

" Flohian,

mai; VI- and saint 1 Keep us, we beseech thee, by night and by day, from all harm hyjire, or from otiiiT

casuiil'.if s of this life"

C C

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98 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [NftBtr aSaIlJ4«.

in this he had been anticipated by the libraiian."—Retiring from the presence of the

abbot, Dr. Dibdin was conducted to tlie Ubraiy, and shown wliatciver was most pre-

cious in MSS. and typography. He was then invited to the refectory, where a

dinner had been hastily prepared during his interview with the abbot and his survey

of the Ubrary. "The dinner was simple and refreshing; the wine was what they call

the white wine of Austria, rather thin and acid. Our friends told us that from the

windows of this room we could, in fair weather, discern the snow-capt mountains of

the Tyrol : that from one part of their monastery tliey could look upon green fields,

pleasure-gai-dens, and hanging woods ; and from the other, upon magnificent ranges of

hills, terminated by moimtadns covered with snow. They seemed to be proud of

their situation, as they had good reason to be. We found them exceedingly chatty,

pleasant, and very facetious. We broached the subject of politics, but in a very

guarded and general manner. The lively hbrarian, however, thought proper to

observe—that the English were now doing in India what Buonaparte had been doing

in Europe. I told him that such a doctrine was a more fiightfiil heresy than any

which had ever crept into his own church ; at which he laughed heartily, and begged

we would not spare either the bouilli or the wine." But with this extract from an

interesting visit, we take leave of St. Florian,* and resume our course along the

chaimel of the Danube, selecting such features as the natiure and hmits of the pre-

sent work will admit.

Nte&er aeialD0«e on the right, with its schloss and lofty tower, is a conspicuous

landmark in this reach of the Danube

It is a comparatively modem stmc-

turc, finely situated, contrasting well

with the ancient roimd keep with wliich

it is connected, and enjoys some de-

gree of celebrity, from having been the

residence of Marshal Daun. This

distingiushed soldier commenced his

military career in the war against the

Turks, in which he displayed exem-

plary courage and skiU ; but it was not

till the Seven \'ears' War, when as conmiander-in-chief he was opposed to Frederick,

The cliurch of this abbey is very remarkable. In the words of a distinijuished scholar, it is at

once spacious and magnificent; but a little too profuse in architectural ornament. It consists of a

nave and transepts, surmounted by a dome, with a choir of very limited dimensions. The choir is

adorned on each side, just above the several stalls, by an exceedingly rich architrave, running tlie

whole length, in a mixed Roman and Gothic style—the nave is a sort of elongated parallelogram,

adorned on each side by pillars of the Coriutliian order, .and terminated by an organ of the most gor-

(jeous and imposing appearance. The pipes have completely the appearance of polished silver; and

the woodwork is painted white, richly relieved with gold. For size and splendour I liad never sven

anything like it. The loiit ensemble was. ptrftctly miigical On entering, the organ burst forth with

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I

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C-N

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JSljt fflte(n6trg.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 99

King of Pmssia, that he reached the summit of his fame, and acquired the name of

the ' Austrian Fabius.' He died in the sixty-first year of his age ; and the castle,

after remaining about half a centm-y in his family, passed into the hands of a neigh-

bouring count. These castles on the Danube, though in many instances lofty, capa-

cious, and massive, will not bear a comparison with the old baronial fortresses of

England. Another of the same class is that of

5C0J ©rtcinlicrjj, covering a rocky eminence, with the houses grouped around

its base—^Uke serfs prostrate at the feet of some haughty seigneur. The style of

architecture is much the same as that of the other castles already noticed—steep

Flemish roofs with projecting windows; two angular towers, flanking the south end,

and the main buUding thickly perforated with windows generally mullioned. Theonly building worth notice after the Chateau, is the church, the spire of which is the

dominant feature of the place. Grein, like its baronial fortress, is now the property

ofthe Duchy of Coburg, butit is neither enlivened by the bustle of a court, nor bene-

fited by local commerce. The castle, built by Heinrich von Chreine, dates from

the twelfth century, and is the scene of Scherfienberg's two victories over the

Bohemians, in the early part of the fifteenth century. A short way below Grein com-

mences the rapid called ' Greiner-schwall' where the river, suddenly contracting its

channel, and walled in by rugged precipices, assumes a new aspect of foam and

agitation; while the roar of its downward course breaks deeper and harsher on the

ear. This rugged defile is the immediate inlet to the Strudel and Wirbel—the

Scylla and Charybdis of the Danube. This is by far the most interesting and

remarkable region of the Danube. It is the fertile theme of many legends and

traditions ; and in the pages of history and romance affords ample scope for mar-

vellous incidents and striking details. Not a villager but can relate a hundred

instances of disasters incurred, and dangers overcome, in this perilous navigation

of lives sacrificed and cargoes sunk while endeavouring to weather the three grand

enemies of the passage—whu'lpools, rocks, and robbers. But, independently

of these local traditions, and the difficulties and dangers of the strait—the natural

scenery which here arrests the eye is highly picturesque, and even sublime. It is

the admiration of all voyagers on the Upper Danube, and keeps a firm hold of the

memory long after other scenes and impressions have worn off". Between Ulm and

the confines of the Ottoman Empire, there is only one other scene calculated to make

anything like so forcible an impression on the toiuist; and that is near the cataracts

of the Iron-gate—a name familiar to every Gennan reader.

a power of intonation—every stop being opened—such as I had never lieard exceeded—as there were

only a few present, the sounds were necessarily increased, by being reverberated from every part of the

building ; and for a moment it seemed as if the very dome would have been unroofed, and the sides

burst asunder. We looked up then at each other, lost in surprise, delight, and admiration. We could

not hear a word that was spoken ; when in some few seconds the diapason stop only was opened—and

how sweet, how touching, was the melody which it imparted I" Visit to the Monastert of

St. Flouian.—Bibliographical Tour.

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t4l!0 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [ST^t SSa'dtrt^tr JIsI*.

^^t ^trnDfI.—After descending the Greiner-schwall, or rapids of Grein above

mentioned, the river rolls on for a considerable space,in

a deepand almost tranquil

volume, which, by contrast with the approaching tiumoil, gives increased effect to its

wild, stormy, and romantic features. At first a hollow, subdued roai-, hke that of

distant thunder strikes the ear and rouses the traveller's attention. This increases

every second, and the stir and activity which now prevail among the hands on

board shows that additional force, vigilance, and caution are to be employed in the

use of the helm and oars. The water is now changed in its colour—chafed into

foam, and agitated like a seetliing caldron. In front, and in the centre of the

channel, rises an abrupt, isolated, and colossal rock, fringed with wood, and crested

with a mouldering tower, on the summit of which is planted a lofty cross, to which, in

the moment of danger, the ancient boatmen were wont to address their prayers for

deliverance. The first sight ofthis used to create no little excitement and apprehen-

sion on board ; the master ordered strict silence to be observed—the steersman grasped

the helm with a firmer hand—the passengers moved aside—so as to leave free space

for the boatmen, while the women and children were hunied into the cabin, there to

await, with feelings of no httle anxiety, the result of the enterprise. Every boat-

man, with his head imcovered, muttered a prayer to his favourite saint; and away

dashed the barge through the tumbling breakers, that seemed as if hmrying it on to

inevitable destruction. All these preparations, joined by the wildness of the adja-

cent scenery, the terrific aspect of the rocks, and the tempestuous state of the water,

were sufficient to produce a powerful sensation on the minds even of those who had

been all their fives famihar with dangers ; while the shadowy phemtoms with which

superstition had peopled it, threw a deeper gloom over the whole scene.

Now, however, the^c ceremonies are only cold and formal ; for the danger being

removed, the invocation of guardian saints has become much less fervent, and the

(!^rO00 on the Worther-Isle, we fear, is often passed with little more than the com-

mon sign of obeisance.

Within the last fifty years the rocks in the bed of the river have been blasted,

and the former obstruction so greatly diminished, that in the present day the Strudel

and Wirbel present no other danger than what may be caused by the ignorance or

neghgence of boatmen ; so that the tourist may contemplate the scene without

alarm, and enjoy, in all its native grandeur, the picture here offered to his eye and

imagination

Frowning o'er the weltering flood,

Castled rock and waving wood,

Monkish coll and robber's hold

Rugged as in days of old,

From precipices, stem and gray,

Guard the diu-k and dreaded way.

At this remarkable point the river must have forced its way through the chain of

granite chfFs which now form its bank. It is divided by an island into two branches

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©fee CKorifier EelanB.] the danuhe illu.stuated. 101

—its southern ann, washing the base of the wooded Rabenstein, is called the Hiiss-

gang, which, in cases where the river is very full, is navigable by small craft. But

the regular barge-way is the northern ann, or that which we have described as the

Strudcl. Covered with foam, and with a thousand echoes that reverberate its deafen-

ing roar, the impetuous river breaks itself against the opposing rocks, from which co-

lossal fragments are continuallj' breaking off, and further encumbering the channel.

In other places the granite is worn into caves and grottos by the constant action of

the toiTent, and from which the water, struggling in vain for a passage, recoils

with a deeper roar, and a whiter ebulhtion. The barges, nevertheless, if navigated

with skill and experience, descend the rapid without much risk, but with a velocity

and boimding motion, that to persons who make the passage for the first time,

inspire feelings veiy much akin to terror, owing to the iiTesistible force with which

the cumbrous argo is hurried down, the turmoU of the water, and the savage and

threatening aspect of everything ai'ound them. So rapid indeed is the passage, that

even they who can divest their minds of a sense of personal danger, have little time

to obsen-e the wild magnificence with which nature and art have invested the pas-

sage, and regret that they could not have lingered half way down, to enjoy the

contemplation in silence. But, once launched in the channel, there is neither paiise

nor retura, and the barge moves rapidly down at the pleasure of the waves. But in

order to survey the scenery at leisure, the tourist should disembark at Greinsburg,

and by walkuig along the north bank as far as St. Nikola, he will enjoy the scenery

in all its perfection. Castles, rocks, rapids, beetling precipices, romantic cliffs, and

mountains, whose sweeping forests descend to the water s edge, present themselves

to his eye under every variety of combination—often compeUing him to halt till he

has paid again and again his tribute of admiration.

The Worther Island, by which the Danube is here split into branches, is about

foiu- hundred fathoms long, by two hundred in breadth—sun-ounded by a belt of

wliite sand, which contrasts well with the dark rocks along the shore, and the sombre

loliage of the heights. On three sides, _^the island is flat; on the north, a ridge of

rocks—fragments of those on the left

bank and of those fonning the nucleus

of the island—forms the connecting link

between the granite mountains which

marks the geological character of thc-

district.' The soil of the island has

been so far improved by assiduous

culture, that the ])roprietor has now a

small farm upon it under crop. The

' It needs scarcely be mentioned that, to tlie geologist, this gorge of the Danube abounds witli inte-

rest.

1) n

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102 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [SgBtrUnUtin anfl StxvCOtn.

ancient castle of Werfenstein, which surmounts the rocky pinnacle, was origin-

ally a fortress of great strength, and chiefly so on account of its natural position. It

is now a mass of ruins ; but of the old watch-tower a considerable portion remains.

At its base gleams a small sheet of water, and from the highest point of the granite

rises a stone-cross, to which the boatmen are enjoined to make obeisance as they

approach the Strudel. On the left or northern bank, and neaiiy opposite, are seen

the remains of Castle Stniden, looking down into the rapids, and in its dilapidated

keep and crumbUng outworks, presenting a striking picture of the olden time. The

precipice on which it stands projects over the river; and if the ' falling of waters'

be favourable to sound repose, the lords of Werfenstein and Stniden must have here

enjoyed a perpetual lullaby in the toiTcnt of the Danube. With regard to the strong-

holds of Werfenstein and Struden, history is silent; but tradition, as usual, comes to

our aid. They are supposed to have been built as early as the eleventh century

and their situation, so peculiarly favourable to men who lived by plunder, was se-

lected as a point where the danger of the place seconded that atrocious system of

pillage and ransom, by wliich, for centuries the river-traffic was infested. Giic\-

ous complaints were made from time to time of the piratical freebooters who here

stripped the passengers, plundered the cargoes, and only suffered them to proceed

after paying a heavy ransom. These complaints becoming at last so urgent, and the

traffic so much impaired that the prosperity of the Danube was in jeopaidy, active

measures were adopted by Rudolph of Hapsburg, to remove the nuisance, andrestore pubhc confidence. A great many strongholds were accordingly demolished,

and among these, that of Werfenstein was thenceforth placed under the charge of

government, which undertook, for the payment ofa certain toU, to protect the boatmen

and their property from every danger, save that which might arise from the natme

of the passage itself. This arrangement was at once hicrative to go^'emment, and sa-

tisfactory to the boatmen. Tlie Castle ofStnidenwas a stronghold of still more import-

ance in its effects upon the inland trafliic. It formed part of the Comte of Machland,

whose knights had earned by their lawless exactions and robberies, the reputation of

armed banditti. These, however, were also punished or expelled by the emjieror's

forces ; and their castle, hke that of Werfenstein, was converted into a toll or cus-

tom-house;so that the merchandise floating down the river was at last freed from all

danger of piratical attacks, and only subjected to the imperial tariff. Tliis conti-

nued, it is probable, dming the whole of the fourteenth and following centuries ; but

early in the sixteenth, Struden was already in a state of niin, and as such it has

continued to the present day. The keep, however, a massive square tower, still

looks majestic in the centre of the fortress, the strength of which, had not all the

appliances of art been used for its destruction, would have long defied the united

efforts of time and tempest.

We shjill now introduce a few particulars respecting the means used for improvingthe navigation of this pass, the safety of which was achieved under the auspices of

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Vtlje SltUBel.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTR,\TED. 103

Maria Theresa. So late as the year m.dcclxxvii. scarcely a summer passed with-

out witnessing the loss of life and property among the rapids of the Strudel, or the

whirling eddies of the Wirbel. The subject becoming daily one in which the in-

terests of government and the cause of humanity were more and more concerned

and the empress having expressed herself strongly in favour of the en-tci-prise, plans

and surveys were taken of the passage, and everything prepared for their being prose-

cuted with vigour. The plan adopted was to blast the rocks by means of gunpowder,

and thus remove, or at least diminish, the great obstacles which, from time immemo-

rial, had made this channel the scene of so many disasters.*

This work was committed to the care of the Navigation-board, and executed by an

able engineer, named Walcher. The work was commenced in October of the sameyear, just after two vessels had struck on the most dangerous rocks in the channel,

called the Wolfskiigel and the Meisenkiigel. These were most carefully examined

and under ail the difficulties of drift-ice, snow, rain, and short winter days, the

work was prosecuted without interruption till thirty cubic fathoms of stone were

cleared from the bed of the river. Tliis was even more than could have been antici-

pated: a great portion of the natural obstruction was now removed from the channel;

but owing to this very cause, the direction of the current had been so far altered, that

vessels were now hiuried down upon the Wildriss—a perilous rock, near the middle

of the stream—so that the advantages to be gained by commerce were yet in abey-

ance. To ob^^ate this grand obstruction, it became necessary to widen and deepen

that portion called the Worthbank, so as to carry the main body of the stream in

that direction; but, during the ensuing winter, the work proceeded rather slowly,

for wlule occupied on the Worth, the workmen ran the hazard of being frozen up.

Those who made an effort to escape nearly perished in the attempt ; and when at last

the ice-floods ceased, it became necessary, in order to gain access to the rock, to divide

the ice-blocks by means of saws. Notwithstandingthese serious obstacles, however,

at least seventy cubic fathoms of rock were removed from the bed of the river. But

the next winter was so severe that very little was accomplished ; and the fourth

winter spent in the same arduous labours was not more favourable. It was never-

theless highly gratifying to know that the most dangerous rocks were already

covered with a depth of four feet water ; while all the buildings necessary for tho

future operations of the engineer were now completed. In this manner the work was

continued, almost without intermission, during the space of eight years, when at

last the ' Horse-shoe" Watercourse' was completed. It was buUt of freestone, skirting

the north side ofthe Worth, supported by a causeway running across the island to the

Hossgang, already mentioned, and was planned by the engineer Liske, who devoted

' Hitlierto it had been customary to disembark a large part of tho cargoes at Grein, and engage an ex-

perienced pilot to carry the vessel to St. Nikola ; while accidents were so frequent in this short passage,

that boats were kept constantly on the look-out for Jie shipwrecked.

» Der liufschlcg.

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104 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. ig:i)c eaivtfi.

his talents to the success of the enterprise. The utility and importance of this

causewaybecame soon apparent ; for, the river becoming very much swollen by long-

continued rain, an unprecedi-nted inundation took place, by which the Worth was

covered with at least twelve feet water, whilst the inhabitants were compelled to seel<

refuge among the rocks. But without the protection of the causeway, the deluge would

have certainly forced its way through the island, and swept off every paiticle of

vegetation. The finisliing-stroke to this grand imdertaking was at last completed

masses of the Kellerrock, measuring twenty-seven fathoms in length, were completely

blown off. Thus a most important semce was rendered to commerce—the danger

was removed—the passage was anno\inced safe—the fervent vows of every friend of

humanity were fulfilled, and the Strudel was no longer an abyss of terror to tlie

boatmen.

Since the completion of this great undertaking, the work has still been resumed at

intervals ; and from time to time, various improvements have been added, by means

of blasting and excavation, which have been attended with the happiest efiects.

The only precaution now to be taken in passing the Stnulel, is to see that the vessels

do not draw more water than the depth of the channel at that time permits ; and to

ascertain this accurately, there is what is called a utrom-messer, or flood-meter, (die-

Mark,) which shows the exact height of the water from i. to ix.* downwards. A

vessel drawing four feet water cannot pass the Strudel at Inw-water-mai-k without

danger. Tlie passage is also dangerous when the east wind blows hard up the

channel; and then vessels generally lay-to at the small harbour of Grein, till it shifts

round to some other point.

JTIjC (liOtrllCl. The tourist who has hap])ily escaped the perils of the Strudrl

rapids, has still to encounter, in his descent,

the whirlpool of tlie Wirbel, which is distant

from the former little more than five hun-

dred fathoms. Between the two perils of

this passage in the Danube there is a re-

markable similarity magita componere par-

vis—with that of the Faro of Messina; where

the hereditary terrors of Scylla and Cha-

rybdis still intimidate the pilot, as he strug-

gles to maintain a clear course through the

Strait.

There, in foaming whirls Cli.iryl.di- ciiils.

Loud Scylla roare to larboard

' 1787—1791.

Each figure being distant from the otheraixirwhet, showing what is the precise depth of the StrudjIal the slmllowest part.

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w

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Ebt JEUtbtl.] THK DAxrnr ii.LrsTn.vTr.n. 105

In that howling gulf, witli tlio dopf and wolf.'

Deep moored to-night, with her living freight.

That goodly ship is harhoursd I

The cause of the whirlpool is evident at first sight. In the centre of the stream

is an island called the Hausstein, about a hundred and fifty yai-ds long, by fifty in

breadth, consisting of primitive rock, and dividing the liver—which at this point

descends with tremendous force—into the two separate channels of the Hossgang

and the Strudel already mentioned. In its progress to this point it meets with

that portion of the river which runs smoothly along the northern shore, and breaking

it into a thousand eddies, forms the Wirbcl. This has the appearance of a series of

foaming circle's, each deepening as it approaches the centre, and caused by the two

opposite streams rushing violently against each other. That such is the real cause

of the Wiibel is sufficiently proved by the fact, that, in the great autumnal inun-

dation of M.nccLXXxvii., when the flood ran so high as to cover the Hausstein, the

Wirbel, to the astonishment of the oldest boatmen and natives of the countiy, had

entirely disappeared. For the obstacle being thus counteracted by the depth of the

flood, and the stream being now unbroken by the rock, mshed down in one con-

tinuous vohune, without exliibiting any of those gj-ratory motions which characterize

the Wirbel. If the rock called the Hausstein were blown up, it is probable that

this whirlpoolwould

entirelydisappear. But

to effect so desirablean end, much

labour and expense must be incurred ; for the rock projects at least eighteen feet

above the ordinary level of the Danube, and measures three hiuidred and sixty

yards in circumference. On its summit stand the mins ofan ancient watch-tower

and on its southern flank runs the channel called Limg, but which at low-water is

only navigable for vessels of small tonnage. Tlie force of the whirling eddies in

the Wirbel—called by the boatmen die Reiben and the surfs die Haden—caused

bj' the fury with which the conflicting waves meet each other, is dangerous in

proportion to the height of the flood at the time, except as in the case above-

mentioned, when the Hausstein is under water, and then the whirlpool is entirely

obliterated. In ordinary cases, its circles have often a circumference of from fifty

to sixty yards ; and previous to the introduction of steam-navigation, used to pre-

sent a verj' appallins asjiect to those who had entrusted their lives and cai'go to the

rickety planks of an old Ordiuari.

The circle, within which the eddies perform their circumvolutions with amazing

velocity, deepens as it approaches the centre, so as to form a basin nearly five

feet in depth, and filling the neighboiuing echoes with the unceasing roar of its

waters. In the passage over the Wirbel the first thing to be attended to, is to act in

concert with the rapid current, by vigorously plying the oars, so that the boat at one

' Feris atris canihus niccinsitur alvum.— Ov. JfET. lib. xiii.

. Dcliihiiiiiiii ciuiclas rteri) coniinis.>-n /ii/.miiiii.~ Viiic. .TyiiiD, iii.

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106 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [STf^e a®trbtl.

bound, so to speak, may dash through between the Reibeu and Haden, and

launch into smooth water. The quicker the passage the less is the danger ; but ill-

manned vessels, and chiefly rafts unprovided with side-oars, incur the hazard of being

filled with water, whirled into the vortex, or cast upon the rocks. On the left bank

of the river the water is much deeper than m the middle. The fonner is called the

Friedhof, or Freydhof, and extends from the Hasenohr to the Longstone. Here

the current is not very strong ; and when the river is about its ordinary level, vessels

going up keep close under the bank ; but, when the water is higher, pass through

the Lung, which, during the operations already mentioned, was greatly deepened

and extended. Near the Longstone there was formerly a castle—a freebooter's

fortress

—the main tower of which was only dismantled during the progress of the

works undertaken by order of government. Of the history of the two castles which

overlook this passage little is known. Scanty fragments of legends and traditions

are the only chronicles that have survived their destmction. It is proved, by various

existing documents, that this district was inhabited and cultivated as early as the

campaigns of Charlemagne ; and in that reign many of these river-castles appear to

have been built, which in later times—particularly during interregnums—afforded

their lawless chiefs the firee indulgence of their marauding propensities, or what was

called living vom Stegreif. In those times of violence and oppression, the castles,

which at very short dista ces blocked up this passage, were no less than five in

number—all of which levied tolls, and exacted ransom for the goods and passengers

which the river-traffic threw in their way. They appear to have been all dismantled

much aboutthe same time—namely, in the campaign already mentioned, as having been

undertaken by the Emperor Rudolf for the removal of so insufferable a nuisance.

At the commencement of the fifteenth centurj-,' John v. Greissenecker, who already

held the castle of Werfenstein by mortgage, obtained possession also of that on the

Hausstein, and ofthe tower on the Longstone. Within a hundred years from that date,'

the whole neighbourhood was bought up by the Prueschenks, afterw; rds Counts of

Hardegg ; but of the castles on the Hausstein and Longstone, the watch-towers

onlyremained, and these have been preserved till the present time. Each

of these

mouldering fortresses was the subject of some miraculous tradition, which circulated

at every hearth. The sombre and mysterious aspect of the place—its wild scenery,

and the frequent accidents which occurred in the passage, invested it with awe and

terror ; but above all, the superstitions of the time, a belief in the marvellous, and the

credidity of the boatmen, made the navigation of the Strudel and the Wirbel a

theme of the wildest romance. At night, sounds that were heard far above the roar

of the Danube, issued from every rain. Magical lights flashed through their loop-

holes, and casem*nts—festivals were held in the long-deserted halls—maskers

glided from room to room—the waltzers maddened to the strains of an infernal

orchestra—armed sentinels paraded the battlements ; while at intervals the clash of

' A D. not). A.D. 1493.

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®i)e SElitbtl.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 107

arms, the neighing of steeds, and the shrieks of unearthly combatants smote fit

fully on the boatman's ear.—But the tower in which these scenes were most fear-

fully enacted was that on the Longstone, commonly called the ' Devil's Tower,' as

it well deser\'ed to be—for here, in close communion with his master, resided the

' Black Monk,' whose office it was to exhibit false fights and landmarks along

the gulf, so as to decoy the vessels into the whirlpool, or dash them against the

rocks. He was considerably annoyed in liis quarters, however, on the arrival of the

great Soliman in these regions ; for to repel the turbanned host—or at least to check

their triumphant progress to the Upper Danube—the inhabitants were summoned to

join the national standard, and each to defend his own hearth. Fortifications were sud

denly thrown up—even churches and other religious edifices were placed in a state of

miUtary defence ; women and children, the aged and the sick.—as already mentioned

in our notice of Schaumbm'g—^were lodged in fortresses, and thus secm-ed from

the violence of the approaching Moslem. Among the other points at which the

greatest efforts were made to check the enemy, the passage of the Strudel and Wirbel

was rendered as impregnable as the time and circ*mstances of the case would

allow. To supply materials for the work, patriotism for a time got the better of

superstition, and the said Devil's Tower was demohshed and converted into a

strong breastwork. ITius forcibly dislodged, the Black Monk is said to have

])ronounced a malediction on the intruders, and to have chosen a new haunt among

tlie recesses of the Harz mountains.

With respect to the causes of these river phenomena, the learned men of the

sixteenth and even seventeenth centuries appear to

have been as far astray as their uneducated brethren, to

whom they pretended to unfold the mysteries of nature.

In Adelung's large Dictionary of the German language,

where the " Strudel" fonns an article for learned discus-

sion, their profound ignorance is glaringly exposed. Of

the series of fabulists who have held the same doctrino

the notorious Miinster takes the lead. In his Cosmo-

graphy,' published in the middle of the sixteenth centmy,

he evidently confounds the Stradel with the Wirbel ; while Berkenmeyer, in his

' Curious Antiquarian,' places the Wirbel near Krems ; and even Hiibner, in

his' Complete Geography,' represents the Wirbel as a cataract below that point.

But the good old Aventin plainly tells us that the Stnidel was near Stockerau:and

most of the old engravings of this remarkable neighbourhood, pxiblished by Birken,

Ilerbinius, Kreckwitz and others, are complete failiu-es, so far as the shape and

respective position of the different scenes are concerned. Kircher, in his subter-

ranean worid,=relates with becoming gravity that there was a hole under the Wirbel,

Vol. iii. p. 0G5. Basil, A.D. 1567.

« ' Mundus Subtenancus,' t. iii. 2, 3. liydiog. p. 15.

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[OS THE DANUBE ILLUSTIUTKD. [" I)t Snitbtl.

wliich swallowed a considerable part of the liver, and that the water thus abstracted,

alter a longsubterraneous course, re-appeared near Kanischa in Hungary, where it

fonncd the lake of riattenM.e. This absurd account was copied by all the old

writers on the subject; and even Marsigli himself, in his othcnvise exccllontwork on the

Danube, repeated it. In this manner the o))inion becoming univcrsid—much assisted

no doubt by the strong disposition of the people in those times to believe in the mar-

vellous—several wise men undertook to establish the truth of it by some tangible

iiroof Accordingly, a vessel having been wrecked in the Wirbel, a hammer that

had belonged to the cooper's apprentice on board, was shortly after found, or fished

up mirabile diclu—in the Plattensee !

All these maivellous accounts, however, were at last confuted by the laborious,

and accurate Schultes. His chief argument in support of the VVirbel's originating,

not from a hole in the bed of the river, but from the violent repercussion near the

Hausstein, is grounded on this fact, that when the rock is overllowed it ceases to

produce the same ])hcnomenon. Fiuther it is urged, lliatwhen the river is very low,

and the run olthe water towards the Hausstein is but feeble, the gyratory motions of

the Wirbel are hardly obsenable. Among other reports long credited in the country,

it was believed that the whirlpool was of unfathomable depth; but this was of a piece

with the others; for Popai'isch, in his lji'.tersu,cl*t(injen von il/wye,' or Marine In-

quiries, relates that in a barge laden with pottery and sunk in the Wirbel,' the hut on

its roof was still distinguishable, so that the de])th coiUd not have been very consi-

derable. On one occasion, within the last half centiuy, two rafts, joined together by

means of cables, were seized by the whirhng eddies of the Wiibel, and the ropes

being cut, one raft escaped, while the other was borne rapidly into the vortex, and

there continued whirling round at the mercy of the waves. The solitary passenger

who still kept his seal upon it was given up for lost. He did not, however, lose his pre-

sence of mind ; but after having performed numerous circuni'olutions, between hope

and despair, he, by a last effort, succeeded in throwing it into the nangable track, and

arrived safe at St. Nikola, where he was taken care of by the brewer and his men,

and his rescue regarded as a miraculous intcrjiosition of Providence. By this it ap-

peal's evident that the Wirbel is not an abyss that " receives every thing," but " restores

nothing ;" and in the old work already quoted, it is mentioned that the body of

the skip))er Freydenberger ol Passau, who had perished in the Wirbel, was again

thrown out, and being found by his friends, received Christian burial. In like man-

ner, the body of the skipper Beyert of Vienna, who was also drowned in the Wirbel,

floated down the river, as far as Kloster-Nciiburg, where it was taken out of the

water and interred. In conclusion, an occurrence, so late as 18-27, supports the ar-

gument against the voracious character of the Wirbel—for a collision having taken

place between two rafts, one was deeply immerseci, but not swallowed up by the river

' Vol. ii. p. 193 -242. I,eipsig. 17«). ' A.U. 17;»1.

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®u«nsl;t(m.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTUATED. 109

and to refute the old story that a vast body ol water disappe;vrs at this point, it

is only necessary to observe its width near Yps, and below Ifren|s, where it forms c

complete Archipelago.*

Before continuing the descent to Persenbeug, and the other remarkable points on

this pai-t of the Danube, we take a retrospective glance of (DttCttOfjcim—a striking

OTTEJfSirirM,

view of which is here introduced, taken from the interior of the country, and over-

looking the river, with EfTerding on the opposite shore. Leopold the second, Duke of

Austria, sold Ottensheim, Wechsenberg, Greim, and Hurtenstein, with all the people

and property, to Otto v. Schleung, for six hundred pounds weight of silver. In the

fourteenth centiu^y, Heinrich von Neuhaus and others laid waste this part of the

country to the walls of Ottensheim, and began a feud which desolated Upper Aus-

tria, for upwards of a century. In m.dcxxvi. a body of the insurgents, under a leader

' For the above particulars respecting the Stmdel and "Wirbel, we are chiefly indebted to the Ger-

man writers on the scenery and topography of the Danube—and to these we confidently refer the

readnr—particularly to the Leipsig editions, ' Gcorg Wigands Verlag.'

F K

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no THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [SatfiltngSttln.

named Christojih Zeller, established his quarters at Otteiisheim ; and the French

plundered the townin their victorious march to Vienna in the late war.' With this

brief notice we resume our course along the vale of the Danube.

As soon as the tourist has disengaged himself from the perils of the Strudel and

Wu'bel and glides quietly down towards St. Nikola, he is usually hailed by a small

boat, the master of which congratulates him on his safety, and solicits, in the name

of his patron saint, some token of Christian charity. This is a very ancient custom,

and in times when the descent was really dangerous, and while the hearts of the

passengers were still warm with gratitude for their escape, the offerings thus made

to the shrine of St. Nikola were neither few nor inconsiderable. In the middle

ages, says a German author, when the channel was stUl infested by rocks, perilous

rapids, and inexorable robbers, a noble lady erected here a commodious inn or hospital,

for the reception of travellers, endowed it largely with landed and other property,

and at her death bequeathed all her substance to the poor. This lady was Beatrix

von Klamm, Countess Walchun, of Machland, who founded the hospital of St.

Nicholas, in the middle of the twelfth century. Two centuiies later, Albert, Duke

of Austria, founded here a chapel for daily mass, out of the money thus collected

between Ardeggar and Yps, and hence the custom of soliciting contributions from

all travellers, who have escaped the perils of the Strudel and Wrrbel. St. Nikola

is a very small market-town, with a population between seven and eight hundred.

Itbelongs to the circle of Greinberg, and the rocky mountains, by which

it isover-

hung on the north, present many bold and picturesque featiu-es. A narrow car-

riage-road connects it with Sarblingstein on the east, Struden on the west, and

Dimbach on the north. The inhabitants appear to be in easy circ*mstances, and

support themselves chiefly by boat-building, for the rocky nature of the soil affords

little encouragement to agriculture. The local scenery, particiilarly along the banks

of the St. Nikola river, is highly romantic ; and indeed the whole of the northern

bank, as far as Persenbeug, presents a succession of Alpine landscapes which pow-

erfully arrest attention. A short distance below St. Nikola, at the outlet of the

eastern ravine, the ancient tower of ^arI)Un00t0tn, enters the pictiu-e, and confers

upon it a new and striking feature. This is also a place of great antiquity ; and it is

believed that ' Sabanich,' mentioned in the records of Otto III., in the tenth century,

was the same as the modem Sarblingstein. Its castle was long considered one of

the strongest in the country, and had no inconsiderable share in the eventful

history of those times. At length Maximilian I. gave up the fortress to the convent

of Waldhauscn, and from the Emperor Ferdinand, pennission was subsequently

obtained to have it placed once more in thorough repair—but, with this understanding,

that it should only be used in the event of war, as an asylum for the inmates of the

convent. It was on this occasion' that the round watch-tower was constructed,

• Planche, Descent of the Danube, 142. » A.D. 1538.

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^PttStnbeug.) THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. Ill

which is the only relic of importance now left of the ancient castle of Sarb-

lingstein.

'^et&tnfJtUQ* Passing in our descent various objects and sites of minor consider-

ation, we arrive at the imperial chateau of Perseubeug—one of the most pleasing and

picturesque features in the whole course of the Danube. On a lofty rock abutting

on the river, and forming the last projection of the mountain ridges descending from

Grein, stands this lordly castle. In the centre ofa charming landscape, with the town

ofYps in front, and a rich and highly cultivated territory on the east, it enjoys an en-

\iable superiority over all the mouldering fortresses which we have hitherto noticed.

The name of Persenbeug, or rather Bosenbeug,* is descriptive of the extensive sweep,

which at this point the Danube makes to the south, and which was long considered a

place of no Uttle inconvenience, or even danger, to barges ascending the river. The

castle is one of the most ancient in Austria, and is often mentioned in her military and

political records. Its position and various other circ*mstances favourthe opinion that

it was occupied as a miUtary post, as early as the campaigns ofCharlemagne; and that

it was well known to the Romans as a place of strength and security long before

his time. It is not till the ninth centuiy, however, that it is styled a ' castle,' and at

that time it belonged to the Margrave Engelschalk, who being found guilty of high

treason, had his eyes put out, and his estates confiscated to the use of the monks of

Kremsmlinster. In the tenth century the territory, or comte, immediately annexed

to Persenbeug, included the whole of the district lying between the rivers Trami and

the Yps, and was in the possession of Count Sieghai-t von Sempta, who fell in the

great battle with the Avars and Magyars, between Theben and Hainburg.* His

family remained in the possession of Persenbeug, and Adelbert III., having no chil-

dren by his wife Richlinde, had made arrangements for leaving his estates to a reli-

gious firatemity; but the lady wishing to keep possession of the rich domain for the

benefit of her own family, prevailed upon her husband to settle it upon her, by way

of jointure. Soon after this Adelbert died, and Ricldinde continued to hold the

castle and territory in right of her settlement. About the same time Henry III.,

being then on the eve of making a progress through Hungary, detenmned to do so

by water ; and having appointed the Count Palatine Otto as administrator of the

Empire, he embarked at Ratisbon, and attended by Bishop Bruno and a brilliant

suite descended the Danube with great state. Taking advantage of this occasion,

Richlinde despatched the most honourable men of her household to entreat the

emperor to visit her at Persenbeug, where every preparation had been made for liis

reception. The invitation was graciously accepted ; but while the emperor's barge

was passing the dangers of the Strudel and Wirbel, all his suite were horror-struck

on seeing the apparition of the Black Monk, already described, who, addressing the

bishop, told him that he was his evil genius, and that his episcopal career was fast

' ». e. the ugly, or dangerous bend in the river. * A.D. 9«7.

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11-2 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRAl ED. [pttStnltag.

drawing to its close. Stailled by the supernatural voice and appearance of this giira

agent of Satan, the bishop crossed himself devoutly, muttered three aves and sent the

demon to the right about ; but he could not so readily shake oflF the impression left on

his mind by this unearthly salutation. Shortly after the royal barge having pulled up

nnder the walls of Persenbeug, the lady of the castle conducted her illustrious guest

tlirough the splendid suite of apartments wliich had been prepared for him. A

sumptuous banquet was then served up, and Richlinde, obseiTing that the emperor

was in high spirits and evidently pleased with his reception, took that favourable

moment to make known to him the earnest desire she felt to transmit the castle and

estates to a member of her own family. In this she was warmly seconded by the

bishop, and the emperor at once gave his consent. But scarcely had Richlinde

time to express her grateful thanks for this signal mai-k of imperial favour, when the

floor of the banquet-hall suddenly gave way and precipitated the whole company

into the bath-room immediately imder. The emperor escaped with only a few

briuses ; but the Countess Richlinde, the Abbot of Ebersberg, and Bishop Bruno

were so severely injured that they all died within a few hours of the catastrophe.'

The castle subsequently passed into the hands of various proprietors under times

and circ*mstances which it is here unnecessary to particularize. The principal

buildings, as they now appear, date only fl-om the seventeenth century, when the

foundation of the new structure was laid by Adam Eusebius, son of Albrecht von

Hoyos. The rock on which the stately edifice rests is composed of white stone,—modification of gneiss, with a colouring here and there of a darker hue, owing to

the intermixture of black mica, sometimes hke porphyry, with the addition of felspar

crystals. The architecture is in various styles, but solid and well suited in aspect to

the picturesque landscape which it overlooks ; and through which the Danube flows

in a deep and capacious channel, nearly two himdred fathoms broad, and washing

the foundation of the castle. The interior is spacious, containing several suites of

apartments, besides the presence-chambers, which are of lofty proportions, and ela-

Dorate but chaste workmanship. This was long the favourite summer residence of

the late Emperor Francis, who spent his time at Persenbeug, much in the samemanner as George III. spent his leisure months at Kew. The gallery contains

several pictures of great value. In the northern side is the principal chapel, and

under it, with a descent of about twenty steps, is another and smaller one, both

fitted up in an elegant but unostentatious manner. In the inner court, where joust

and tournament were anciently held, is a basin of fine sparkhng water. Of the

original structiure, erected eight centuries ago, two towers have been partly de-

molished f and the portion stiU left is perforated with galleries in the old feudal

style. The view from one of these towers is particularly fine, comprising the mag-

Old Aventinmentions that the Bishop only died in consequence of the accident—and as if to

verify the inedietion of the Black Monk.» In 1810 and 12.~See the " Denkbuch," or Album of the Austr. Mon. 1842.

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^wstnbtng-l THE DANUBE ILLUSTItATED. iia

nificent windings of the Danube—the hixuriant landscape, which it half encloses

within its silvery semicircle—the majestic range of snow-clad Alps to the south, where

the colossal Schneeberg overlooks the iron frontier of Salzburg ; while the Petscher,

neai-ly opposite—^with its indented crown of rocks overtopping the nearer mountains,

and mixing with the clouds—forms a bold and imposing feature in the picture.

Behind the castle is the Emperor's garden, tastefully laid out, and consisting partly

of thriving nurseries, and partly of a conservatory for fig-trees, from which the neigh-

bouring farmers are supplied with whatever can promote a taste for horticulture.

The flower-garden is one of the most beautiful that can be imagined, and many of the

rare plants and flowers with which it is liberally stocked, were cultivated by the empe-

ror's own hand. Of the various compartments into which it is divided, nothing can

exceed the taste and elegance displayed in the arrangement ; but in all this the em-

peror was well seconded by the singularly felicitous natiu-e of the soil and situation,

which required only the hand of art to convert them into a terrestrial paradise.

There is a part in the garden called the ' Pulpit,' to which his majesty was particu-

larly partial—it is a charming spot, and commands a minute and highly animated

prospect of the river, the town of Yps and its picturesque environs.

aCr^IH. on lUK UAMJiJt, N&AJV Oi. d.l^ujix.1..

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114 THE DANUBE ILLUSTKATED. [ffiastlt o( Zadtenttk.

The next objects which successively engage the voyager's attention, are Sausscn-

stein, the niins of a Cistercian Monastery destroyed in the late war ; the village of

Marbach, and the celebrated pilgrimage-church of Maiia Taferl—the Einsiedeln of

the Danube—the lofty twin towers of which crown the mountain on the left, and

serve as landmarks to thousands of devotees, who annually resort to this shrine as a

panacea for all maladies of soul or body. It is computed that from fifty thousand

to one hundred and thirty thousand pilgrims, visit this shrine every year, fi-om all

parts of Austria and the neighboiuing kingdoms and principalities—a melancholy

proof of the superstition which stUl degrades and enslaves the great mass of the popu-

lation. The money thus spent, however, by the votaries of Madonna Taferl, promotes

in.no small degree the prosperity of Marbach, and the adjoining district; and it

may be doubted if the desolating hand of war itself would be so prejudicial to

the place, as any lengthened interruption to pilgrimages which throw an annual

revenue into the coffers of the inhabitants.* Judging fi-om the reports annually pub-

lished, the age of miracles is far firom having passed by : for of those who arrive at

the shrine of Maria of the " Little Table," laboiuing imder grievous diseases, both of

mind and body, there are always a few who retinni home with renewed health and

vigour. But were we to seek the true cause of such renovations, we should most likely

find it in the eheerful exercises, congenial society, and salubrious atmosphere which

such a pilgrimage necessarily implies.

?C5C iftaotlt of ^HHtitcntCb, which next appears with its majestic and massive

square towers on the left bank of the river, is a striking relic of feudal magnificence.

It seems of a piece with the granite rock on which it is founded, and by the solidity

of its walls and battlements, looks as if it laid claim to the same durability. It is

understood to have been erected by Rudiger of Pochlam. It was considered a for-

tress of such importance that it was twice laid siege to by Frederick the Fourth, and

the famous Matthias Corvinus, King of Hinigary. By the former of these it was twice

captured and twice lost ; and the difficulties \\hich, in its pride of strength, it must

have presented to a beleaguering force is still evident to the most cursory observer.

' The origin of thispilgrimage is as follows:—Iilaria Taferl receives

its

namefrom

a wonder-working image of the Virgin, originally attached to an old oak-tree, beneath whose branches the pea-

santry of the surrounding country, after offering up their prayers for a good harvest, used to feast at a

stone table, or taferl. In the course of years, when the tree had. fallen into decay, a peasant took it

into his head to cut down the unsightly trunk, but the first blow of his axe, though aimed at the tree,

struck his foot. On looking up he saw, for the first time, the image ; and becoming penitent for his

wanton act, was, by the gracious interposition of the image, miraculously cured of the wound he had

mflicted on himself. The story was instantly noised abroad, and the reputation of the image has been

on the increase ever since. [Murray's Southern Germany, p. 191.] During the month of Sep-

tember, the church is crowded with devotees, and a pilgrimage to Maria Taferl is considered an equiva-

lent for nny moral or spiritual misdemeanours with which the penitent may be chargeable. In the

pamphlets sold on the spot, for the special edification of the pious, various other particulars are

added; but in PlanchiVs '"

Danube,"pp. 244-C, and in old Schultes, the rcider

will find the stoiy

with some absurd, but amusing details— see also Duller, p. 421.

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^otijlarnfiura.] THE Danube illustrated. 1J5

From gate and battlemented tower

Swept the warder's iron shower,

And swift and sharp, from twanging yew,

The feathered shafts incessant flew

While armour clashed and banners played

And flickered the Damascus blade.

But with any notice of Weiteneck, however brief, we cannot pass over the ancient

glories of ' Bechlaren," with which is closely associated one of those pompous

scenes so often exhibited in the days of chivalry and crusading. Under this name

are comprised two villages Gross Pochlam on the right bank, and Klein-Pochlam

on the left, with the small market-town of Ardstadten on the heights. Of the Bech-

claren Burg, however, no vestiges remain, except an " old gateway, some round towers,

and here and there a few feet of crumbling wall, attesting the early grandeur of the

place ; while fancy fiUs up the chasms which time has made with court and keep, but-

tress and battlement, crowded with fair damsels and fierce soldiery—aU, all abroad

to gaze at the advancing pageant," which a popular author has thus painted in glow-

ing coloiu-s.'

' Die Donau. Duller, 421.

' " Round that point ofland comes the royal fleet, the banners of Hungary, Burgundy, Bavaria, Poch-

lam, and Passau, flinging their blazoned glories on the breeze, and proudly announcing to the admiring

burghers the rich freight of rank and beauty which the swelling Danube is wafting to their port. Five

hundred ' Kemps of Hungary,' their bright hauberks glittering in the sun, crowd the decks of the first

vessels. On the prow of theforemost, stands the valiant Markgraf Rudiger, of Pochlam—than whom

'a braver soldier never was in this world yborn'—bending eagerly forward to distinguish amongst

the bevy of beauties at the open windows of the castle the fair forms of his beloved wife and daughter.

Beneath the rich canopy that shades the deck ofyonder bark with gilded oars, now doubling the little

promontory, sits the peerless bride of the mighty Etzel ; but she hears not the shout of welcome that

rises on the shore ; she marks not the gay multitudes that crowd to pay her homage. Her brow ia

clouded, her ruby lip quivers, tears like liquid diamonds tremble on the long, dark, silken lashes of her

downcast eyes ; the form of the noble Siegfried is ever before her ; she hears but the voice of her mur-

dered champion calling for vengeance : she sees but the ghastly wound which treachery inflicted^

bleeding afresh at the approach of the dark and deadly Haghen. Yet passing beautiful she seems even

in sorrow, and still warrants the glowing description of the old Minnesinger, Henry of Ofterdingen :

From out her broidered garments full many a jewel shone.

The rosy red bloomed sweetly her lovely cheek upon.

Even as the moon outshineth every twiukliug star.

Shedding careless splendour from out her cloudy car

So before her maidens stood that lady bright.

And higher swell'd the spirit of every gazing knight.

By her side stands a venerable figure, clad in thegorgeous and sacred vestments of his office. The flow-

ing stole of embroidered silk, the pallium of cloth of gold, the jewelled mitre, the ' gilt shoon,' and the

massive, but riclily wrought cross and crosier, borne by two of his attendants, distinguish him as the

holy pilgrim, the wealthy and powerful Bishop of Passau, uncle to the queen, and related also to the

noble Rudiger. The pale youth near him, his hands reverently crossed upon his bosom, is his clerk

Conrad, who afterwards assisted him to write, in the Latin tongue, the adventures of the Nibelungen. On

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116 THE DANUBE ILLDSTEATED. [JWoIfc.

^tOlb- This splendid edifice, the subject of just admiration among all well-

informed travellers, takes precedence of every other building of its kind in Europe. Its

commanding position, on the right bank of the Danube, adds greatly to the imposing

style of its architecture ; and no sooner does it bui'st on the traveller's view than all

other objects appear to shrink into shade, leaving its monastic domes and spires in

undisputed possession of the scene. With every possible accommodation for the

religious order to which it belongs, it unites the splendour and extent of an imperial

palace, in which the reigning sovereigns ofChristendom, or a whole conclave of cardinals

might hold their levees. The contrast which it forms with the mean-looking houses

grouped aroimd its base is very striking; by its fine Grecian architecture, it reminds

us of some magnificent temple of antiquity, rising in solitary grandeiu- over the

sordid hovels that seek protection under the shadow of its walls. But as httle morethan a century has elapsed since the completion of the structure, there are no symp-

toms of either ' age or infinnity' it its vast quadrangles, where the sculptures are still

fresh, the gilding untarnished, and the fresco tints as vivid as when first laid on. Its

com^s and corridors, however, are but a splendid solitude, where the Genius of con-

templation is only roused at intervals by the measured tread of a dozen Bene-

dictine brothers—by the solemn chime of bells, or the midnight halleluia.

The question that naturally suggests itself to a stranger, after a survey of this

monastic palace, is,—For what purpose have such vast sums been expended ? and

he is immediately answered " For the glory of God and the salvation of sinners!"

Such may have been the pious motive ; but judging fi'om facts and appearances, it

may be reasonably doubted how far the end has justified the intention. One thuig,

however, is certain, namely—^that the erection of this gorgeous structure in Austria

gave a most salutary impulse to the then languid state of the arts, and has sensed

ever since as a school, where the architect, painter, and sculptor may study from

some of the best models, and realize, in existing forms, those lofty ideas of ecclesias-

tical and classic taste, which are not likely to be ever again so ably embodied in any

similar structure.

Tout parle, tout fement dans ce sejour sacre :

—C'est lU qu'amante du desert,La Meditation avec plaisir se perd

Sous ces portiques saints 1

The present monastery occupies the situation of an original abbey, which stood

here as early as the tenth centurj', previously to which it was the site of an Hunga-

rian fortress, known as the Eisenburg, or Iron-Castle, in allusion to its strength. In

the other hand of the lovely Clirimhilt, stands the faithful Cuke Eckewart, who has sworn to escort

his liege lady to Hungary j and the remainder of the flotilla bears the five hundred chosen knights of

Burgundy, who follow his standard.—But the vision is over—the airy castle has vanished—and a

rude and solitary boat is rocking under the windows of a poor whitewashed ' Wirthshaus,' wliich with

half-a-dozen humble cottages and some mouldering walls,nowmarks the site of the once strong and gaybourg of Piichlarn '"—Planche's Danube, p. 233, 1828. Also Duller's Donau, p. 421-2.

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NX ^

X

e

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iWBI6.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 117

the ' Monasteriologia' of Stengelius, there is a list of the heads, or primates of

Molk, beginning with Sigiboldus in m.lxxxix.,—who was the first that succeeded

Leopold, the founder,—down to Valentinus, in m.dcxxxviii., who was living when

the author published his work. It is a favourite subject of description in all popular

works on the Danube ; but no writer in the present day has sketched the scene with

more accuracy and effect than the learned author of the Bibliographical and Anti-

quarian Tour,* fi-om whom we quote the following passage: " Conceive what you

please," says he, " and yet you shall not conceive the situation of this monastery.

Less elevated above the road than Chremsminster, but of a more commanding style

of architecture, and of considerably greater extent, it strikes you, with the Danube

winding round and washing its rocky base, as one of the noblest edifices in the world.

Christ Chiu"ch College at Oxford, and Trinity College at Cambridge, shall hardly

together ecUpse it ; while no single portion of either can bear the least comparison

with its cupola-crowned church, and the sweeping range of chambers which runs

parallel with the town. The wooded heights of the opposite side of the Danube

crown the view of this magnificent edifice in a manner hardly to be surpassed. There

is also a beautiful play of architectural Unes and ornaments in the fi-ont ofthe buUd-

ing, indicative of a pure Italian taste, and giving to the edifice, if not the air of tow

ering grandeur, at least ofdignified splendour.—The library," continues our authority,

" is, beyond any doubt, the finest room of its kind which I have seen upon the Con-

tinent ; not, however, for its size, but for its style of architecture and the materials

of which it is composed. We were told that it was the imperial library in miniature,

but with this difference in favour of Molk,' that it looks over a magnificently wooded

country, with the majestic Danube rolling at its base. The wainscot and shelves

are of walnut-tree of different shades, inlaid, or dovetailed, surmounted by gUt orna-

ments. The pilasters have Corinthian capitals, gilt; and the bolder, or projecting

parts of a gallery, which surrounds the room, are covered with the same metal.

Everything is in harmony : there is a play of line and proportion of parts about the

whole which accords singularly well with the scenery viewed firom the windows

especially as you stand at one end contemplating the other. The library may be

about a hundred feet in length by' forty in width ; and is sufficiently well fiumished

with books of the ordinary class, but it was once, probably, much richer in the bib-

liographical lore of the fifteenth century." Of the church, which is the grand object

in this splendid monastery. Dr. Dibdin observes, that " it is the very perfection of

» Vol. iii. p. 406.

• " The word Molk, Molck—or, as it appears in the first map of the ' Germania Austriaca/ Melck

was formerly written Medilicense, Medlicense, Medlicum, Medlich, and Medelick or Mellicense. This

anonymous chronicle is followed by another of Conrad de Wizenberg, and an anonymous ' history of

the foundation of the monastery,' compared with six other MSS. of the same kind, in the library at

Molk. The whole is concluded by an ancient Necrology of the monastery, begun to be compiled in

the fifteenth century, from a vellum MS. of tlie b.ime date. From Pez we learn that the heads or

principals of tliis monastery take the rank of Trimatos of Austria "—DinniN.

H B

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118 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED, [gtI;onbut6cL

ecclesiastical Roman architecture—much superior to that of Chremsminster on the

score of loftiness and richness ofdecoration.

Thewindows are fixed so as to tlirow

their concentrated light beneath the dome. The church is in the shape of a cross;

at the end of each transept is a rich altar with statuary. The pews, much after the

English fashion, but lower and more tasteful, are placed on each side of the nave on

entering, with ample space between them. The pulpit, from top to bottom, is com-

pletely covered with gold ! And yet there is nothing gaudy, or tasteless, or glaringly

obtrusive," says our learned churchman, " in this extraordinary clerical rostioim.

The whole is in the most perfect taste—the very nonpareil of gilt pulpits, and what

is worth mentioning, it harmonizes in every respect with the building in which it is

placed. In fact the whole church is in a blaze of gold, and the mere gilding is said

to have cost ninety thousand florins"—an immense sum at that period. This pro-

digal use of the precious metal was probably in imitation of the S"" Maria Maggiore, at

Rome, or in rivalry ofthe Genoese palaces

' With roofs that bum

In molten gold, like Nero's.'

It will be readily supposed, that in an abbey of so much splendour as that of

Molk'—the " Esciuiel" of Germany—the comforts of a good wine-cellar were not

overlooked : on the contrary, a vast accumulation of favourite vintages appears to

have taken place at the commencement of the late war. Dr. Cadet,' in liis graphic

sketch of Molk, mentions that in some of the wine-caves a carriage might be turned

with ease ;" and in order," says he, " to have an idea of the abundance which reigns

here, it may be sufficient merely to observe, that for four successive days, during the

march of the French troops through Molk towards Vienna, there were dehvered to

them not less than firom fifty to sixty thousand pints of wine per day—and yet

scarcely one half of the stock was exhausted. The French generals were lodged here

on that momentous occasion, and no doubt found it ' snug lying in the abbey,'

^Cf)bntlUCl|el, with its two feudal and monastic ruins, is another of those pictur-

esque and historical sites with which these banks of the Danube are so richly inter-

spersed. The castle occupies the crest of a nigged mass of granite, projecting into the

river, and is flanked by three round towers that hang over the verge of a frightful pre-

cij)ice. The convent, at a short distance on the same bank, has the appearance of

several distinct buildings picturesquely grouped, with a tower in the centre, and richly-

' MBlk is celebrated in the Nibelungenlied in the following strain :

Da brachte man aus Medilik auf Handen getragen

Manch reiches Goldge fasse, angefiiltt mit Wein,

Den Giisten auf die Strasse ; sie solten Wilkommen sein.

Ein wirth war da gesessen, astolt genannt, &c. &c.

• Voyage en Anstriche, en Baviure, etc., p. 19. Paris, 1818, quoted in the ' Bibliogr. Tour,' 414.

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&iI:onbncI)ct.| THE DANU]{E ILLUSTRATED. no

wooded rocks and lavras in the background. The castle, independently of its out-

works, must have been a fortress of great strength in its original condition. Opposite

the precipice is a small wooded island in the river, which has a pleasing effect. A

«-HONl'LJCHi:i> CA8TU1*

square tower, rising from the roof of the main building and terminating in a pointed

cupola, is a distinctive feature in this castle, which, for some crime perjjetrated by

one of its old ' unshriven' lords, is the nightly haunt of an accusing spirit, that, although

seldom seen, makes itself often heard in the baron's hall, where

The blood still reddens the mouldering oak,

Where, clasping the blessed rood.

And bowing her neck to the headsman's stroite,

Fair Cunigonda stood.

" I know not the crime for which I die.

My cruel lord," said she,

" But my cause 1 leave to God on liigh

-My untimely death to thee !"

Down fell the axe—thelife-blood

streamedliut long ere morning prime,

Through the baron's hall a maniac scicamefl -

" blie "as guiltlrfs of the crime I"

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120 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. laggittfll

^gg&tttn ^aatltt planted in stem defiance, on an almost inaccessible rock, and

overlooking the valley with an air of dilapidated grandeur, is one of the most pictur-

esque landmarks in this part of the Danube. It is a fortress of great antiquity, and

with its barbican, outer and inner bayles, donjon, drawbridges, and flanking-towers,

must have formed a retreat well calculated for opposing ' might to right,' and for

securing temporal indemnity to its lawless chiefs. The last additions appear to have

been made at the close of the foinrteenth, or early in the fifteenth century ; but the

original tower is evidently three centuries older, and most probably contemporary

with those already mentioned. Among its numerous chiefs the name of Schrecken-

wald stands prominently forward, as the most expertrobber-knightofhisday, and the

terror of the neighbourhood. When not more actively engaged, says the tradition,

he used to amuse himself by ordering the prisoners taken in one or other of his raids,

to be brought into his presence, and precipitated through a trap-door into what he

called his ' rose-garden.' This garden, however, was a dungeon, or, according to

others, a ravine—from which there was no escape but through the portals of death

for if not killed by the fall, cold, famine, and foul air, by dooming his victims to a

lingering death, were left to satiate the tyrant's revenge. Of the wretched prisoners

thus disposed of by their ruthless captor, only one is said to have escaped. Having

been dismounted in a skirmish with some of the tyrant's armed vassals, he was car-

ried in triumph to their lord, who, recognising In his prisoner a young knight of singu-

lar prowess, a formidable rival, not only in the field but in bower—one who had lately

supplanted him in the good graces of a lady who owned one of the castles opposite,

resolved to accept no ransom, but ordered him to be hurled at once into the dungeon

—an act which he witnessed in person, and accompanied with fiendlike exultation

and mockery. The whole of that night was spent in riotous dissipation ; for so

overjoyed was the chief at the incident, that his retainers were allowed a more than

ordinary indulgence, and another day passed off without once opening the castle-

gates. Sentinels, however, trod the walls as usual ; and, aware that he was lord of an

impregnable castle, Schreckenwald and his brother knights protracted the feast, and

drained the wassail-bowl till nearly midniglit, when, having first projected a raid,

to commence at daybreak,each retired to seek, in short repose, strength sufficient to

wear his mail and wield his sword with address the following morning. But soon after

the baron had laid his head on his pillow the clang of bugles and the clash of arms

resounded through the hall ; and before he had time to inquire the cause, the glare of

torches discovered to his astounded sight the very prisonerwhom, only two days be-

fore, he had consigned with so much indignation and ignominy to a miserable death in

the * rose-garden.' Thinking it an evil spirit come to take vengeance upon him, he

stood for a moment petrified with horror ; but suddenly recovering the natural courage,

or rather ferocity of his character, he made a sudden spring forward, and striking

desperately right and left—' Wert thou the arch-fiend himself,' he exclaimed wildly,

* Schreckenwald shall still be lord of Aggstein !' But this bravado saved neither him-

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Burrenstein.l THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 121

self nor his retainers; the latter were either stricken down or hurled from the battle-

ments, while the ruthless tyrant, who had so long maintained his court by blood and

rapine, was hastily disarmed and suspended, like a common felon, from a beam at

his own entrance-hall. Those of his captives who still survived were immediately set

at large, and for a time nothing was talked of but the young knight's escape from

the 'rose-garden.'

Among the later incidents related in the history of this stronghold is the follow-

ing :—One of its feudal chiefs, by following the example of his predatory ancestors,

had become the terror of the whole province, and made himself at last peculiarly ob-

noxious to the Duke of Austria. But how to check his ruthless course, and bring

him under obedience to the crown was a question of no common difficulty ; despising

the laws, defying the sovereign, and surrounded by kinsmen and retainers as despe-

rate as himself, he committed the most daring outrages with impunity, and scarce a

day passed by without his boarding and plundering some of the trading barges on

their way to Linz or Vienna. The public outcry becoming more and more loud and

vehement, one of the merchants who had already suffered grievously by the hands of

this river pirate, volunteered his services to the duke, which were at once accepted.

Having matured his plan he repaired to Ratisbon, and there taking in (as it was re-

ported) a cargo of valuable merchandise, with certain other stores, made prepara-

tions for descending the river to Vienna. Long before he had passed the Strudel,

however, the welcome news of a very rich prize being on the water was told in the

Castle of Aggstein ; and no sooner was the barge in sight, than the tower-bell, as

usual, proclaimed the approach of booty. The baron, attended, by a few choice

vassals, pounced at once upon the expected prey, and was received on board with

tokens of the most abject submission. " What is thy cargo, knave ?" said he to the

merchant. " Silk, brocade, and wine," answered the merchant—

" with," but here he

hesitated. "With what ? " interposed the baron sternly ;" speak on thy life ! " " With a

cask or two of specie for the duke's treasury," said the merchant in a half whisper.

" Specie !—the very thing we want,"roared the baron. "Hand up the metal instantly."

"

The metal for the baron—instantly

!

" cried the merchant, and suddenly throw-ing back the canvass, thirty glittering lances were levelled at the baron's

breast. " There is thy metal, herr Baron," said the skipper, pointing to the thirty

mailed warriors who instantly surrounded him and his suite.—^The surprise and con-

sternation of the tyrant may be imagined, but cannot be described. He was imme-

diately secured and committed to the hold ; and never did barge anchor under the

walls of Vienna with more welcome news than when it was noised abroad that the

Kobber-chief, Hadmar of Aggstein, was a prisoner on board.

miittcnotctn is a locality upon which the genius of history and romance has

affixed an indeUble stamp. Of all the. strongholds yet noticed in our passage from

Ulm, it takes undisputed precedence ; and he who can pass with indifference the

many feudal and monastic ruins which overlook the course of the Danube, will

1

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122 THE DAKUBE ILLUSTRATED, [Bnrttnitein.

pause with uplifted eye and awakened imagination, as the rock-built towers of

Diirrenstein flash upon his view. Its massive walls, embattled precipices, and iron

towers that survive the lapse of centuries, were of themselves amply sufficient to

arrest attention and engage the stranger to pass a day within their gates ; but when

he recollects that yonder donjon tower was the prison of Cceur-de-Lion, a new chord

is touched in his heart—more especially in that of the Englishman—and as he

passes under its ponderous gateway and muses in its grass-grown and deserted

courts, he feels as if acted upon by some mysterious influence—as if an invisible

conductor beckoned him forward—as if the old kingly crusader himself accosted

him with • Quhat tydings from England ?'

This truly remarkable for-

tress occupies the crest of

a nigged group of rocks, va-

riously split and pinnacled

into fantastic shapes, on the

left or north bank of the river.

The town, which it overlooks

in all the pride of dilapi-

dated strength and grandeui-,

is mentioned as early as the

tenth and eleventh centu-

ries. Its ancient ramparts

and gates, the ruined nun-

nery of St. Claia, and the

old domestic buildings, all

demonstrate the antiquity of

the place, and clearly exem-

Dli(y the architecture of the

middle ages. Of its history,

however, httle is known be-

yond what is found in con-

nexion with its feudal supe-

rior—the superincumbent

fortress, to which our ob-

servations are chiefly direct-

ed. Down to the close of

the eleventh century, as we

are infonned by German

writers, it was occupied bythe wariike

seignciu-s of Tynistein, and subsequently by the Ritters vou Kuenring,one of whom was Hadmar, already mentioned as Lord of Aggstein.

ni Bi.FVKTMv. iTrrii TH« >iArv TOM-r.H,

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Burrtnstein.] THE Danube illustrated. 123

In the year m.ccxci., Duke Leopold of Babenberg, siimamed the Virtuous,

undertook hissecond campaign

againstthe Saracens

;

while the EmperorFrederick I. took the command of the third crusade, with which the bravest men in

France and England, headed by their respective sovereigns, Phihp and Richard,

were speedily incorporated. In the last attack upon Ptolemais—Acre—Leopold

with his knights was the first who mounted the walls, and there planted the standard

of Austria. Fired with indignation at this success of his rival, Richard caused the

standard to be hauled down and trampled in the dust. By the regulations of the

Crusaders, which strictly prohibited personal conflict between leaders engaged in

the sam^ holy cause, Leopold passed over the insult ; but, quitting the crusade, he

repaired to the Emperor Henry, (Frederick having died in Palestine,) and obtained a

promise that he should have redress on the first opportunity that offered. This was

shortly after accomplished; for, in returning from the holy war. King Richard was

driven by stress of weather and wrecked upon the coast near Aquileja. The king

escaped with great difficulty, and wandered about for some time without discovery

for, aware that he was now in an enemy's country, he took all precautions in his

power to insure his retreat to some of his fiiends. The secret, however, soon

transpired ; the duke's spies were on the alert;pursuit was commenced, and the

capture of the unfortunate Coeur-de-Lion was effected in the village of Erdberg,

near Vienna. He was placed under the charge of Hadmar von Kuenring, who car-

ried him to his fortressof

Diirrenstein,where he remained in durance for several

months, and was then delivered up to the emperor at Spire, to whom the decision, as

to the terms of his enlargement, was referred. He was then, by the imperial

authority, confined in the castle of Trifels, where, in about two years, it was finally

arranged that King Richard should be liberated, on condition of his giving hostages,

and paying a ransom of one hundred thousand silver marks, to which were to be

added sixty thousand more within seven months thereafter. The hostages were

accordingly delivered up, and Richard was suffered to depart ; but the money, says

our German authority, was never paid—all that Leopold ever received was four

thousand marks of silver, in compensation, probably, of the booty withheld from

him at Ptolemais.—The above account, obsen'es the same writer,* is taken from the

" best contemporary sources, and sufficiently contradicts the invidious and spiteful

versions of the story, as retailed by later historians. Several of our modern novelists

also have actually misrepresented the case, and even Sir Walter Scot, we are assmed,

has grossly perverted it, for he has painted Richard, who though brave, was rude and

immoral, as a pattern of knightly vu-tues ; while he caricatures the excellent Duke

Leopold as a fool and a heartless reveller, whereas he was, in reality, one of the

most eminent princes of his age. This illusion has been ably exposed by Baron

Hormayr of the Tyrol, formerly companion in arms with Hofer, and latterly Bava-

rian minister at the court of Hanover, in his ' Archives,' and ' Historj' of Vienna.'

' See ' Denkbuch des Oesterreichen Kaiserstaates,' p. 81. Lepsig, 1841.—For the English .iccount see

IloUinshed, p. 13G—8; also Speed, Grafton, and the elder historians.

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J 24 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [BfiiTcnBUln.

The popular account, however, as related by our own chroniclers, in the History of

King Richard, is too interesting and romantic to be overturned by all the modem

endence that can be brought against it. We shall therefore make no apology for in-

troducing in this place a passage or two from the old version :—The information which,

during his absence in the Holy Land, King Richard received of the intrigues of his

brother John, and those of the King of France, made him sensible that his presence

was necessary in Europe. But as he dared not pass through France he sailed for the

Adriatic, and being shipwrecked, as before related, near Aquileja, he put on the

disguise of a pilgrim, with the purpose of taking his journey secretly through Ger-

many. Pursued by the Governor of Istria, he was forced out of the direct road to

England, and obliged to pass by "Vienna, where his habits and expenses betraying

the monarch in the habit of the pilgrim, he was arrested by Duke Leopold in the

manner already mentioned. Tliis prince had served under Richard at the siege of

Acre, but being disgusted, as above stated, by the insult offered to him by the

haughty monarch, he was so ungenerous as to seize the present opportunity of grati-

fying at once his avarice and revenge, by throwing the king into prison. The Empe-

ror, Henry VI., who also considered Richard an enemy—on account of the alliance

contracted by him with Tancred, King of Sicily—despatched messengers to the

Duke of Austria, requiring the royal captive to be delivered up to him, and stipulated

a large sum of money as a reward for this service. Thus the King of England, who

had fiUed the whole world with his renown, foimd himself, during the most critical state

of his affairs, loaded with irons and confined a close prisoner in the dungeon fastness

of Diirrenstein. The English council was astonished on receiving this fatal

intelligence, and foresaw all the dangerous consequences which might arise

from that event. The queen-dowager wrote reiterated letters to the Pope,

exclaiming against the injury which her son had sustained; representing tlie

impiety of detaining in prison the most illustrious prince that had yet canied the

banners of Christ in the Holy Land ; claiming the protection of the apostolic see,

which was due even to the meanest of these adventurers. But this spirited remon-

strance was lost on Pope Celestine. In the mean time the King of France being

informed of Richard's imprisonment, was eager to take advantage of the incident,

and reviving the calumny of Richard's assassinating the Marquess of Montferrat,

made the largest offers to the emperor if he would deliver into his hands the royal

prisoner, or at least detain him in perpetual captivity. But Richard's most inve-

terate enemy was his own brother. Prince John, whose unnatural conduct is familiar

to every reader. "In the meantime," says his biographer, "the high spirit of

Richard suffered in the prison towers of Durrenstein every kind of insidt and indig-

nity. The French ambassadors, in their master's name, renounced him as a vassal

to the crown of France, and declared all his fiefs to be forfeited to his liege lord.

The emperor, that he might render him more impatient for the recovery of his

liberty, and make him submit to the payment of a larger ransom, treated him with

the greatest severity, and reduced him to a condition worse than the meanest

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©fimnsuin.] the Danube illustkafed. 125

malefactor. He was e%'en produced before the diet of the empu-e at Worms, and

publicly accused by the emperor of many crimes and misdemeanors. But the

spirit and eloquence of Hichard made such an impression upon the German princes,

that they exclaimed loudly against the conduct of the empevor ; the pope tlu"eatened

;iim with excommunication, and Henry, who had listened to the proposals of the

King of France and Prince John, found it impossible that he could execute his

and their base purposes, or detain the King of England any longer in captivity.

He therefore concluded with him a treaty for his ransom, and agreed to restore him

to his freedom for a sum of about three hundred thousand pounds of our present

money, of which two-thirds were to be paid before he received his liberty, and

sixty-seven hostages delivered for the remainder. The emperor, as if to gloss over

the infamy of this transaction, made at the same time a present to Richard of the

kingdom of Ai'les, comprehending Narbonne, Provence, Dauphiny, and others,

to which the empire had some antiquated claims—a present which the king very

wisely neglected. The captivity of the superior lord was one of the cases provided for

by the feudal tenures ; and all the vassals were in that event obliged to give an aid for

his ransom. Twenty shillings were therefore levied on every knight's fee in

England. But as this money came in slowly, and was not sufficient for the pur-

pose intended, the voluntary zeal of the people readily supplied the deficiency.

The churches and monasteries melted down their plate to the amount of thirty

thousand marks ; the bishops, abbots, and nobles paid a fourth of their yearly rent

the parochial clergy contributed a tenth of their tithes ; and the requisite sum being

thus collected. Queen Eleanor and Walter, Archbishop of Rouen, set out with it

to Germany;paid the money to the emperor and the Duke of Austria at Metz

;

delivered them hostages for the remainder, and freed Richard from captivity. His

escape was very critical. Henry had been detected in the assassination of the

Bishop of Liege, and in an attempt of the like nature on the Duke of Louvaine

and finding himself extremely obnoxious to the German princes, on account of these

odious practices, he had determined to seek support from an alliance with the King

of France ; to detain Richard, the enemy of that prince, in perpetual capti\'ity ; to

keep in his hands the money which he had already received for his ransom ; and to

extort fresh sums from Philip and Prince John, who were very liberal in their offers

to him. He therefore gave orders that Richard should be pursued and an-ested ; but

the king, making all imaginable haste, had aheady embarked at the mouth of the

Scheldt, and was out of sight of land when the messengers reached Antwerji.* He

landed at Sandwich on the thirteenth of March, after an absence of more than four

years, about fourteen months of which he had dragged out in the prison of DiiiTen-

stein and other strongholds of the emperor. He was welcomed by his people with

an honest and enthusiastic joy;

andalthough he had been sorely fleeced, there

was

' Hume. Eapin, I. 2C0 ^.—life of Coeur de Lion.

E K

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12Q THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [CCttUr Kc lElOrt.

still, it appears, wealth enough left to give him a magnificent reception in London,

at sight of wliich, one of the German barons who attended him, is said to have

exclaimed, " Oh king ! if our Caesar had suspected tliis, you would not have been let

offsohghtly."'

Forty years after Richard's captivity in Diirrenstoin, the Kuenrings had become

the most daring marauders in the whole country. Shut up in impregnable fastnesses

they descended at pleasure, to plunder the merchant-vessels on the river, and sub-

ject the towns and villages to heavy contributions. For a time they acted in

defiance of all authority, human or divine, and cairied no small tciTor, even into the

court of the sovereign. But at length Frederick von Babenberg, sumamed the

' Strenuous,' inflicted a severe chastisem*nt upon them ; and alter having demohshed

their strongholds, compelled them to submit to whatever terms he was pleased

to dictate. About the middle of the fomrteenth century the family of the Kuenringcrs

von Diirrenstein became extinct, when the castle reverted to tlie Seigneurs von

Meissau, and then successively to those of Ebersdorfs, Enenkels, Zinzendorfs, and

at last settled in the family of Stahremberg, in whose possession it still remains.

During the last two centmries,—ever since it was demolished by the Swedes in

M.DCXLV., it has continued in a ruinous condition, every successive year detracting

something from its strength, and opening a wider scene of desolation ; and before

another century has passed away, the more remarkable features of Diirrenstein will

have disappeared—so, probably, will most of the other castles which now line the

banks of the Danube, and impai't such deep and thrilling interest to the scene.

And those historical landmarks of the Rhine or the Danube once obliterated, what

remains ! TTie natural scenery, striking and romantic as it is, may still arrest the

e^e, the river may still roll on its majestic volume, but the voice which, from those

' castled chfTs ' had appealed so long and so forcibly to the imagination, will have be-

come dumb for ever.

Having alluded to the tradition respecting Richard' and his minstrel, we annex the

following account, as given in the History of the Troubadoiurs. Not only the place

of his confinement, if we may believe the history of the times, but even the circum-stance of his captivity was carefully concealed by his \-indictive enemies ; and both

might have remained unknown but for the grateful attachment of a Provencal bard,

or minstrel, named Blondel, who had shared the prince's friendship and tasted his

boimty. Having travelled overall the European continent to Icani the destiny of

his beloved patron, Blondel accidentally got intelligence of a certain castle in

' Hist, of England, (Civil and Military Transactions,) Book III. 510., on the authority of Brompton,

Ilciningford, and Ilovcdon.

Richard's fame, however, was purely that of a warrior. \Vlien we have given him the praise of

indomitable valour his panegyric is finished. " lie has been compared," says Mackintosh, •' to Achilles ,

1 ut the greatest of poets cliose to adorn his savage hero with sorrow for the fate of Patroclus—a sort

of infirmity which cannot be imputed to Richard, who had, in every respect, the heart of a lion."

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5^

V'nS "^ H

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CTcEur tic ICian.] the daxube illdstkatep. 127

Geraaany, where a prisoner of distinction was confined and guarded with gi-eat

vigilance. Persuaded by a secret impulse that this prisoner was the King of

England, the minstrel repaired to the place ; but the gates of the castle were shut

against him, and he could obtain no , satisfactoiy information as to the name and

quality of the unhappy person it seciu-ed. In this extremity he bethought himself

of an expeaidient for making the desired discoveiy. He chanted with a loud \oice

some verses of a song which had been composed partly by himself, partly by

Richard ; and to his unspeakable joy, on making a pause, he heard it re-echoed

and continued by the royal captive.'

" 'Tis he ! thy prince long sought, long lost,

The leader of the red-cross host

'Tis lio ! to none tliy joy betray,

Young troubadour, away—away !

Away to tlie Island of the brave;

Tlie gem on the bosom of the wave

Arouse the sons of the noble soil.

To win their Lion from the toil."

This legend of Coeur de Lion and Blondcl de Nesle, is common in every history

of his Ufe and reign ; but few of the authors, if any have given the chanson itself,

which, in the original, ran as follows :

Blondrl.—Donna vostra beautas,

Elas, bellas faissos.

Els bels oils amoros ;

Els gens cors ben taillats,

Don sieu empresenats,

De vostra amor que mi lia.

Caur lie Lion.—Si bel trop iiffansia,

Ta, de vos, non partrai

Que major houorai,

Sol, en votre deman,

Que sautra des beisan.

Translated.—Your beauty, lady fair.

None view witliout delight,

But still as cold as air.

No passion you excite

Yet this I patient see,

While all are shunned lilcc me.

No nymph my heart can wound.

If favours she divide.

And smile on all around,

Unwilling to decide

I'd rather hatred bear,

Pot can do vos vobrai.I Than love with others share.

Nykon.'

It is Still a question, among writers on the subject of this interview, whether the

recognition between the royal captive and his minstrel-knight took place in DiiiTen-

stein, or in the castle of Trifels, to which he was afterwards transfen-ed by the empe-

ror's order. In the former, strangers are still shown the rugged cell, hollowed in the

natural rock, in which Richard is said to have expiated the insult offered to the

Duke at Acre ; but although this can be only matter of conjecture, it is quite clear

that Diiri'enstein, and not Greiffenstein, was the actual scene of his captivity.

' See Ilussell's Jlodern Europe, Vol. I. p. 3fi!). Also tliat beautiful poem by Jlrs. Ilemani?, " The

Troubadour and Ricliard Cccur de Ijion." Vol. II. p. 130.

V. Article in the Grapli. and Ilist. Illustrator, p, 220.

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188 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [Bdrtcnstcin.

To the capture of Dlin'cnstein by the Swedish aiiiiy we have already alhided.

During the war of succession it was again threatened with a similar visitation, but

the enemy's design was completely frustrated by an ingenious but ludicrous stra-

tagem on the part of the citizens. A party of Austrian and Bavarian troops, h.aving

here crossed the Danube, intended to surprise the town ; but the magistrates being

iNIKRIOR OF DVU.ViZHbTk.iH, WITH KIMG IIICHARO S PRI80K.

appnsed of the movement bairicaded the gates, arranged numerous ends of bored

pump-trees, blackened, along the ramparts, in imitation of guns, and marched to

and fro through the streets, blowing trumpets and beating drums, as if thousands of

aimed men were hunying to the post of defence. Struck by this note of warlike

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*ltin.l THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 129

preparation, and fearing to risk an open conflict, the enemy wheeled round, and left

the Diirrensteiners to enjoy without molestation, the success of their ingenious

ruse-de-guerre.

On the small plain below the town, the French, under Marshal Mortier, were

defeated on the eleventh of November, 1805, by the Austrians and Russians under

Kutusof and Schmidt. Nearly the whole of the division called ' Gazon ' was

cut off, and the mare9hal himself wounded; but he escaped with the remnant

of the troops by crossing the Danube in canoes. The victory was gained by tiuning

round a French corps—a huntsman, well acquainted with the neighbouring passes,

having led a division of the Russians across the mountain defile, so as to fall upon

the rear of the Frenchand

thusplace them between two fires.

The town of Durrenstein is small, with a population of only five hundred souls \

but its appearance from the water, owing to its handsome chinch, palace, and

secularized convent, is very prepossessing. So much was the celebrated Denon

struck with the ruins of the castle, that at the period of the second invasion by the

French, he had a series of drawings made on the spot, to serve as appropriate

decorations for the opera of " Richard Cceur-de-Lion," whose prison-tower

" Amid bright sunshine hangs on high,

Like a thunder-cloud in a summer sky."

The town of ^t(in> which next demands a few passing words, is a place of con-

siderable stir and animation, and contains upwards of four thousand inhabitants.

The church of the Gray fiiars, now converted to secular purjjoses, and the town-

hall, or rathaus, are severally buildings of noble design and execution. About half

a league or less on the same side of the Danube is the town of Krems, with a popu-

lation considerably more than that of Stein, and enjoying a fair proportion of trade.

On the north side of the town is the well-known mOItatitftp^ belonging to the

' " I cannot," says a distinguished author, speaking of this monastery, " I cannot dissemble the joy I

felt on the first view of this striking and venerable edifice. It is situated upon a considerable eminence,

and built, seemingly, on a foundation of rock. Its mosque-fashioued tower, the long range of its win-

dows, and height of its walls, cannot fail to arrest the attention very forcibly. On entering the qua-

drangle in wliich the church is situated, we were surprised at its extent and the respectability of its ar-

chitecture. We then made for the chiirch. along the cloister, and found it nearly deserted,—vespers

being ended. A few straggling supplicants, however, were left behind, ardent in prayer, upon their

knees ; but the florid style of tiie architecture of the interior of this clmrch immediately caught our

attention and admiration. The sides are covered with large oil-paintings, while at each corner of these

pictures stands the large figure ofa saint, boldly sculptured, as if to support the painting. Throwing your

eye along this series of paintings and sculpture, on each side of the church, the whole has a grand and

imposing effect ; while the subjects of some of the paintings, describing the tortures of the damned, or

the sufferings of the good, cannot fail, in the mind ofan enthusiastic devotee, to produce a very powerful

sensation.—The altars here, as usual in Germany, are profusely ornamented."—But for the very inte-

resting account which follows of the library, from the windows of which there is a tnily magnificent

prospect, we must refer our bibliographical readers to the original, Vol. HI. p. 373, Bibliographical,

ricturesque, and Antiquarian Tour.

V L

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130 THE DANUBE ILLDSTK.\TED. l(!EiOt«Dt(f).

Ik-nedictinQ order, a quadrangular edifice of great extent, and remarkable 'or its

church which isconsidered one of the best specimens of Gothic architectiue in

Gennany. The whole of this dictrict, including the towns mentioned, suffered

much durin" the French invasion, and was the scene of vaiious conflicts between

the belligerent forces ; while history and tradition, stretching far back through the

vista of centuries, record many disastrous circ*mstances of war and persecution,

by which these towns were severally oppressed—^but to which the limited nature of

this work does not permit us more particulaily to advert.*

From the number of monastic edifices—and these of the very first order—which

diversify and adorn these banks of the Danube, the district is most distinctly

marked as that of the Church ; for no sooner has one splendid monastery faded

from the eye, than another comes into view with equal, or even greater claims upon

our admiration. Molk, Krems, and Gottweih, are severally points of unrivalled inte-

rest in the landscape—if only considered as artificial monuments that variegate and

enrich the picture ; but when viewed in connexion witL me intellectual treasures

which they contain—as the sanctuaiies of religion and learning—they awaken a

much more powerful and lastirg impression, and concihate the best feehng? of the

heart.

Sropius stulti ratione c.ipti,

Simplicem, sanctum, nihil! putabant

Gloria: vance quia non Btudebant

lucola; coeli.

The monastery of (iSfOttU)CtI|, crowning the summit of a round isolated hill, is

distinctly Hsible from the Danube, and like those ah eady mentioned, is built on a

OJTTWEKl FROM THE UANTIIK.

' Tlie reader, desirous of knowing more on tlie subject, may consult Plancht, Duller, Schultes, and

the Statistical Account of Austri.i, p.irticul.irly that of the Upper Danube. In the " Bibliograph and

Anfiquaii.an Tour," also, several interesting Tacts are recorded.

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m

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I

$$

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ffioltiDti^.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 31

vast scale, with lofty towers at each of the four comers, and enclosed within a

fortified wall. Seen in the distance, it has no background but the blue sky on

which it seems to rest, with its outline of towers, and walls, and cupolas brightly

and minutely defined. "On catching the first view of it," says the Rev. Dr.

Dibdin, " my companion (himself a painter) could not restrain his admiration;

and fi'om the steepness of the ascent we thought it prudent to alight and walk to

the monastery. From the gates—higher than the citadel of Salzburg—the view was

both commanding and enchanting ; the Danube was the grand feature in the land-

scape; while on its busy border, at the distance perhaps of throe Enghsh miles, stood

the town of Krems, ah-eady noticed. The opposite heights of the Danube were

well covered with wood. . The sun now shone in his meridiansplendour, and eveiy

feature of the country seemed to be in a glow with his beams. The interior of the

monastery is capacious and handsome, but of less architectural splendour than

Molk, or even St. Floiian." It is not so rich as that of Krems ; for as the abbot ob-

served, in answer to a question from our traveller, " 'Establishments hke this, situated

near a metropolis, are generally more severely visited than those in a retired and

remote part of the kingdom. Our very situation,' said he, ' is inviting to a foe,

from its commanding the adjacent country. Look at the prospect around you—it

is unbounded. On yonder wooded heights, on the opposite shore of the Danube, we

all saw, from these very windows, the fire and smoke ofthe advanced guard ofthe French

ai-my, in contest with the Austrians in their first advance to Vienna. The Emperor

Buonaparte himself took possession of this monasteiy. He slept here, and the next

day we entertained him with the best dejeune a la foiircheite which we could afford.

He seemed well satisfied with his reception—but I own that I was glad when he left

us. Strangers to arms in this tranquil retreat, and visited only as you may now visit us,

for the purpose ofpeaceful hospitality, it agitated us extremely to come in contact with

warriors and chieftains. Observe yonder,' continued the abbot, pointing to an old

castle on the left, ' that castle, so tradition reports, once held your Richard I., when

detained prisoner by the Duke of Austria.' The more the abbot spoke the more I

continued to gaze around, the more I fancied myself treading on faery ground, and

that the scene in wliich I was engaged partook of the illusion of romance."

The Austiian monasteries in general claim Charlemagne as their founder ; and

there is no doubt that during his reign, when religion and learning were eminently

fostered and patronized, a great proportion of these ecclesiastical establishments

was first called into existence ; but ^vith respect to that of Gottweib, the honour of

its foundation is ascribed to Altmann, Bishop of Passau, who died A. D. M.xci., about

twenty years after the erection of the monastery. But after the lapse of so many

centuries, it is still unfinished, much of the original plan being omitted, without

any probability remaining of its ever being earned into effect. The monastery of

Gottwcih enjoyed of old great privileges and revenues : it had twenty-two parish

churches, foiu- towns, several villages, hamlets, &c., subject to its ecclesiasticaJ

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132 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED, [ffiotttDtlJ

jurisdiction ; and these parishes, together with the monastery itself, were not subject

tothe visitations of the diocesan Bishop of Passau, but of the pope himself.

Towards the middle of the seventeenth century, this monastery appears to have

taken the noble form under which it is at present beheld. It has not, however,

escaped from more than one severe visitation by the Turks. The ^-iews' of the

Danube and the surrounding country, as seen from the windows of the monaster^-,

are enchanting, and such as poet and painter dehght to contemplate. Of the

kindness and genuine hospitality of the abbot of Gottweih, Dr. Dibdin has given us

an interesting account, but for which we must again refer our readers to his illus-

trated work on this subject, from which we have already quoted. As a place of

pilgrimage, Gottweih is much frequented—vast numbers of the country people from

all parts resorting annually to this shrine, as they do to that of Maaia Taferl already

mentioned.

In taking leave of this magnificent monastery*—this sanctuary of ages, revered

for its learning and renowned for its hospitality—we cannot employ tenns more

feeling and appropriate than those made use of by a distinguished clergyman of the

church of England in bidding farewell to its abbot and brotherhood—

" And now 1

ask you, my dear friend," says he, " how is it possible for me ever to forget this

'day ofjoyance,' spent at the monastery of Gottweih,—Nulla dies unquam, etc."'

Below Krems and the subject just noticed, the scenery, though enriched by cul-

tivation and highly productive, loses much of the interest which had hitherto beenkept aJive by those constantly recurring pictures of rocky defiles, mouldering fast-

nesses, and sweeping forests, through which the Danube, thus far, pours his

majestic flood. The river is now so interspersed with numerous wooded islands,

' Stengelius speaks of the magnificent views seen from the summit of this monastery, on a clear

day ; but observes, that even in his time it was without springs or wells, and that it received

the rain-water in leaden cisterns. The present abbot, in his interview with the Eev. Dr. Dibdin,

adverts to the same inconvenience. " All our food," said he, " is brought from a considerable distance,

and we are absolutely dependent upon our neighbours for water, as there are neither wells nor springs

in the soil." " I wonder," replied the Doctor, " why such a spot should be chosen, except for its insu-

lated and commanding situation, as water is the first requisite in every monastic establishment. " " Doyou then overlook the Danube ? " resumed the Abbot. " "We get our fish from thence ; and, upon

the whole, we feel our wants less than it might be supposed. Only it is expensive to be paying for the

conveyance of such things."

* There is a spring shown at the foot of the mountain, where that turbulent prelate, the Bishop of

Passau, who founded the monastery,—then only a student,—entered into compact with Adalbert,

afterwards Bishop of Wurtzburg and Gebhard, afterwards Bishop of Salzburg, by which they bound

themselves to rise against the Emperor, Henry IV. so soon as they should be appointed to their seve-

ral sees, an extraordinary agreement which they religiously fulfilled ; and, Iiaving succeeded in stirring

up his own son to rebellion, they compelled the unfortunate monarch, after a desperate struggle, to resign

his crown at Uatisbon. Altmann, however, was not permitted to witness the triumph of liis party

tlie enraged emperor deprived him of his bishopric, and ho died six years after in exile, at Zieselma-

nei."—Descent of the Danube, p. 2G2.

» Bibl. Antiq. and Picturesque Tour, Vol. III. pp. 437, 445.

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BoIIcnfiutB.I THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. l33

as to form quite an archipelago ; while to right and left the mountains receding inland

leave a wide province for the business of agricultiure, which is here studied andexercised with manifest success and daily improvements. The plains under cul-

tivation being without hedges, copse-wood, flocks or herds, present, as in most other

districts of Germany, an air of tameness and monotony, which, to those descending

the Danube, is stiU more particularly apparent. Villages, small towns, and churches,

however, are scattered, although at wide intervals, over the plain ; and being generally

encircled with trees, throw some degree of life and cheerfiilness into the picture

but still it is a pictxu-e of still hfe. Among the few objects of art which reUeve with

a bolder feature the now almost imiform smoothness of the landscape, is the castle of

|||OUfntlttt0 crowning a steep acchvity, and overlooked on the same side

by the chapel of Wetterkreuz,' which, from its isolated position, forms a striking

object in the landscape. The caistle, like most of its contemporaries, is now a

complete ruin ; but during the latter part of the fifteenth century it was the strong-

hold of two robber-chiefs, named Wettau and Frohenauer, who, with the armed

banditti under their command, greatly infested the river-trade, and lightened many a

goodly barge of its cargo. At length, however, the hour of retribution having

arrived, this nest of freebooters drew down upon itself an act of popular vengeance,

which left it ' chiefless and roofless,' an example to aU petty tyrants who might thence-

forward dare to disturb the intercourse of free trade.

A barge floats down the Danube's flood,

With costly merchandise—" Now up and arm, my comrades good,

That barge shall be our prize !

So spoke the robber IloUenburg,

And, girding on his glaive.

Swift through the glen, with his harnessed men,

He rushed to the Danube's wave.

" To the shore I to the shore I thou skipper knave I

For thy life and prize are mine !

" Not so, proud knight ! for we bear this freight

To the Lord of Greiflenstein.

Look back !"—And looking back he saw

His towers in a ruddy blaze.

Where flashing aloof, through the crackling roof,

The fiery vengeance plays.

•' Now yield thee ! yield thee !" the skipper calls

For thy men we've a gallows-tree ;

We have loyal hearts to fill thy halls -

But an axe and block for thee !

' Tulln. The Dreikonigs Kapelle, or Chapel of the Three Kings, now converted into a warehouse,

is a very remarkable example of early Gothic, or Romanesque architecture. It was built a. d. m.xi. by

the Emperor Henry IL It is circular in shape, and is the most beautiful monument of that style in

Austria. In the plain around this small town John Sobieski, at the head of twelve thousand bravo

Polos, efifected ajunction with the Prince of Lorraine, and set out thence with an army ofseventy thou-

M M

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134 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [©tctfftnstdn.

^TCifitn0tCinf another of those castles which overlook the Danube, in a stateof

similar dilapidation, has long disputed with Diirrenstein the honour of having been

the prison of ovur English Richard. But to this distinction it has no just claim,

as it has now been finally ascertained from historical documents, that the castie of

Diirrenstein and Trifels are the only fortresses in Austria, to which was entrusted

the safe custody of the chivalrous Plantagenet. Here, nevertheless, the cicerone

has been long accustomed to show to visitors a wooden-cage, in which they are told

Richard Cceur-de-Lion was confined like a wild beast, and small pieces of which are

sold to the credulous as precious relics. It is probable that this cage, according to

the usage of feudal despots, was employed for securing criminals, prisoners of war,

or other offenders against the will and pleasure of the lords of Greifiensteiu.' The

view fromthe massive square tower of GreifTenstein, commanding a magnificent

panorama of mountains, forests, cultivated plains, interspersed with towns and

villages, with the isle-bestudded Danube flowing in tranquil majesty under the

windows, is one of the finest in Germany ; and during the summer attracts numerous

visitors from the capital. The castle is the property of Prince Lichtenstein, who,

by his taste and liberality, has arrested the wasting hand of time, restored to it much

of its ancient character, and thereby increased the attraction presented by its truly

romantic position on one of the spurs, or out-posts of the Wienerwald. The origin

of the name is said to be derived from the rock on which the castle is built having

been the haunt of a griffin, the impression of whose talons is still pointed out on the

rock as an argument every way calculated to put incredulity to the blush.'

sand strong, to rescue Vienna and the Emperor Leopold from the Turks in m.dclxxxiii.—Hand-

book.—Route Linz to Vienna, p. 194— 5. Der Historisch interressaiiteste Ort auf der ganzen

Stromstrecke von Krems bis Klosterneuburg ist das Stiidtchen Tuln, &c. In Nibelungenliede wird

Tuln aU Stadt erwahnt

Eine Stadt liegt an der Donau im Oestreicherland,

Die ist geheissen Tulna, &c. 22'«' Abenteuer.

' For an interesting tradition concerning this castle, we refer our readers to Plauche's Danube, where

the story of Sir Richard and his daughter Evelina is beautifully told.

' The following is the account given by a German writer :—Ob die sage acht sei welche von der

Entstehung des Namens Grejfensteia erzahlt wird, woUen wir nicht verbiirgen ; wir theilen sie jedoch

hier mit. Der Burgherrkam nach langer Abwesenheit von derKreuzfahrt heim j im Schonste Fests-

mucke, das Uppege Haar in lange Flechten gebunden, eilte ihm seine Gattin freudig entgegen. Wie er

sie so ihm Glanze ihrer Schijnhcit und ihres Putzes sail, erwachte ihm Eifersucht im Herzen und er

hielt sich fiir iiberzeugt, dass nicht er, der Unerwartete, es gewesen, fur den sie sich so festlich gesch-

miickt. Ohne Verzug rief er don Burgpfaflfen herbei, befragte ihn und da er keinegeniigende Auskunft

erhielt, lie.ss er ihn in die Tiefe des Turmes werfen, der Gattin aber schnilt or die schiinen langen

Flechten ab, und als sie um Gnade fiir den unschuldig Gefangenen flehte, schwur er, nicht eher nolle

er denselben lo^gcben, als bis der Stein and der Treppe von den Beriihrungen der Auf-und Niederstei-

gendcn so tiefGehohlt sei, dass er die Flechten in die Hohlung Stecken kiinne. Da soli nun das Gesinde

Jedem, der die Burg betrat, mitleidig zugerufen haben : Crc(f-an='Dtn='g)tttn ! der Burgherr aber in der

Folge die Treppe herabgestiirzt sein uud den Hals gebrochcn haben, sein ruheloser Geist noch ini

sclilosso wandeln. etc."

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IRlasttrntufiurg.] THE DANUBE illustrated. 135

The chief objects which next engage the stranger's attention, are Bisamberg' and

Komeuberg on the left, and Klostemeuburg on the right bank of the Danube. Of

these, the first is celebrated for its vineyards, the produce of which is held in some

estimation by connoisseurs in wine ; although the Austrian grape in general is far

from recommending itself to the palate of strangers accustomed to the French and

Rhenish vintages. But the soil and aspect of the vineyards around Bisamberg

being pecuUai'ly favourable to this department of nu"al industry, the wine is in much

higher request, and consequently brings a better price than others on the Danube

so that the immediate environs are a source of considerable emolument. A castle

and chiurch, each a commanding object in size and situation, give additionjj interest

to this locality, which has the special advantage of a river

—the Donaugraben

connecting it with the Danube. Komeuburg, nearly opposite the Kloster, is a

walled and rather well-built town, through which runs the pubhc road to Bisamberg

and Langenzersdorf. The principal object is the church, the square towers of

which, with their cupolas and pinnacles, form striking points in the landscape.

With this town several historical recollections are associated. It was here that in

M.ccccLXii. the Bohemian monarch brought the resoiurces of his kingdom to the

relief of the Emperor Frederick IV., against whom his brother, the Duke of Austria,

had risen in arms, and at that time invested the city of Vienna with an army.

The sudden appearance of the Bohemians, however, compelled him to raise the

siege ; the emperor, who had been shut up in the citadel with a mere handful of

men, and driven almost to extremity, was Uberated and reinstated in his authority

while the rebel duke, compelled to restore whatever had fallen into his hands during

this unnatural warfare, was condemned to pay an annual tribute for the emperor's.

permission to retain his ducal authority.

i%IO0tCrn£Ul>Ut'0> situated on a gentle eminence, at the base of the Kahlenberg

overlooking the Danube, presents a very imposing front to the water ; but it is

chiefly remarkable for the rich and spacious monastery of the Augustine order,

which was partly rebuilt upwards of a century ago, and in which workmen axe still

employed in carrying out the original plan, so that when finished it will be a second

Vatican. The foundation of the original church, like most of those already noticed,

dates from a very remote period, and during the lapse of several centinies, has con-

tiimed to be a favourite resort of devotees. The stillness and inactivity of the place,

harmonizing with the religious duties and exercises of the brotherhood, present

nothing that can distract their minds by the intrusion of secular passions and pursuits

—the whole, by excluding the world, appears to favour a life of celestial contem-

plation. Nevertheless, as a Kempis, one oftheir own order has observed—" Non est

parvum in monasteriis, vel in congregatione habitare, etinibi sine querela conversaii,

et usque ad mortem fidelis perseverare. Beatus, qui ibidem bene vixerit et feliciter

' Am Bisamberg floss in alien Zeiten die Donau A''orbei, daher sei der Name—-B''* am Berg.

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iS0 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. llSIogtetncu&urg.

consummaverit." The motto is—" Si vis debite stare et proficere, teneas te tanquam

exulem peregrinum super terrain."

QTtlS Ct)Urc5 contains several objects of curiosity, the prin-

cipal of which is the altar of Verdun, covered with metal

plates, on which are etched numerous scriptural subjects, iu

the style called niello, soon after the middle of the twelfth

century, and consequently among the very earliest specimens

of the art which have descended to modem times. They are

understood to have been executed by Prior Werner, who

flourished about a century and a half before the time of Fini-

guerra—^the celebrated sculptor and goldsmith of Florence,

to whom is inscribed the invention of copper-plate printing.

He practised also the above art called ' niello,' which con-

sisted in enchasing dark metalHc substances into cavities

worked on gold and silver, and fixing them by fusion ; but of

this it would appear, by the evidence ofthese plates—amount-

ing to several hundreds—that Werner was the inventor. The

hbrary contains above twenty-five thousand volumes in all

languages, with a numerous collection of MSS., several of which are of great value.

There is besides, a cabinet ofpainting and natural history. The treasury is said to be

very rich in plate and jewels, the gifts of sovereigns, princes, and pilgrims, who have

craved an interest in the prayers of the firatemity. In front of the church is a richly-

carved Gothic pillar, called the 'Everlasting Light,' on account ofthe votive lamp which

was kept burning before it for many ages. It was raised to commemorate the

great pestilence which devastated the valley of tlie Danube in the fourteenth century,

and called forth from the survivors so many acts of voluntary penance and pilgrim-

age. But to the faithful, the chief object of veneration is the chapel of St. Leopold

—the tutelary Saint of Austria,—^in which the canonized bones of that godly founder

axe most religiously preserved. The tradition connecting this prince with the origin

of the Kloster, is thus preserved, in the annals of the place :

—The Margrave, Leo-pold the Fourth, having erected a new family fortress, on the summit of Mons Cetius,

where its ruins are stiQ to be traced, was sitting one evening at the window of

his hall, musing on the passing events of his time—on the fate of the old emperor,

whom he had abandoned—and visited, perhaps, with compunctious feelings, as he

bethought him of his own sinfid course. At his side sate his beloved spouse, the

Margravine Agnes ; and while they were talking over the religious topics of the day

—the endowment of monasteries, the purchase of masses, and the powerful efficacy

of good works in quieting the upbraidings of conscience, Leopold expressed an

earnest desire to promote the glory of God, by raising a sumptuous altar, and sur-

roimding it by holy men, who should there serve Him night and day. But among

the number of inviting spots which there met the eye, he could not decide which

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ISlosterncubutg^.] THE DANUBE illctstrated. 137

was the most eligible for the building in contemplation. Thus perplexed in his

choice, he appealed to his wife ; and just as she leant forward to take a more minute

survey of the subjacent country, a gentle breeze suddenly rising, fluttered for an

instant amidst her flowing ringlets, and then hfting her veil carried it away—no one

knew whither. For some days subsequent to this incident, strict search was made

for the veil, but without efiect. It could neither be recovered by threats of punish-

ment nor promises of reward.—Diuing the three months ensuing, afiairs of state

diverted the mind of Leopold from his pious purpose. But one day, while engaged

in his favourite pastime of boar-hunting, he entered a thicket of alder-trees on the

verge of the river, and there, to his astonishment, his steed would not take one step

fiirther, but, defyipg both whip and spur, dropped upon his haimches, and lastly fall-

ing upon his knees, brought his noble rider to the ground. Starting to his feet in a

princely passion, and winding the small horn that hung at his belt, Leopold would

have dealt very summarily with the obstinate quadruped ; but, turning round to ad-

dress his retainers, who now rushed forward to their chief, he suddenly observed

the identical ijtU of his wife, which had been so mysteriously carried off three

months before ! Leopold had always been a very piously-given prince—but now

that the finger of Providence was so clearly manifested, his devotionbecame intense

and the same day it was determined that the tree on which the veil had been depo-

sited by angelic hands, should be inclosed in a magnificent temple. Faithful to his

vow, a spacious area was soon cleared, and in the course of three years, the monas-

tery and monks of Klostemeuburg became the admiration of architects, and the

theme of pious exultation among aU the faithful. The alder-tree, which had

preserved the mysterious veil, was cased in gold and consigned to precious immor-

tality ; and in their religious processions, branches of that sacred tree were usually

carried in triumph, or woven into trophies, and suspended over the altar. The fair

Margra^dne, not to be outdone even by her husband in acts of piety, founded a

nunnery at a commodious distance from the monastery, so that, by occasional inter-

course, these holy friars and maidens might, without scandal or inconvenience,

promote each other's spiritual welfare, and leave a bright example of mortification and

self-denial—' under the Veil.' Peace to their ashes ! The weary pilgrim, as he regales

himselfwith a glass of the old Klostemeuburger grape, will long bless their memory

for the pleasant stories which here give fresh zest to that princely beverage.

The colossal ducal bonnet of St. Leopold in bronze, ornaments one of the gilded

domes of the monastery, as observed in the accompanying engraving, and recalls the

memory of his good deeds.

The vineyards of the monastery, on the produce of which its revenues chiefly

depend, are extensive, and much famed for the superior quality of the wine. In the

cellars is a vat which in shape and dimensions rivals the great ' ton of Heidel-

berg,' and is an object of no small interest among those who are curious in such

matters.—Klostemeuburg has a building-yard, and a flotilla station.

N N

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138 THE DANUBE ILtUSTRATED. [rcoVOlUsfifrg-

UtOlfOlO&'btvg, the next object for illusti-ation in these pages, is the most pro-

minent station in the environs of the capital ; and, during the fine

season, attracts daily crowds to its summit, which commands

a fiiU view of Vienna, with all the minor features entering

into that magnificent panorama. On the left is the isle-be-

studded Danube—here spanned by long wooden bridges, sprin-

kled with rafts like floating islands ; and there ploughed by

steamers, whose decks are crowded with passengers and tourists,

who make this magnificent stream the grand channel of their commercial speculation

or pastime. Directly in front spreads the Austrian capital, interspersed with numerous

spires and domes ; in the centre of which, crowncid with its lofty spire, the cathedral

of St. Stephen's takes precedence of the enchanting scene—a scene which has in-

spired many distinguished poets and painters, by the truly remarkable combination

of features which it presents.

NU0)55Otf, the port of Vienna, is situated at the point of union between the

Danube and that branch of it which passes through Vienna, and then rejoins the

main body. Here passengers and travellers are required to produce their pass-

ports and submit to such examination as the douaniers may think necessary for

the protection of the revenue. Strangers bound to Vienna, and arriving by the

steam-boat which puts in here, wiU find every facility for reaching the capital

about a league distant—by- one or other of the public carriages, which may be hired

for a mere trifle. This village has been greatly improved by the introduction of

steAm-navigation on the Danube; and in its elegant Cafe which is finely situated,

presents a very agreeable contrast to those who have just quitted the deck of the

steamer.

In concluding this stage of the journey, and before entering upon those subjects

chosen as illustrations of the Austrian Capital, we have briefly to notice the view of

^pitJ-SrcnsUorf,' inserted in apreHous portion of the ' Descent' fromLinz.—Re-

garding the early history of this bourg and castle, the old chroniclers are very sparing

in their details. But that the castle was built for the same pui-poses, and inhabited

by the same class of warlike despots as its contemporaries among these frowning

cliffs, is obvious to every observer; and now that its walls are dismantled and. the

ten-or with which they were once approached is completely dissipated, it is hardly

possible to look on a more picturesque scene, even on the Danube.

But now, along that roofless—chiefless hall

Oblivion throws tlio impenetrable pall;

And listlessly, beneath th' embattled rock.

The goat-herd winds his horn, and feeds his flock.

• See the engraving, page 124.

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Fiinna.' THE DANUBE ILMISTKATED. 139

VIENNA TO PESTH.

Vitnnn, the capital of this vast empire, is a city which presents innumerable

attractions to allwliose grand

objects in traveUing are

pleasure and improvement

The number of its public

institutions, all calculated to

advance the best interests

of humanity, place it on a

rival footing with those of

Loudon, Paris, and Ber-

lin. Institutions for the ad-

vancement of science, for

the cultivation of the fine

arts, for the support and

encouragement of national

industry, are numerous and

flourishing, and, compared

with the amount of popidation, reflect the highest credit on the government, which

exercises the greatest care in superintending a system that has been already

crowned with the happiest results, and which are fully exemplified in the increased

prosperity of the country. Schools have been multiplied ; commercial intercoiurse

is becoming more and more facilitated ; agriculture is daily improving ; the

native manufactures have reached a high state of perfection ; and, above all, the

general appearance of the inhabitants, not only of Vienna, but of the provinces, is a

gratifying proof that the blessings of independence and contentment ai'e felt and

enjoyed in no common measure by the subjects of the Austrian monarchy.

VitniXd, as a popular writer has aptly observed,' is " the least part of itself.

Tlie stadt, or centre of this elegant city, is surrounded by fortifications, which form

' Mrs. TroUope,

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140 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. gt. »ttpl)«n'l9 ffiatljeOraX.

probably the most beautiful town-promenade in the world. The elevation of the

wall which supports this glorious terrace is from fifty to seventy feet, following the

inequalities of the ground ; and the walk is varied by many bastions, several plan-

tations of ornamental trees, and, in one or two points by pubhc gardens, through

which the passage is never impeded. Some of the pleasantest mansions in the town

have their principal windows looking out upon the Bastey, (as this beautiful prome-

nade is generally called) and their entrance in the streets ; while others have their

entrance from the Bastey ; at which points a carriage-approach is arranged from the

street below, but always in such a manner as not to interfere either with the beauty

or convenience of the gravelled terrace. Outside this magnificent wall runs a fosse,

now converted into drives and walks of great beauty and enjoyment, and always

affording on one side or other of the town, the most perfect shelter from the winds,

with which its neighbouring mountains are apt to visit it. Rising on the exterior of

the fosse is the Glacis, also devoted to the health and pleasure of the population,

planted in many parts with trees, and everywhere intersected with well-kept walks,

and drives. Next comes the Vorstadten, or outer town, forming, except where the

Danube cuts tlurough it, a complete circle of faubourg round the city." The dwell-

ings of the faubourg, as stated by the same writer, "amount to five times the number

of those in the city," and hence it becomes apparent that Vienna is literally "tho

least part of itself." One reason why the singular arrangement of this town is so

delightful, is that the view from many points of the walks and drives is highly beauti-

fiil, having the fine range of the Kahlenberg mountains on one side as a back-

ground, and a multitude of objects, full of interest and beauty, presenting themselves

in succession near the eye, while making the circular progi-ess.' " But there is ano-

ther reason still, and that of infinitely greater importance to its enjoyment, which is

the perfect freedom from filth or external annoyance of any kind. Neither in the

streets of the city, or its noble and widely-spreading ramparts beneath its walls, in

its deep wide fosse, or its extended Glacis, is any sight or scent to be met with that

can either offend the senses or shock the feelings in any way." * Such is the testi-

mony of an accomphshed English lady in favour of Vieima, and the compliment is

well merited. But as enlarging on this topic would lead us away from the prin-

cipal object in illustrated works of this class, we proceed to notice the sevcra.

vieics selected by the artist, as best calculated to afford the reader a correct

and comprehensive notion of the Austrian capital ; and the first of the series, is

that of

St. StCpI)Cn'0 <2l:atf)(llral. This truly majestic and imposing structure,

founded by Henry of Babenberg,' in the year m.Cxliv., has continued through the

lapse of centuries, the rise and fall of states, the accession and demise of sovereigns,

' Vienna and the Austrians. London.—vol ii. 281-2. ' Ibid.—Also Vienna, dans son etat

actual, par Schmidt. '• First Dulie of Austria—sumamed Jusomirgot.

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St. Stepl&tn's CCat^eUral.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 141

the perils of war from without, and of insurrection from within, to be the glory of the

capital, and the object of pious solicitude among all classes of inhabitants. Every

successive emperor has felt it to be his duty to contribute something to its repairs,

its progress towai-ds completion, or its embelhshments ; but to Francis I. is to be

ascribed the honour ofhaving disengaged this stupendous edifice from the confused

mass of shops, houses, and hovels which at that time disfigured and concealed it on

every side. Returning from the ceremony of his coronation, tliis truly patriotic

sovereign directed that all the money which was to have been spent in the erection

of triumphal arches, in token of public loyalty, should be applied to the purchase of

all those buildings that for ages had been accumulating round the base of the cathe-

dral, so that they might be swept away, and leave that clear space from which

the sacred structure is now seen to the greatest advantage. It is built in the usual

form of a cross. The roof within the last few years was completely repaired and

covered with coloured tiles. The eastern front, called the 2^t(0CntI)Or, with the

o o

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142" THE DANOBE itLUSTRATED. [sst. Sfep'^en'« CDafI;cUraL

colossal doonvay as the principal entrance, and the two octagonal towers, called

JBciDCntfturniCr, arc all coeval with the time of the founder. The southern

fa*gade, with the finished tower, presents all that is necessary to convey a distinct

idea of the edifice, such as it would have been when constructed on the plan of

Rudolph III., founder of Neubau, in M.cccux. The magnificence, taste, and

elegance of the superb rosasses in the windows ; the perfection of the two ' centre-

forts,' and that of the stupendous tower itself, make the spectator feel what the entire

edifice would have necessarily become when finished. Externally the walls are orna-

mented with several monuments of the middle ages—some possessing historical

interest; others, as illustrating the state of the ai-ts at that remote jjeriod. This

tower, from the first hour of its completion became the object of universal ad-

miration, and is the only one in Europe constructed on such colossal dimensions.

Its enormous mass, however, is ingeniously concealed by groups of pyramids and

small turrets, which give admirable rehef to the whole. Its height is five hundred

feet.* The ascending staircase consists of five hundred and fifty three stone

steps, and two hundred in wood ; and lastly, by a series of ladders, the visitor arrives

at the top, where the magnificent panorama which it commands amply comijensates

for aU the fatigue he may have endured in the ascent.'

In the interior of this church—one of the noblest monuments ever raised for the

celebration of Christian worship—the architecture is equally grand and impressive.

The height of the nave and the side-aisles, the lofty and massive pillars, twelve in

number, boldly constructed and ornamented with more than a hundred statues,

take the spectator by surprise, and leave an impression on his mind never to be

effaced. Unhappily for the taste, however, with which it has been recently deco-

rated, the contrast bstween this and the Gothic architecture, so magnificently dis-

played in the principal masses, is too remarkable not to tell greatly to the disadvan-

tage of the former. It is not without propriety that coloured squares have been

introduced into the windows of the choir ; but the high-altar of white and black

marble, by Bock, the coffre of this altar, by his brother, and the great number ofside-

altars, are thereby only the more out of place. The stalls in the presbytery, and in

the under choir, executed about a hundr(;d and fifty years ago, are beautiful and

elaborate specimens of wood-car*'ing. In the nave, the superb pulpit with the

bust of Pilgram—probably that of Puchsbaum, the architect already named—are

' Wenzla de Klosterneuburg superintended its construction to witliin the third of its completion,

and Hans Puchsbaum carried it to its present elevation in 1433. The siege of Stahreuberg took place

in 1G83 ; the great bell, weighing three hundred and fifty-four quintals, was cast in I7II, from cannon

taken from the Turks.

The upper part of St. Stephen's tower inclines visibly towards the north, with a deviation of moret!i.i:i three feet. The cause has been variously ascribed to the great fire, to the bombardment, and to

thy sliock of an earthiuako—but the question, we understand, is stUl undecided. During the bombard-meut of IU03, it sustained considerable injury.

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ffl|iutc5 of tl)« ffiaputJjlna.J the dancbe illustrated. 148

well deserting of attention. The celebiated tomb of Frederick IV., in the choir

of the * Passion,' or chapel of the Holy Cross, is of red marble, and ornamented

by upwards of three hundred figures and heraldic subjects, elaborately sculptured.

Above it is the great painting of our Saviour's Passion, by Sandrai-t. In addition

to these—for oiu' hmits vriW not allow us to indulge in particulars—are the tombs of

Prince Eugene of Savoy and Cuspinian ; of Rudolph IV., foimder of the church ; of

the metropolitan cardinals, Klesel, Callonitsch, and Trautson—also the baptistery

w-ith its chapel called Eligius on account of its primitive form,— the magni-

ficent windows—and the grand organ, all of which are highly interesting to strangers.

Under the church are thirty large vaults, in which ai'c deposited thousands of human

bodies, many of which are so dried and shrivelled up by some peculiarity of the

air, as to present the appearance of mummies.* Here Rudolph founded a sepulchre

for the reigning house, in which are urns of copper, containing part of the remains—i. e. the intestines—of the imperial family, from the time of Ferdinand II. downwards.

(fCflUtCl^ of t!)e ^apUCl)tn0. The style of this church is simple, but chaste and

impressive, and fonns the prominent feature in the square called Neumarkt. It

was founded, along with the convent to which it belongs, by the Emperor ]Matthias,

and his consort Anne, but was only finished by the Emperor Ferdinand H. It

contains several altar-pieces by Norbert, a brother of the order ; and in the chapel,

founded by the empress, is the treasury, which at one period contained much that

was curious and valuable in gold and silver utensils. Its last embellishments were

confen'ed by the taste and piety of Maria Theresa, whose hands were liberally

opened at every call of the chmxh, whether the supplicant for aid were a simple

monk, or a cardinal-metropolitan. But the grand object of attraction in this church

is the imperial sepulchre, foiined out of that used by the ancient Romans, and dis-

covered about thirty years ago. The vault is a large subterranean excavation,

illumined by a single lamp, under the dim light of which aie seen the sarcophagi of

princes who, while living, filled the worid with their fame. The first personages

consigned to rest in this sepulchre, were the imperial founder and his consort ; and

since their time the number has been greatly augmented by the succeeding empe-

rors, and other members of that dynasty. The most remarkable are the sarcophagi

of Leopold I. and his empress Eleonora; that of Joseph I., of Charles VI., of the

' From some pecnliai ity of atmosphere, probably its singular and very remarkable deficiency of

moisture, tlie decomposition which usually follows death has not taken place here; but instead of this

the skin is dried to the substance of thick leather, while the form, and in a multitude of cases, tlie

features also, remain sufficiently unchanged in shape to make tlieii' grinning likeness to ourselves the

most striking and the most appalling possible. The varied postures, and the different expression of

each ghastly head, made them all seem to live in death, and I trembled as I looked at them "lest, as

Juliet says— I might go distraught

Environed with all those hideous sights,

And madly play with those lung-buried bones.—Mis. Titoi-LorE.

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144 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [CCIjurcl) of tf)c ffiaputritns.

Empress Maiia Theresa, with that of her husband Francis I., which she caused to

be erected in her Hfctime ; that of the Emperor Joseph II., and histly those of the

late Emperor Francis, and his gi'andson, the son of Napoleon.' Of his visit to this

last retreat of earthly greatness, Mr. Wilhs, in his account of Vienna, has given

the following highly graphic account :—

" A monk answered our pull at the cloister-

bell, and a valet translated my request into German. He opened the gate with a

guttiu-al ijaw, and lighting a wax-candle at a lamp burning before an image of the

Vugui, unlocked a massive brazen door at the end of the corridor, and led the way

into the vault. The capuchin was pale as marble, quite bald, though young, and

with features that expressed, as I thought, the subdued fierceness of an evil spuit.

He impatiently waved away the officious intei-preter, after a minute or two, and asked

me if I understood Latin. Nothing could be more striking than the whole scene.

The immense bronze sarcophagi lay in long aisles, behind railings and gates of iron

and as the long-robed monk strode on with his lamp through the darkness, pronounc-

ing the name and title of each, as he imlocked the door, and struck it with his

heavy key, he seemed to me, with his solemn pronunciation, hke some mysterious

being, calhng forth the imperial tenants to judgment. He apjieared to have some-

thing of scorn in his manner, as he looked on the splendid workmanship of the vast

coffin, and pronounced the sounding titles of the ashes within. At that of the cele-

brated Empress Maria Theresa alone, he stopped to

make a comment. It was a sim-ple tribute to her virtues, and he uttered it slowly, as ifhe were merely musing to him-

self. He passed on to her husband Francis I., and then proceeded uninterruptedly

till he came to a new upper coffin. It lay in a niche beneath a tall dim window

and the monk, merely pointing to the inscription, set down his lamp, and began to

pace up and down the damp floor, with his head on his breast, as if it was a matter

of course that here I was to be left awhile to my thoughts.—It was certainly the spot,

if there be one in the world, to feel emotion. In the naiTow enclosure on which

my finger rested, lay the last hopes of Napoleon, llie lieart of the master-spirit of

the world was bound up in these ashes. He was beautiful, accomplished, generous,

brave. He was loved, with a sort of idolatry, by the nation with which he had passed

his childhood. He had won all heai'ts : his death seemed impossible ; there was a

universal prayer that he might live—his inheritance of glory was so incalculable—

I read his epitaph; it was that of a private individual. It gave his name and his

father's and mother's, and then enumerated his virtues with a common-jilace regret

for his early death. . . . The monk took up the lamp, and reascended to the cloister

in silence. He shut the convent-door behind me, and the busy street seemed to

' The s.arcopliagi seen in tlie engraving are as follows :— tliat in the distance, with two figures re-

clining, and a statue of Fame alighting behind, contains the ashes of Jlaria Theresa ; that on the right,

within the arch, and hearing the imperial crown and scejitre, is the tomb of the Kmperor Francisthat on the left, bearing a simple cross and inscription, over wJiich the capuchin's torch throws a fitful

light, is the resting-place of the young Diike of KeicUstadt— ' Kiny of Nome.'

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ScIjonJrunn.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTHATED. 145

me profane. But how short a time does the most moving event intenupt the com-

mon current of hfe ! " ' With this brief notice of St. Stephen's and the Capuchin

Chui'ch with its imperial catacomb, we will now direct the attention of our readers

to the sunnier side of the picture, by introducing a view of

^Cfjonbrunn, taken from the Gloriette, which, independently of the animated

scene around us, commands a very striking prospect of the capital. This chateau,

the principal and favourite residence of the imperial family, hes at a short distance

to the south-west of the city, and with its gardens, that might rival those of Armida,

is by universal consent allowed to be one of the 'Elysian scenes' in Europe.—The

old hunting-lodge with its surrounding park was pillaged by the Turks in

M.DCLXXXIII. ; but in less than ten years after measures were taken for its restora-

tion; and here Leopold I. erected his countiy-house, and laid out a series of

gardens, at gi-eat expense and with unprecedented taste. Tliese the Empress

Maria Theresa greatly extended, embellished, and improved ; while the Emperor

Francis I. enriched the demesne with a botanic-garden, to which great additions

were made by Joseph II., and also by the late Emperor Francis, who, as already

mentioned in our notice of Persenbeug, took particulai- delight in the study of

botany, and in every department of rural economy set a noble example to his sub-

jects. The gi"and entrance to the Palace of Schonbmnn is closed by an iron gate,

at the sides of which are two granite obelisks, surmoimtedby

gilt eagles.In the

spacious comt are two magnificent fountains, adorned by statues and vaiious alle-

gorical subjects in sculpture. The palace itself consists of three stories—the first

of which opens upon a spacious balcony which runs along both sides of the building,

and is approached by flights of marble steps In the hall, open to the ground-floor,

are two ancient statues of Hercules in bi'onze. The interior of the palace is re-

maikable for the beauty of its staircases, and the lofty and spacious dimensions of

its chambers—all finished with great taste, and furnished with classic elegance. But

in others of the imperial suite of rooms there is more display ; tapestry, china,

pier-glasses, crystal lustres, rich satin hangings, mosaics, gilded and or-molu furni-

ture, interspersed with the most precious objects of art, produce a gorgeous and

captivating effect upon the stranger, and powerfully aiTest his attention at every

step. Not the least interesting of the objects before him is the series of family

portraits—many of them strictly historical, and reminding him of personages and

events, which have been long chronicled in the history of Europe. But, for a par-

ticular description of these, and of the countless objects of vertu which so profusely

adorn this gorgeous mansion, we must refer our reader to works more expressly

devoted to the subject.'

^t)t (iSai'tJCUO of Schonbrunn occupy thi-ee sides of the palace. On the right

' rpiieillings by the Wsiy. Art. Vienna, p. 141. ' In tlie " Vienna Guide," a German and French

Manual, and in " Austria and the Austiians'—a work of great vivacity—and " Murray's Handbook."

V P

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f4g THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [5f|)t Splnmilnn'lttcuj.

and left are plantations of slirubs, flowers, and choice fiaiits, with an orangery ; but

these ai-e exclusively reserved for the imperial family. The large garden, which is

open to the pubhc throughout the year, lies behind the chateau. The centre con-

sists of a parterre richly planted with flowers, and relieved by thirty-two white mar-

ble statues, representing historical and mythological subjects. At the extremity of

this parterre is a large basin, ornamented with a classic group of marine divinities;

and around it are fountains, bowers, terraces, fish-ponds, a pheasant-walk, and a laby-

rinth—all bordered or interspersed with statues from the chisels of Beyere and

Hiigenauer.

8r$0 ©lOtiCttt, fi^om which the accompanying view of Schonbrunn was taken

only a few months ago, occupies a rising ground in the rear of the chateau. It is

richly decorated on both sides with Roman trophies, and has in the centre a spa-

cious room for the reception of visitors. From the flat roof, as well as from the teiTace

in front, the city with its ever-predominant feature of St. Stephen's, and its nume-

rous churches, castles and convents in the distance, are seen to the greatest ad-

vantage. The other points of attraction in these ' Elysian fields' are the loiins, the

fountain, the obelisk, the monument of Queen Caroline of Naples, the grand orangery,

the menagerie, and the botanic garden, with its nurseries and gi-eenhouscs, all of

which, according to the tastes and associations of the visitors, are objects of unceas-

ing curiosity and amusem*nt.—Historically considered, the palace of Schonbrunn

is remarkable as having been the residence of Napoleon when he signed the treaty

to which it gives name, and also of his son, the Due de lleichstadt, who occupied

the same apaitments, and died in the same bed, in which, twenty-three years before,

his father, crowned with victorj', had indulged the visionary dreams of universal em-

pire. It was hiere, also, in one of the avenues of the garden, that the life ofNapoleon

was attempted by a fanatical student, named Stapps, who was shortly after appre-

hended, but disdaining to sue for mercy to one whom he considered the enemy

and oppressor of his country, he was shot and buried in the spot where he fell.

Another of the celebrated stations in the envii-ons, which commands a most strik-

ing \-iew of the city and suburbs of Vienna, is

?rf)C £pinn(ttnn-ZttCU J. This is a point much frequented during the fine season

by strangers and pleasure-jiarties. It stands close to the road across the Wiener-

berg, and were the islands and windings of the Danube included in the landscape,

the picture would be one of almost unrivalled beauty. It was erected about three

hundred years ago, as a votive monument by Crispinus Poellitzer, and adorned with

statues of saints. As a specimen of Gothic taste it is interesting to strangers ; but

the fine caiTcd work, with which the niches and clustered pinnacles were originally

ornamented, is much effaced by the effects of the weather, to which, by its unshel-

tered station, it is more particularly exposed. It is, however, on a small scale, one of

the finest artificial landmarks in the environs, while the hill on which it stands has

an additional bold on the popular mind, by means of the following tradition.—In

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'it.

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Clje SSpiim«inn=1i{KUf1THE Danube illustrated. 147

the days of cmsading, when all who were servants of the true faith sought mili-

tary distinction in conflict with the Saracen, a young Viennois, named Heidenham-

mer, resolved to espouse the good cause, and do credit to his hereditary fame— the

only fortune that had descended to him through a long line of ancestry, whose

prowess had only been equalled by their piety. But what may be supposed to have

accelerated his departure, was the opposition he had met with from the haughty

Baron Rothmeyer, whose beautiful sister Adelheide had given her affections to him,

in preference to many powerful nobles who were suitors for her hand. The objec-

tions stated by the lady's brother were, that Heidenhammer had not yet distinguished

himself sufficiently in the field to aspire to such an alliance, which in fact could

be only conditional. Fired with ambition, to which his ardent affection for the

young Adelheide gave the noblest direction, he resolved to join the new

flotilla, and was received with acclamation by the veteran crusaders, who formed

the armament then moving down the majestic stream of the Danube, in their way

to the Holy Land. But as a day intervened for some additional preparations, this

afforded him the means of a last interviewwith the lady of his love; and Heidenham-

mer, as had been previously agreed, flew to the trysting-spot near the rising ground

where the cross now stands—but then partly covered with wood, tlu-ough which

opened a long vista of St. Stephen's church and the capital. Attended by two

frauenzimmers and a page, the beautiful Adelheide repaired to the rendezvous ; and

while the former plied the distaff* after the primitive custom of that early day, the

young tnight and his betrothed, sauntering arm-in-arm along the gi-een sward,

indulged in those delicious dreams of that approaching union and happiness which,

as they firmly hoped, would at last atone for the cruel but unavoidable separation to

which they must now submit. The interview was brief ; the pinnacles of St. Ste-

phen's shone ruddy in the setting sun ; the outline of the Kahlenberg seemed

traced in fire ; while the call to vespers, steahng sweetly on the ear, warned

the lady home to her bower, and the knight to his bark ! Some moments passed in

deep silence ; when at last, presenting a rose to her young wanior, the timid and

tearful Adelheide attempted to address him in these parting words, (recently set

to music,) which were sweetly taken up in a plaintive recitative by her fair and deeply

sympathising companions

" Take the flower ! Let tlie heart's first bequeathing

Be the pledge of true faith on thy plume

When its perfume no longer is breathing

Remember the rose in its bloom !

For beauty will fade, like its blossom,

Should the blight of false love interpose;

When the canker creeps into the bosom.

Thenfarewell the heart and the rose.

' Spinnerinn-Krcuz, cr the Spinster's Cross, is thought to have derived its appellation from this oi/-

c*mstaiice.

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'vl^ THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [JTfie ^rattt.

Of the heart and the hopes of the giver,

Fit

emblemtliis rose-bud shall bo

HeDceforth they are blighted for ever

Or blossom till gathered by thee."

And 'were they blighted?' some gentle reader may ask. Yes indeed, fair lady, they

were sadly blighted! Heidenhammer fcU shortly after, in a desperate rencontre with

the Saracens, in which he gained a signal triumph. But the tidings had so withering

an effect upon the gentle Adelheide, that from that hour, during the few months she

survived the shock, her memory and intellect were completely shattered and

obscured. The only circ*mstance she could remember was the ' trysting-spot'

where she had last parted with her lover; and here, with the attendants who had

witnessed that melancholy scene, she would sit for hom^ in the full persuasion that

he was on his way to meet her, and that she could already discern his victorious

plume in the distance. But, alas! the sun that daily rose in joyful anticipations, set in

•uniform gloom and disappointment ; until, worn to a shadow, she was for the last

time carried in the arms of her attendants to the scene here represented. Next day,

after her reason had miraculously returned for some hours, she was informed of the

full extent of her bereavement, and after confession, and the expression of an assured

hope of soon meeting him in a better world, she expired with her lover's name on

"her lips.

STljC )|tat£r—the grand resort of gaiety and fashion, is the Champs Elysees of

Vienna. Here, as in Hyde Park, during the season, the stranger will observe all that

is most distinguished among the noble and celebrated personages connected with

the various departments of com't and state. He will not fail to remark, however, that,

brilliant in di'ess and equipage as the company undoubtedly is, the carriages are

."by no means either so numerous, so elegant, or so well appointed as those that fre-

quent the Ring in Hyde Park. This fashionable drive is only about two hundred

paces from the suburb called laegerzeile, and is situated on the same island of the

Danube as the Leopoldstadt and Augaiten. It is interspersed with meadows and richly

wooded, with a pheasant-walk, which till the time of Joseph II. was well stocked

withdeer and wild boar. To that munificent sovereign this park is indebted for

its principal embellishments : he caused an arm of the Danube, which flowed

between the suburb and the Prater, to be closed, and a number of wells to be dug

along the side of the coiu*se, or broad walk, so that during the summer months

there might be an ample supply of water to keep it cool and free from dust. Outside

the laegerzeile is a beautiful semicircular plain, and beyond are the four gi-and

avenues leading to the Prater ; the two on the left side are little frequented ; the

third leads to the palace, where the fireworks are exhibited, and to the guitiguetles.

Ihe latter, established between this walk and the foiurth, consist of neat wooden houses,

surrounded by three or four smaller ones, with tables under the trees, where

persons may dine and indulge in any of the popidar games or amusem*nts going on

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Citje Hugavicn.] the Danube illustrated. .49

around him. These houses are the general resort of the citizens and lower orders

on Sundays and fete days, when they repair thither with then- fiiends and families,

to dine and take an ' afternoon's pleasure.' The fourth avenue, on the right, is the

rendezvous of the beau-monde, consisting of a caniage-drivc, a bridle-path, and a

third walk for pedestrians." Near this are several cafes, with numerous chairs

placed under the trees, as in the Tuileries gardens at Paris, for the accommodation

of company to view the splendid cavalcade as it poui's along. On Sundaj's and

festivals, the Prater is generally crowded, but more particularly in April and May, and

again in September and October—these being the two epochs in fashionable life,

when the nobility are just preparing to leave town, or have returned from their

country-seats. But the most particular day in the year on which the Prater is seen

in all its brilliancy is Easter Monday ; and then the line of carriages, commencing

at the Graben, proceeds slowly to the small hunting-box, called the £lU((t-I)tlUO,

and in that procession is to be seen all that wealth and titles can display to fix upon

the stranger's mind a lasting impression ofAustrian magnificence.

STfie 13eHjeOe« Palace, erected by the celebrated Eugene of Savoy, and latterly

his favourite residence, consists of two distinct buildings, divided by a public garden,

which is beautifully laid out, and much frequented on fete days. It commands a

fine view of the metropolis, from the higher ground, where the air is considered

highly salubrious to invalids. Adjoining the Belvedere is the garden of Prince

Schwarzenberg, which is also open to the public at stated times, and in its ai-boms,

alleys, and odoriferous parterres, presents a delightftd variety in shade and produce.

Another palace and garden, belonging to one of the principal grandees, are those of

the Lichtenstein family. The palace is a noble and spacious building, containing

numerous treasures of ancient and modern art, among which is its well-known

gallery of pictures by the old masters. The garden, though not extensive, is taste-

fully laid out, and enriched with a numerous collection of exotics. All these gar-

dens, the private property of illustrious families, are daily thrown open to the public

—a circ*mstance which reflects the highest credit on the liberaUty of then- noblo

owners.

?rf|e ^ttSavteil, another delightful scene of popular resort and recreation, com-

' In sizo the Prater is so magnificent, says a fair .author, already qnotod, that our three parks and Ken-

sington Gardens to boot " might he placed within it, and leave space enough between them to prevent

their quarrelling for room. A branch of the Danube passes through it ; while the innumerable drives

in all directions are excellent, the trees abundant, and many of them peculiarlymagnificent in growth—

and the numerous herds of deer that seek shelter under them are so tame, that every sentimental

Jacques may enjoy the pleasure of g.ozing at a group of fifty together, without fearing that his step

or his voice would startle them. In addition to all this may be found, for the seeking, abundance

of agreeable cafes, restaurants, and guingiiettes, where all sorts of refreshments may be obtained

at the s.ime prices as in the town, and where, every evening during the season, those strains of musin

may be heard, which seem as necessary a part of the Austrian's existence as the air he breathes or

the bread he eats,"

Q Q

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150 THE DANUBE ILLDSTHATED. [E1)t ISrigcttcnau.

municates with the Prater by two fine avenues, and forms nearly a regular square. It

was first planted by the Emperor Ferdmand III., enlarged under Leopold I.,

and lastly, under that patriotic and popular monarch Joseph II., it was appropriated

to the health and amusem*nt of the public. It is much less frequented than its

gi-eat rival the Prater ; but every May-day it comes in for its full share of all the

gaiety and animation of the capital. During the reign of the last-named emperor,

its avenues were often enlivened by court-pai'ties of ministers, generals, and ladies

of the palace, with the monarch at their head, and followed by a crowd of applauding

citizens, who always found ready access to the presence of a sovereign, who never

consulted his own hapjDiness but in promoting theirs.

^tigfttenau, or meadow of St. Bridget, nearly adjoining the Augarten, is a

place of general resort on the festival of that saint, (the Sunday immediately pre-

ceding or following the thirteenth of Jidy,) on which occasion not only the citizens,

but crowds from the neighbouring towns and villages people its shady walks, and

by carrying on, at the same time, an extensive fair, make this public expression of

respect for the saint subservient to private gain and wholesome recreation.' The

absence of fete-days in England has not increased that feeling of veneration

for the sabbath which it is so desirable to inculcate. After six days' labour,

the temptation to recreation and indulgence on the seventh is too strong to

be effectually resisted by the million. But here, as indeed in most other parts of

the continent, the recuiTence of these festivals, by bringing the populace together,

and providing for their amusem*nt, promotes general harmony, facihtates friendly

intercourse, and blunts the edge of political initation.*

In addition to the ecclesiastical buildings already noticed, the church of f{ttl¥tA*

£ttC0Cn enjoys a well- merited distinction. It is the first example of the renova-

tion of a Gothic church, undertaken with a thorough love and comprehension of the

art. Very little of the original stnicturc remains ; and nearly all the varieties of

style and workmanshij) are exemplifications of the art as it flourished in the best

part of the fom'teenth century. The j)aintings on glass by Mohn are objects particu-

larly deserving of the stranger's attention. It is much to be regretted that the situ-

ation occupied by this church is so little favourable to the advantageous develop-

ment of its several pails and proportions. The tower, a richly ornamented stiiicture

' On such occasions, "as far as tlie eye can reaeli, under the trees and over the green sward appears

one great encampment of suttlor's bertlis and Iiuts. The smoliois constantly ascending from these rustic

kitchens, while long rows of tables and benches, never empty of guests or bare of beer-jugs and wine-

bottles, are spread under the shade. Shows and tlieatres, mountebanks, jugglers, punchinellos, rope-

dancing, swings and skittles, are the allurements which entice the holiday-folks on every side. Butin order to form any tolerable notion of the scene, the laughter, joviality, songs, and dances—the

perpetual strains of music playing to the restless measure of the waltz, must be duly taken into con-

sideration." Handbook of Southern Germany.

Over the princiiial gate, on the S. E. side, is a Germfin inscription describing it as—" A place of

amusem*ntappropriated to all men, l.y Him who esteems them."

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St. illaria-Siugtn.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTllATED. 151

of about two hundred feet in height, is remarkable for its peculiar termination in

a sculptured chalice, or flower-basket, fi-om the centre of which rises a light and

elegant cross.

CHl'RCH OP MARIA-STIUQKN.

tlttft 12n\iitOnQ of Vienna, or those points best deserving of attention as regards

the substrata, extend in the form of a basin, from east to west, along the side of the

Alps, the soil of which is of the tertiary formation, with the Daiuibe spreading its

broad waters to the north. The higher and lower grounds, skirting the right bank

of the river, arc richly covered with wood, which gives a fresh and charming variety

to the landscape. The heights of the Kalilcnberg mountains extend to the south-

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152 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [lEnbirollo Of UicnnS.

ward ; while the Leopoldsbcrg, ah-eady mentioned, sweeping boldly to the water's

edge, forms a prominent feature in the picture. The Kahlenberg range consists of

freestone of a bluish grey colour, inteniiixed with beds of a calcaiious substance, and

layers of slate and -marly clay. This fomiation is called Carpathian fi-eestone, or

Vienna stone, on account of its not being classified among the fonnations already

known and described by geologists. It is clear that the passage of the Danube,

between the opposite shores of the Leopoldsberg and Bisamberg, must ha^e origin-

ated in a sudden disruption of the mountain, in one or other of those primeval con-

vulsions which have here left then* effects so strongly impressed on the soil. A

higher range of calcaiious mountains, uniting near Kalksberg with that of the

Kahlengebu-ge, consists also of a nondescript formation, known by the distinctive

appellation of * Alpine limestone.'—The last branches of the centre chain of the Alps

unite, on the south-cast of the basin, with transition, and on the south with primitive

rocks. The plain enclosed by these moimtains is of a marine character ; the

rocks are covered with layers of sand and flint containing much water. To these

succeeds a thick bed of tertiaiy formation, containing organic remains, sea-shells,

fossils, bituminous wood, and other substances, mixed with masses of sand,

flint, marl, &c. The third layer consists of sand and flint. The sand found beneath

the beds of flint contains a gi-eat quantity of antediluvian shells—the latter

enclosing eaith and fresh-water fonnations, peculiar to that period. The lime

called in the country'

Leithakalk'—the richness of which is observed in fossils of

the antediluvian epoch—constitutes the sm'face of the tertiary fonnation. The

potter's earth, mixed with sand—which fonns the covering of the earth in which the

remains of elephants are usually to be met with—is here found in great quantity,

and has been formed only by the fresh- water beds, which accounts for there being

no maruie minerals found in it.—The natural consequence of the preceding facts

in respect to soil is this, that the Flora of these environs is exceedingly rich, and

the gardens, some of which we have already noticed, are well desemng of the atten-

tion of botanists, and all who delight in the study and cultivation of rare plants and

flowers. At the head of these stand the imperial gardens, with their colossal green-

houses of palm and orange-trees ; BraziUan, Alpine, and pai'asitic plants ; those of

New Holland ; the great fruit-garden, &c., the whole occupying a space of not less

than sixteen hundred thousand square yards. Next to these are the gardens of

Baron Pronay, at Hetzendorf—of Baron Illigel at Hietzing—of Baron Lohr, anc.

those of Luxembourg, where there is a fine collection of exotics, an extensive

nursery, after the English plan, and the emperor's fruit-garden. Besides, at Pcnzing

there are the gardens of the aidic counsellor, M. dc Kleyle, remarkable for its collec-

tion of roses and Alpine plants ; that of Bai'on Barbier, famous for its rose parteiTcs,

and another belonging to M. Tr. Seidl—where the camella Japonica is seen in the

greatest beauty—with several others to which strangers are admitted with gi-eat

liberality and courtesy on the part of the owners.

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lEnbirons of Uicnna.] THE Danube illdstilvted. 153

The next objects in these environs which more particulaily interest the antiquary

and artist, are the ancient parish cliurch of Baden ; the Weilbourg, a magnificent

summer palace of the Aixhduke Charles ; the Sauerhof; the ancient church at

Brunn-am-Gebirgo, with its cemetery, in which are buried the astronomer Hell, and

the poet Zacchai-ius Werner: the church of Heiligenstadt, with the chapel of St.

James, built at the close of the thirteenth century : Hetzendorf, a rural palace of the

emperor, with its hall and superb frescos by Gran, and ceihng of the chapel by

Widen;—Kalksburg, a beautiful village church ; Klosterneuburg, already described

Lachsenbm-g, another of the imperial palaces, and Franzensbourg, which presents

a faithfid picture of a castle, such as it appeared when occupied by a powerful

prince of the fifteenth century. It contains a choice collection of antiquities illus-

trative of the olden time. Among the objects of sculpture in the chateau, is a

Meleager, a group in marble by Beyer ; and in the church is a fine painting by Van

Dyck. At Modling, the ancient chmxh of the hospital is magnificent ; the old parish-

church has been several times restored ; and the chapel of St. Pantaleon is built in

the primitive Saxon style. In the cemeteiy, in the direction of Neudorf, is the fine

painting of SchefTer : at Penzing, the old church of St. James, with the sepulchral

monument of President Eottmann, by Finella, is well worth attention. At

Petersdorf there is a fine old church of the fourteenth century, with an under crypt

of much higher antiquity : the tower, the cemetery with the tomb of Popovich, the

funeral vault of the family of Lipp, and the beautiful Madonna, by Klieber, are

deserving of particular notice. Schonbrunn, aheady described, and which the

Emperor Matthias caused to be erected on account of the excellent quality of the

water fiirnished by the foimtain called ^Cl^dn£nI)tUnn(n0> was reconstructed on a

scale of great magnificence by Fischer of Erlach, and completed, as it now appears,

under the auspices of Maria Theresa. Here is still to be seen the private closet of

that princess, fiu-nished in the Spanish taste ; and the fountain, ornamented with a

statue of the nymph Egeria, has still thehonoinr of furnishing the imperial table with

all that is required of that indispensable element. At Sivering, is a chiu-ch of the

thirteenth century ; and beyond the banier, on the way to

Baden, is the Spinnerin-Kreuz, already described.

Its great public institutions, private establishments, trea-

sures of science, collections of art, and pohshed society,

secure to the Austrian capital a continued influx of strangers

from aU parts of the civihzed world. Among the concomse

that thus enlivens its squares, mai'ket-places, streets, theatres,

and parks, and particularly on festive occasions— the na-

tional complexion and costume of east and west, north,

and south, are to be seen in all their picturesque varieties

from the swarthy Mode to the fair-haired ]\Iuscovite ; while

those oS, its own extensive provinces, each possessing some mai'ked peculiarity

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154 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. : lEnfaitons of Vitam.

—throw additional aiiimation into the picture, which after a few days becomea

fixed in the stranger's memory. The resources of the

capital are so liberally thrown open to foreigners, that in

these, and in the hospitahty of the inhabitants, there is an

inexhaustible fund of edification and amusem*nt. The

environs, too, have so strong a claim to our admiration,

that weeks may be spent in their survey, without any fear

of sameness or diminution of interest. To the principal,

objects of attraction some brief allusion has been already;

made ; and within our prescribed hmits, it would be hardly

possible to do more—but we may here make a few obser-

vations on the manner in which the inhabitants of Vienna

combine the sweets of recreation with the engagements of

business and industry. The numerous facilities which ai'e now, at the expense

of a few kreuzers, presented to every one, for excursions in all directions have

produced a gi'eat change in the population of Vienna. The luxury of a country

residence is no longer confined to opident and titled families, but is very generally

appreciated and enjoyed by the industrious classes, who, by means of that prime

conciliatory vehicle the ' omnibus,' (gesellschaflswdgen,) can leave the counter or

cabinet at such hours as to enable them to spend a goodly portion of each day in

the bosom of their families. But these, indeed, are onlyresults

whichare equally

famihai' to the eye in Paris and London, where, by the still increasing faciUties of

intercourse with the adjacent country, the health has, and let us hope the morals of

the people also have, been decidedly promoted. So much indeed is this locomotive

passion fostered in Vienna at present, that the lady of a bourgeois would tliink her-

self justly entitled to complain, were she not permitted to enjoy her summers in the

country. Hence it is that every village in the envii'ons of Vienna, from being so

regularly frequented by visitors—who take iqj their residence in it not for days only,

but for weeks and months togetlier—has so much of the air and style of the capital,

and is regaled with continued strains of music from morning till night. The places

most patronized by families of the higher class, and where many of them have their

fixed summer residences, are Hietzing, Penzing, and Hiitteldorf ; for, as the impe-

rial residence is Schonbrunn, these are convenient for the gi'andees, ministers, and

others, who are required to be in daily attendance at court. The most fashion-

able promenades in this quarter, are the avenue of Hietzing, the road to Lainz, and

the park at Penzig, near the same gentle acclivity as that of the imperial demesne.

A succession of other localities equally frequented, and situated in a countiy which

assumes a still more imposing character, is connected on the south with the above-

named villages. Here commences the range of calcarious momitains, lofty masses

of which soar in isolated precipices through the dense forests with which they are

shaded. The facilities for visiting this interesting region being much less frequent,

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33atlCH.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTHATED. 155

it is by no means so well known as it deserves to be ; but a succession of charming

country-houses, each with its ornamental grounds contiguous, and the declivity to the

south richly mantled with vineyards, give a charming variety to the landscape.

Of this district, the chiefpoints for observation are Auf-der-Mauer, Kalksburg, Rodaun,

Kaltenleutgeben, Petersdorf, Bmnn-am-Gebirge, and Enzersdorf. The stranger

who finds himself in the valley of Kaltenleutgeben, in the midst of its fine pea"

santry, (a lime-burning race,) or with the woodcutters of Hochrotherd will readily

imagine himself at a distance of several days' journey from the capital. Next to

Enzersdorf is Modling, the ancient ducal residence of a line collateral with the

Babenberg family. It stands at the entrance of the Briel—a romantic valley which

nature and art have conspired to render the most delightful imaginable. Here are

abundant proofs of the taste displayed by Prince John of Lichtenstein, who well

knew how to avail himself of the beauties of nature, and to whose liberality the

whole country is an imperishable monument. Notwithstanding its distance from the

capital, this valley is much frequented during the season, when it is usual to see the

square of Modling crowded with vehicles of every description, and swanning with

visitors. Lachsenburg, situated in the plain, and in nearly the same direction as

Modling, is highly desening of attention ; for itisvery seldom, indeed, that a traveller

finds the treasures of nature and art united in such profusion as here. It owes its

origin to the Empress Maria Theresa, who took great pleasure is directing and sug-

gesting its embellishments, which were completed by her successor, the Emperor

Francis, with so much taste and judgment, as to render the place quite unique in

its kind. But of all the environs named, nothing in the eyes of the Viennese can be

placed in competition with

iStllKn. This charming town has enjoj^ed a hereditary fame and popularity

which have stood the test of a century, and which other watering-places, springing

into sudden notoriety, have never been able to shake or diminish. But of the

multitude who daily resort hither, during the season, not more, probably, than one

half do so on account of the baths—the grand attraction for the others being its

society and scenery. Baden, properly speaking, is but the frontier or line of demar-

cation between the immediate environs, and that more picturesque and striking

series which merges into the snow-crowned Alps. Here the antiquary will find an

extensive field of research and sjieculation : on the south-east of the town he wit

observe at least fifty ancient castles, more or less ruinous, but all belonging to the

feudal period, and illustrating in palpable colom-s the lives and habits of their

warlike founders. Among these, Neustadt presents the greatest number of historical

records and associations. The number of those who resort annually to Baden for

the use of its waters, has amounted at times to more than five thousand ;while those

who come merely to spend a day may be estimated—particularly on holidays—at ten

or twelve thousand. The emperor, and several of the chief nobility have chateaux

here ; and nothing is omitted that can render the place a fascinating residence, either

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IfjQTHE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [ISaBttt—J¥lttaSta3(o.

for the invalid or the professed novelty-hunter. But let him who would preserve his

purse and his peace of mindunendangered, carefully avoid the seductions of the

gaming-table.

The Warm Springs of Baden,* " loaded with sulphur, and strongly impregnated

with carbonic acid gas, issue from beneath a low eminence of limestone, which a few

years ago was only bare rock, but is now clothed with artificial groves, and hewn into

romantic walks. Not a few who, although in perfect health, take a strange pleasure

in being in such a crowd, use the bath together, males and females, mixed promis-

cuously, and sit or move slowly about, for an hour or two, up to the neck in the

steaming water. The ladies enter and depart by one side, and the gentlemen by

another ; but in the bath itself there is no separation ; nay, politeness requires that

a gentleman, when ho sees a lady moving, or attempting to move alone, shall offer

himself as her supporter during the aquatic promenade. There is no silence or

dulness, continues our author ; every thing is talk and joke. There is a gallery

above, for the convenience of those who choose to be only spectators of the motley

crowd ; but it is impossible to hold out long against the heat."

Retm-ningto the capital, numerous objects wUl still engage the stranger's attention

and invite his stay; but among the brief notices aheady given of the churches of Vi-

enna we must not omit that of the Bamabites, or church of St. Michael, were it only

that in its vault repose the ashes of the poet Mctastasio.' Tliis edifice stands in the

square opposite the imperial chateau, and was built by Leopold, the seventh of the

Dukes of Babenberg, early in the thirteenth century. Its antique Gothic vaults,

supported by massive pillars of con-esponding taste, contrast singularly with the

altars and ornamented sculpture, which have been executed in the modem style.

' Eussell.

' The scene here described is not peculiar to Baden, but might have been witnessed at no

distant period, and in daily practice, at Bath, the Baden of England. At LiebenzeU, in tlie Blaclc

Forest, the ladies immerse themselves in distinct baths, each with a lid lilce ' a saucepan,' through

wliich are holes for the head and arms, so that while undergoing the process of soaking they may

continue their knitting and sewing, and indulge the pleasures of society. To this the writer lias nioi-e

particularly alluded in his Residence at " tlie Courts of Germany, during a professional attendance

upon their Boyal Highnesses the Duke and duch*ess of Clarence." (William IV. and QueenAdelaide.)

' Metastasio, then at the age of thirty-one, was first invited to Vienna by Charles VI., in 1720, and

appointed by that sovereign to the laureateship, with a pension of four thousand guilders a year.

From this time forward no gala took place at court wliich was not graced by the poet's effusions.

From the Etnpress Jlaria Theresa, as well as from Ferdinand VI. of Spain, Sletastasio received

magnificent presents; and thus honoured and beloved, his life, durijig half a century, presented a calm

uniformity. Retaining the favour of the imperial family undiminished, his extraordinary talents were

admirably seconded by the calm tenor of his private character, and by his punctual observance of the

conventional proprieties of liigh life. He composed no less than twenty-six operas, and eight sacred

dramas, besides innumerable minor pieces, all more or less remarkable for sweetness, correctness,

purity, gentle pathos, and elevated sentiment. He died in 1782, at the advanced age of eighty-four,

crowned witli years and honours, and ' eulogised ' by every Icindred muse.

—For further particulars

of his life and writings the reader may consult the ' Biography of the Foets.'

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Wrona.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTK.VTEO 157

The superb paintings by Schnoirr, however, compensate in some degree for these

and similar inconsistencies. While Mathielly's group of St. Michael ; a portrait

of the Virgin Mary, in the Byzantine style ; the rich bas-reliefs of the great altar, with

the objects in cast-metal behind it are all more or less interesting, as specimens of

ancient and modem art.

With respect to the amusem*nts of this great and gay city, a {ew observations may

suffice; for as Vienna forms only a stage, and not a subject for lengthened detail, in

our voyage down the Danube, we can only select such topics as have an immediate,

and not a remote connexion with the illustrations. The Viennese, as a late resident

has observed, are undoubtedly " the most musical people in the world. To the lovers

of music, waltzing, and good eating, Vienna is a terrestrial paradise, where every

man whose circ*mstances are above mediocrity plays the piano ; where all waltz a

merveille, and are unanimous in their respect ' pour la cuisine^ which although open

to epicurean criticism, is here extremely well understood. In winter the amuse-

ments of the Viennese consist chiefly of theatrical exhibitions,

besides which nightly concerts are given as secondary to the

favourite waltz—so quick in its movements as to form a sin-

gidar contrast with the general character of the people, and

yet so peculiar as to become identified with all those who

live within the sphere of the ' paternal government.' During

these giddy circumvolutions, the gentlemen take their station

in the middle of the saloon, leaving a large space between

them and the boxes, which are filled with spectators, and in

that space, the waltzers continuing to whirl round with won-

derful rapidity, exhibit no inapt resemblance to the rotatory

motions of their own ' Wirbel'—the whirlpool already described.

There are five theatres,' three of which are minor or suburban

establishments. The entertainments begin between six and seven, and terminate

shortly after nine o'clock.

Each quarter of the city has its saloons, not less remarkable for their elegance

than their capacity for accommodating the crowds, who nightly resort thither. Into

these no other introduction is necessary than the payment of from one to two

shillings. Here nothing can exceed the decorum and propriety observed by all

from the ' dame de la coiir^ to the ' blanchisseuse.' Some of them are continually

joining in the mazes of the waltz, while others look on, and enjoy the enchanting

UrPKR AL'STttlA.

1 The legitimate drama is best performed at the Hof, or Burg Theatre. The Karnthner Thor The-

atre, close to the Corinthian Gate, is the Opera-house of "Vienna, where ballets and operas are got up in

a style proverbial for its taste and elegance. The largest theatre is called Der Wien, much celebrated

for its melo-dramas and spectacles. The Leopoldstadt Theatre is that frequented by the bulk of the

people, where satiiical pieces, extravaganzas, &c., suitable to the taste of the audience, are regularly

played.

S S

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158 THE DANUBE ILLnSTRATED. [^\)i C5.lati»

music conducted by one or other of their ftir-flimed leaders—Strauss, Lamer, or

Morelly. Galleries and side-wingsare set apart for suppers, which are

served hot-

and at prices noted down in the lists distributed to the guests. The moderation of

these prices will astonish the inexperienced traveller. One of the dancing saloons

alone has rooms where a thousand persons may dance at the same time.' In sum-

mer, and at an early hour every morning

tKtft (Silactft, as seen in the accompanying engraving, becomes thronged with com-

pany, the object being to partake of a mineral-spring before breakfast, and a prome-

nade under the lefi'eshing shade of groves which extend in all directions. Music is

continued throughout the whole of the time thus employed, one band ceasing only

that another may have an opportunity for display. For the after part of the day, the

favourite resort is the Prater, already described ; but to give even an outline of the

popular amusem*nts daily thrown open to the people, would far exceed the limits of

this work. Let it not be supposed, however, that the moral dissipation of Vienna is

in proportion to the number and gaiety of its pubUc amusem*nts. This impression,

as the writer already quoted has justly observed, " has been much exaggerated: the

habitual gaiety has the effect of refreshing the industrious after their toil ; and it

prevents those lamentable consequences of idleness and intemperance of which the

instances are so many and so melancholy in oiur own country. An EngUsh gen-

tleman, he adds, who lately travelled through various countries, including the whole

of Germany, under the direction of the British Government, for the purpose of

inquiring into the condition and management of the poor, declares that he never

was in any country that evidenced " so much sobriety, so little discontentment, and

so completely the absence of indigence as Austria." In the " pubhc walks and

gai'dens of Vienna," says another popular writer on this subject,

" every one seems more merry than another ; and the individual

who can mingle with the crowds of pretty faces that smile upon

him in the Esplanade, or can gaze upon the fairy forms that

flit through the brightly illuminatedVolks Garten, in the evening,

and who does not catch the spirit of universal happiness, which

prevails, must be a stoic indeed."—To such high testimony in

favour of Vienna, we shall merely add that there is " no city in trovixcial costumb.

Europe where an Englishman or a stranger can amuse and occupy his time better

or where he can find himself so quickly at home, as in the Austrian capital.

Among the upper classes of its gay, open-hearted, friendly, and hospitable inhabi-

tants, he experiences none of that stiffness and reserve that meet him in North

Germany ; and he is gratified and sui-priscd when he stirs abroad by the comfortable

condition, and happy and contented air of the lower orders—among whom poverty

scarcely appears in any shape, and where beggary, if it exists at all, is at least kejit

Caaridge. Amusem*nts of Viounaj p. 128—9, Vienna dans son (?tat actueL

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Fitnna.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 159

in the backgi-ound." There is none of that " open display of vice, which disgraces

the capitals of France and England. The streets may be traversed at all hours, by

night and day, without encountering annoyance or disturbance of any kind ; and

yet the public police-force is neither numerous nor obtmsive. Breaches of

the peace are rare, cases of intoxication seldom occur, gaming-houses are unknown,

and a coi']^)s of only seven hundred men constitute the whole force of the guardians

of the peace, in the city and suburbs of Vienna." '—We shall now, before resuming

our course along the Danube, advert'to a few of those historical events and incidents

with which the ancient Vindobona is more particularly identified. The history of the

capital, like that of most other cities of the Genuan empire, is involved in much

obscurity. During the reign of Vespasian and the latter part of the first century

of our era, Vindobona served as a militaiy station for four of the Roman legions,

wliich were also liberally distributed among the other garrisons, by which they took

good care to strengthen their position. Early in the fourth century, the light ofChris-

tianity began to dispel the shades of heathen darkness, and thus introduced the grand

era in its moral destinies. In the reign of Charlemagne, the countrj' became united

with France ; and under the auspices of that enlightened and powerful monarch

gi'eat progress was effected in all that gives stability to the throne and prosperity to

the jjeople. The arts were revived, science was encouraged, and commerce, the

giand source of national prosperity, bartered commodities in every province and

part of the empire. Eai'ly in the fourteenth century, the revival and progress of

learning were hberally securedby the foundation of a

university,which

shed a

benign and humanizing lustre over the country, and gave full scope for the patriotic

exercise of mind and intellect. Shortly after, Solimaii the Magnificent ascended

the vale of the Danube, with a force of three hundred thousand men, but was driven

fi-om the walls of Vienna, with a loss of at least forty thousand of his turbanned host.

The seventeenth century was remarkable for the expulsion of the Jews from Vienna,

and for that awful visitation of the plague, to which one hundred and twenty

thousand of the inhabitants fell a sacrifice. Six years later, the Turks, under Kara

Mustapha, having made another invasion of the Austrian temtory, were completely

overthrown under the walls of the city, by Sobieski, King of Poland, to whose ener-

gies on that occasion, allusion has been already made. The last attempt on the

city by the Ottoman power was made a few years aftenvards, but with no better

resulti'

and from that day the araiy of the crescent was confined within its own gra-

' The aljove testimony in favour of Vienna is given on tlic authority of the latest writers on the

subject wlio have resided in tlic capita!.

* Of the Dulse Cliarles Lorraine, who commanded a corps of the imperial force on this occasion, a

French historian mentions tlie following anecdote:—The Grand Visir, Kara Mustapha, having first

encamped at Belgrade, thence directed his march on Weissembourg, with an army of fifty thousand

Janissaries, thirty thousand cavalry, and two hundred thousand troops, drawn from various garrisons,

which spread themselves over eight leagues of country, and inspired the utmost consternation in tho

minds of the peasantry. Duhe Cliurlcs, Ixiug compelled to retreat before this overwhelming force, the

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160 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [I^ungauan JFroiuitr.

dually diminished limits. The close of the eighteenth century was maiked by

events to which it were superfluous to do more than simply to advert—the war with

the revolutionary arms of France, and the reception of Bernadotte as the republican

ambassador. Nor is it necessary to particularize the great political storms which

soon followed, the changes which ensued, or the vast expenditure of blood and

treasure which it required to accomplish the independence and consolidation of the

Austrian monarchy.'

Taking leave of the Austrian capital, the traveller has the choice of proceeding to

Hungary, either by land or water. By the latter conveyance he will obtain an

interesting view of those locahties, on which so indelible a stamp has been affixed

by the events of the late war, and to which the stranger's attention is especitUly

directed.

Byland,

andfollowing

the great post-road, somelittle

varietyis

offeredin the landscape, but in neither case is the scenery bold or striking. The plain

through which the Danube flows is here flat and wooded, but fertile, generally well

peopled, and hemmed in on one hand by the Kahlenberg, and on the other by the

mountains of Hungary. But the chief scenes to which attention is directed between

the two capitals of Austria and Hungary, are the battle-fields of Essling, Aspern,

and Wagram, on the left bank of the river, each of which was the arena on which

contending armies met, struggled, and bled—and the very mention of which recalls

that series of disasters or victories, which more immediately preceded the late paci-

fication of Europe. The numerous chaimels into which the Danube is ramified, with

its gi-een wooded islands, give a soft silvan character to the landscape ; but the

shifting sandbanks with which these are constantly beset,* renders the navigation so

intricate and dangerous, that accidents and delays are by no means imfrequent.

And as these are disadvantages against which it is impossible to guard, the majority

of tourists who cross the Hungarian frontier will most likely adopt the old plan of

trusting to the post-relays, which are always well supplied. In departing from

Vienna, as hi approaching it, the cathedral of St. Stephens, is still the predominating

Turks attacked the corps of guai Js under Count Taaf, (at that moment supporting the regiment of Mon-

tecuculli,) and threw the whole into disorder. The Duke, anxiously observing the movement, flew to

the post of greatest danger, and eagerly, but in vain, attempted to rally his forces. A panic had seizedthem, and the imperial troops betook themselves to flight. Determined to make one last effort, the

Duke dismounted, placed himself in front of the fugitives, and exclaimed, " What ! are you men—areyou soldiers, who thus abandon your anns, and break your oath to the emperor ? Is it possible that

Turkish canaille can thus intimidate the heroic hearts of Austria? No! Return— advance ! Follow

me—support me, and you shall see them fly like cluiff before the hurricane ! " Confounded and aston-

ished, the Imperials halted, wheeled round, and with a volley and a shout, turning ou their pursuers,

drove them back, and crowned the day with a brilliant victory.

' The two occupations of Vienna by the French—the marriage of the Arch-duch*ess Maria Louisa with

Napoleon—and the congress of Vienna are subjects familiarly known to our readers.

• While this page is going to press, we have heard with much regret that the fine steamer, tha' Vienna,' which sailed regularly between the capital and Presburg, has been lost on one of the nume-rous sandbanks.

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€a»ilt of etfitbtn.J THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 161

feature in the landscape, and to this the traveller's eye will be often turned,

wliile he recalls the splendourof its interior, its shrines and sepulchres, and

the gorgeous festivals celebrated

within its hallowed walls.— But

passing over less interesting ob-

jects, we proceed at once to the

ruins of

Cftc ©astle of CTfjefien.

The first appearance of this di-

lapidated fortress of the olden

time, completely relieves the mo-

uotony of the landscape through

which we have just passed, and

it is justly considered one of

the most remarkable of its kind

in the whole course of the Dan-

ube. Crowning the rocky pre-

cipice to which it still chngs

with an air of giandeur, but

with all the symptoms of total

neglect and decay, it is a monu-

ment that will long arrest atten-

tion, as we pass the Magyar

line, and afford scope for the

pen and pencil of future travel-

lers. From its mouldering towers

and battlements the eye wanders

over a charming landscape—truly Hungarian—^where fruitful plains and vine-covered acclivities seem to invite us to

partake of their abundance—and whose warlike inhabitants appear to justify all that

German historians and poets have asserted in their praise. The market-town of The-

ben, overshadowed by a wooded acclivity, is situated close to the influx of the sluggish

March into the Danube, with a population of about twelve hmidred, who carry on a

trade in the fruits and wine of the neighbourhood. The cucumbers and liquorice-

wood of Theben are in high request, and a source of considerable profit. Here is

an ofHce for the better expedition of steam and oar navigation on the Danube,

with other objects of public utility. But the gi'and object is the Castle, which over-

hangs the cliff a little to the westward of the town, and to that we shall confine our

observations. The rock on which it stands is of chalk formation, a ridge of which

here crosses the river; but close to tliis there is also primitive rock, forming what is

called in the country small Karpathes, onthe granite

massesof wliicli stands the

T T

SHRINK IN ST. STl^rilKNS CATilKDRAL.

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162 THK DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [Castlt o£ {!:i)ci£n.

Castle of Presburg. The rock of Tlieben is much rent, opening here and there into

wide fissures, gradually descending towards the north, but precipitous, and almost

iuaccessible on the south, east, and west. Situated in the immediate vicinity of the

.'jpot where the Emperor Maixus Aurelian expired, it has been traditiouallj' considered

that Theben was of Roman origin, and that its rock was crowned with a garrison and

post of observation. But there is no existing evidence that the Romans ever trans-

gressed the old boundary of the Ister, at this place, or ever held lands or erected for-

tresses on the jjoint where the town and Castle of Theben now stand. But there can

be little doubt that one or other of the baibarous nations who checked the Roman

conquest at this part, had a fastness on these heights, as the Sclavonian name,

Deven, or Theben, would seem to impart. Among that ancient race Dewoyna or

DowLna was the name of a goddess, who was worshipped with honours similar to

those offered to the Roman Venus j and as this country was inhabited by Sclavo-

nians till the sixth century, it is probable that the Castle of Theben was enlarged by

them, and so named in compliment to their goddess. The tradition is, that Swato-

polk, the founder of the great Moravian empire, and his brother Ratislaw, who is

supposed to have built Presbm'g, resided in the Castle of Theben, in the ninth cen-

tury; and that under the latter it sustained a siege from the forces of King Louis-

the-German. At the close of that century, when the Magyars made war on the

Moravian monarch, Theben was already one of its strongest fortresses, and was

surrendered, a few years later, together with the territory lying between the rivers

Maixh and Waag, to the Hungarians ; and like Presburg has remained in their

possession ever since. In M.ccxxxiii. Theben was laid siege to by the forces of

Frcderick-the-Strenuous, but it successfully resisted all his efforts to reduce it. Fifty

yeai-8 later, however, it sunrendered to Ottokar, King of Bohemia ; and was subse-

quently bestowed on the noble families of St. Georgen and Posing, as appears in the

records of Matthias Corvinus. After the extinction of these famiUes, it passed into

that of Zapolya, then to the family of Bathory, who styled themselves Constables of

Castle Deven ; but afterwai-ds it went to that of the Keglewitz. Early in the seven-

teenth century, when this important border-fastness fell into the hands of a strong

body of insurgents, it was stormed, and taken possession of by Count Buquoy. In

M.DCL., the Emperor, Ferdinand III., made a present of it to one of his favour-

ites, a Count Palatine, Paul Palfy ; by whose testamentary deed, duly confinned

by the royal authority, it fonns one of the hereditary seigniories of the Palfy

family, of which public notice was given in m.dccx.xvi. But the line of the

founder becoming extinct, this venerable fortress with its dejjendencies reverted

to the line of primogeniture, and now continues in the possession of the elder

branch, wliich eaily in the present century was elevated to tlie rank and dignity of

princes.

In the Ottoman invasion of 1683, ah-eady noticed, the Tm-ks made a strong efTort

to surprise and seize upon the Castle of Theben ; but so vigilant was the small gai--

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"V *3

^

5

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Cnstre of iirrjcbcn.l .THK Danube illustkated 163

rison left for its defence, that the attempt entirely failed,

and the turbanncd hostproceeded to encamp under the walls of Vienna. But the fortress that had withstood

for centuries, unscathed, the combined efforts of war and tempest; and that still pre-

sented a most fonnidable bulwark, it was reserved for the French troops, in m.dcccix.,

utterly to demolish.*

In its present condition. Castle Theben is a mere chaos, so to speak, of pictur-

esque fragments—each bearing the impress of faded grandeur, and pointing forci-

bly to those times when such buildings were considered indispensable for the

maintenance of peace and good order. One of the old watch-towers, called the

" Nun's Tower," and shown in the engraving, still occupies its original site on the point

of an isolated and now nearly inaccessible rock, and fonns a striking feature in the

picture. Like other fortresses of its class and period, that of Theben consisted

originally of an upper and lower castle, with a wide and capacious area between

them. The higher of these was deserted by its owners, at an early age ; but the

lower continued to be inhabited down to the time of its final demolition by tho

French. Until then, the outworks were strong ; and with respect to the interior,

every lover of picturesque antiquities viewed with interest its fine central tower, its

two gates, state apartments, its deep draw-well, prison-vaults, cellars, and subterra-

neous passage, all of which were fashioned and constructed after the best models of

feudal architecture. Most of these, however, are now so much mutilated and

disfig)u-ed by the 'miner's blast,' and in so tottering and shattered a state, that a

complete survey cannot be effected without danger from the fragments of masonry

that hang in such critical suspense over the visitor's head. From the principal

rampart, however, the stranger may enjoy one of the most delicious views imagin-

able. In every direction objects of remarkable beauty or historical interest invite

his attention, and furnish abundance of materials for thought and reflection. Turning

to the north, the rich plain of the March expands before him, through which the river,

drawing its glittering source from the Moravian hills, pours its tide of freshness and

fertility. On its right bank he will not fail to observe Schloss-hof, or Castle-

court, once a favourite villa of Prince Eugene, where that celebrated captain of

his day is said to have matured many of the plans of his subsequent victories.

Further on, towards the north, are seen the walls of Marcheck, with the Castle of

Salm-hof, where Nicholas von Salm, the heroic defender of Vienna against the Turks,

closed in peace his eventful career. To the west extends the celebrated plain on

which, five hundred years ago, the haughty Ottakar of Bohemia resigned his life and

sceptre to Rudolph of Hapsburg; and where, in modem times, the legions of

Napoleon were met and discomfited by his descendants. Looking eastward, the view

' In the Hungarian periodical, 'Tudomanyos Gyiiitemeny,' for the year 1820, Baron Alednyansky has

pivon a representation of Castle Theben, Eiicli as it stood previous to its devastation by the French, and

then, indeed, it must have been a very imposing structure.

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164 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [ffiastle of l^atmbBrg.

is bounded by the lower Carpathian range, which forms a striking contrast with the

vast plain stretching forward to the north and west, and exhibits a striking interchange

of rocky cliffs, beethng precipices, and shadowy forests. Under the spectator's feet

are the houses of Theben, the inhabitants of which, as they cross its street, appear

as if diminished to the size of pigmies, and not what " learned Thebans" ought to be.

Turning again to the south, the eye rests with delight on the broad bosom of .the

Danube, animated at short intervals with rafts and steamers, gaily adorned, and

exhibiting in its dowuwai'd course the first striking display of Hungarian sceneiy

islands, fanns, vineyards, hamlets, and villas. But one of the finest features in the

landscape, as seen fi-om these ramparts, is the ancient Castle of llaimburg,' which

CASTLE OP UAIMQURO

crowns a neighbouring hUl. and commands an uninteiTupted view over the whole

country.

With this locality important associations are connected. It was here that Peter-

the-Cniel took measures for his concealment; and here also lived Margaret,

Princess of the house of Babenberg, until the disastrous suit of Ottakar, Kingof Bohemia, brought her again upon the theatre of a worid, whose ])leasures she wasnever again permitted to taste. The.se remarkable sites have been celebrated in the

^'

Ilaimburgis a "town of four thousand inh.ibitants, a fourlh of whom find employment in the Impe-rial Tobacco Slanufactory. The town is entered hy two anti.iuo castellated gateways, planted at th«two extremities

of the principal street."—' Der Dexleiter,' &c. and ' Handbook.'

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ICegtnB of tJjt T!<run'i ffiototr.] the Danube illustrated. i05

' Niebelungenlied,' and appear to have attracted much partial attention, even from the

time of the first Roman occupation of the country. Here were the harbour and station

of the Roman flotilla on the Danube : in Altenburg was quartered the fourteenth

Roman legion ; here stood the imperial palace ; here were the warm springs, known

as the Aquae Pannonicee;and here many antiquities, illustrative of Roman genius or

luxLury, have from time to time been turned up by the plough, the spade, and the pick-

axe. It was here also that Mai'cus Aurelian composed his Philosophical Memoirs;

and here that Septimius Severus was proclaimed emperor. The whole neighbourhood

of Theben is, in fact, richly diversified with objects that will detain every intelligent

and inquiring traveller, and may be justly considered one of the most interesting dis-

tricts of the Austrian monarchy.' Before taking leave of the castle, however, we

must not omit the flejcnO connected with the isolated Nun's Tower, already named,

and which the artist has so faithfully represented in the engraved view :—In a

warlike excursion into Carinthia, one of the lords of Theben,it is said, was captivated

by the charms of a noble lady of that province, and pressed his suit and siege so

manfully, that both the fortress and the fair owner surrendered on honourable terms.

Preparations were accordingly made on a scale of becoming splendour, for the cele-

bration of the marriage, as well as the victory. But one unlucky evening, while the

count was returning from the chase, he was met by one of his hussars, who told him,

in few and hurried words, that, taking advantage of his absence, the lovely Bertha

had been carried off from her bower by a warlike abbot, and was at this very

moment entering the forest, to which he pointed, and in the centre of which stood

the well-known Convent of Isenberg. The count asked no further questions, but

wheeling round, and calling his men to follow, shouted, " To the rescue!

" and

dashed off in the direction of the forest. The pursuit was kept up for two hours

the spoilers werie overtaken—a terrible rencounter ensued, in which the count and

his gallant supporters proving victorious, the lady was rescued, and at sun-rise found

herself safe in the territory of her betrothed husband.—One day's repose, and the

castle chapel became the scene of a nuptial solemnity. Before the altar stood

the young lord of Theben and his Carinthian bride ; but just as the benedic-

tion had been pronounced, the clash of arms was heard in the court, and a breath-

less messenger rushed in with the startUng news that the enemy was within the walls

that in the joy of this occasion the pOstem gate had been left open; and that pouring

through this unsuspected avenue, the lady's uncle and his retainers were cutting

their way to the very chapel door. Surprise led to a panic—the small garrison of

Theben was either overpowered or cast headlong from the walls. One prospect of

' For several of the aLove pai-ticnlars, the editor is indebted to the author of the Denhbuch, in Ger-

man, coutaining much valuable matter in the history aiul statistics of the Austrian monarchy, PartVI.,

139.—Vienna. Also to "Der Begleiter auf der Donaufahrt." Of the same subject Miss Pardee has

given a spirited description in her popular work—

" The City of the Magyar."—Virtue, London.

V O

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166 THE DANDBE ILLUSTRATED. [ItgenD Of t^e iSun's tSotasx,

escape only remained—namely, a subterranean tunnel leading to the river, and to

thatthe distracted bridegroom huiried his trembling and newly-acquired treasure.

What was his despair, however, to find it bristling with spears ! The next thought

was the iron-tower—or as it has since been called, the Nun's Tower—and here, hav-

ing gained an entrance, followed by a handful of resolute adherents, he found a

sanctuary for his bride. Then, hastily exchanging his gala robes for the steel accou-

trements of war, the count took his station at the small gate ; while, at one moment

tenderly consoling his bride, at another sternly repulsing the assailants, he main-

tained a critical existence till about midnight. Then, however, it became too

apparent that the last ray of hope was nearly spent. The thick oaken door was

piled round with blazing fa*ggots, and the soUd stone thus suddenly converted into

hme, the hinges and bolts dropped out, and the iron grating fell in with an ominous

crash. Under this, too, lay the mangled form of his last retainer ! The count and

the lady now retiring to the battlement which, at an immense depth overlooks the

Danube, appeared for a moment in impassioned conversation. But her uncle, the

Abbot of Isenberg—who loved the casque better than the cowl, was already on the

stair. She soon heard and recognized his voice, which at every step gave vent to

expressions of deadly revenge against her husband. She rushed to the entrance,

where only a firail wicket was interposed between her and the infuriated monk,

" Spare him!

" she cried ;" spare my husband ! " and for an instant the tones of that

voice on which he had so lately doted, arrested the abbot. He paused for an

uistant. She repeated the adjuration. " Never ! " exclaimed the abbot, and with

his armed followers, dashed the wicket aside. At the same moment she started back,

sprang into the arms of her husband, and mounting the parapet stood in critical

suspense on the extreme verge of this dreadful precipice. " Come back!

" said the

abbot, suppressing his rage.—

" Never, till thou hast given thy solemn pledge."

" Pledge !" interrupted the abbot, and rushed violently towards the count—but he

grasped only the empty air! The brave and the beautiful forms that there stood

locked in each other's arms, had vanished from his sight ; and when he looked over

the fnghtful precipice it was only to behold the flash and ripple of the wave, as it

received and closed over his victims—Albert of Theben and his devoted bride.

iPreetlUrff, till the close of the last century the capital of Hungary, had undergone

few changes in size or features, but remained in much the same condition as that

described by most of our old travellers on the Danube : nor indeed have the events

of the last half century materially affected either the architectural appearance or

civic population of Prcsburg. The former is by no means striking ; but in the

latter there is much, notwithstanding the Austrian frontier, to excite a pleasing con-

viction in the tourist's mind that he is in Hungary. Tlie town occupies a spacious

and beautiful plain, and is suiTounded by fortifications, consisting of a wall and ditch.

The suburbs are built, for the most part, on an eminence, and on a rather steep and

commanding hill

stands the royal citadel, or palace, of a quadrangular form, witha

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Vltesbntg.J THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 167

Strong tower at each corner. Originally it was richly ornamented internally with

paintings by eminent masters, illustrating the life and character of Ferdiand II.

and in every subject selected for the canvass, was seen an exact resemblance of the

emperor's face.' In one of the towers were kept the ancient crown and regalia of

Hungary : the entrance to the citadel was through three iron doors ; and between

the two first of these were posted the guards, who could then see every one who

approached the royal entrance. Of its present situation and appearance the ac-

complished author of the ' City of the Magyar' has thus commemorated her first

impressions: ^—" The first view of Presburg was charming : the sky of a summer night

was above us, ' darkly, deeply, beautifully blue,' gemmed with stars, and radiant with

moonlight. The rapid current of the river was rushing down past the bridge, in its

wild hurry, making the reflection of the line of lamps along the shore dance hke

meteors upon the ripple ! The heavy outline of the rumed palace, upon a height

above the town, stood out white and sharp, against the rich purple of the atmo-

sphere ; and the dark trees, which fringe the opposite bank of the stream, cast a mass

of gloom far and wide ; but the streets were silent as we entered them, for the night

was almost spent, and the sharp bark of a watch-dog alone welcomed us to the city

of the Diet. Presburg is not a fine city ; its commercial quarter is narrow and

closely crowded together ; its squares, or platz, though numerous, are small, and its

pubUc buildings singularly unpicturesque. Even the Landhaus, in the Michael's

Strasse, in which the Diet is held, and which was occupied by the Arch-duke

Palatine, during his sojourn in the city, is perfectly unpretending in appearance

the only edifice of any ' mark or likelihood' being the Axchiepiscopal Palace—the

occasional residence of the Prince Primate, and the ' pied-a-terre' of the emperor,

during his unfi-equent visits to Presburg. The more open portions of the town have

rather the efiect of rows of houses buUt along the sides of a road, than of regular

streets, no attempt having been made to pave them ; and in addition to the two

inches of dust or mud, according to the season, through which your carriage

has to press its way, there is the extreme inconvenience of the drains which tra-

verse them, and which are built of brick, and form tunnels, heaving themselves up

abruptly in your path. But despite this drawback, the streets of Presburg, during

the sitting of the Diet, present a constant scene of amusem*nt. The well-packed

britzscha, with its Austrian postillion, gorgeous in orange cotton lace and soiled

feathers, its dusty travellers and sleepy horses, is succeeded by the light calecbe

from Pesth, drawn by the Baueni, or 'peasants' post,' where the wDd, wiry,

eager animals, sometimes four abreast, and always rather tied than harnessed to the

carriage, come rattling along the imeven streets,—only to make way for the wicker

waggons of the country people, laden with firuit or com, or other agricultural produce,

and driven by a sturdy hind, whose broad flapped hat of black felt is gu-dled by a

' Keysler. ' Vol. i. p. 3.

—See also the '

German Statistics of Hungary.'

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168 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [iWatla ST^tteM

wreath of worsted flowers, or adorned with a black feather, or a sun-flower, or a

bunch of marigold. Women with gay-coloured cotton handkerchiefs, bound tightly

about their heads, and frequently bare-footed, carrying wooden panniers at their backs,

filled with melons or vegetables, pass every moment : smart giisettes, with sandalled

shoes, and their carefully arranged hair shining like satin in the sun, thread their

way among them ; horsem*n gallop in every direction ; fiacres filled with pretty

faces dart round the comers ; monks with robes of black serge and priests in

co*cked hats elbow ladies in lace shawls and British muslins ; and amidst the crowd

whirl along the coronetted ' four-in-hands' of the magnates, filled with noble dames

and gay with their plumed chasseurs." Such are a few of the more prominent fea-

tures so gracefully touched by Miss Pardee, during her late visit to the Hvmgarian

capital, and to her interesting work on the subject we have again much pleasure

in referring our readers.*

Into the political history and connexions of Presburg it is not our province to

enter ; but there is one historical anecdote, of which Maria Theresa was the heroine,

and which, were it only for its picturesque effect, is well entitled to insertion in these

pages. It is as follows :—In m.dccxli., wliilst the King of Prussia was carrying his

arms into Silesia, the Elector of Bavaiia, who also disputed with Maria Theresa the

succession of the Emperor Charles, took possession of Passau and Lintz, and threat-

ened to continue his march to the very walls ofVienna. Alarmed at this serious aspect

ofher affairs, Maria Theresa appealed to the well-known chai-acter ofthe Hungarians,

and summoned the various orders of the state, to meet her in assembly at Presburg.

Here, attended by a solemn retinue of the ladies and officers of her household, and

holding in her arms her infant son, she addressed them in Latin to the following

effect:—

"Deserted by my fiiends,^ persecuted by my enemies, attacked by my

nearest relations, my last resource is in your loyalty, your courage, and in my own

unshrinking constancy. The time has amved when the faithful hearts and heredi-

tary prowess of Hungary are to bear testimony before the eyes of the world. A

crisis is at hand, when the sword must either be drawn in defence of your sovereign,

or in support of her insulting enemies. But in the hearts of brave men, I have a

' The subject chosen for the illustration of Presburg, is a view taken from the gardens on the

opposite shore of the Danube, near tlie old picturesque wooden bridge. Forming a contiuuous line

along tlie right banlf, and partly covering the rising-ground, or Schlossberg, the houses extend right

and loft—crowned in the centre by the lofty square citadel already mentioned, flanked by the cathe-

dral, and variegated with two or three small spires. In the river are seen specimens of the old passage-

boats, whicli, in despite of steam, are still patronized by the Presburghers in tlieir river-traffic.

' Of the disposition of England, however, towards tlie Arcli-ducliess, we learn the following :— ' Toute

la nation Anglaise s'auime h la vuo des nialheurs qui accablent la Reine Marie-Thiirtse. Quelques

particulicrs ouvrent une souscription, pour lui faire un don gratuit. La Ducliesse de Marlborougli,

veuve de cet implacable ennemi de Louis XIV., sejoint aux principales dame de Londres pour fournir

cent mille livres sterling: elleen depose quarante uiille; mais I'heroine de 1'AUemagne a la grandeur

d'ime de refuser argent cffert avec tant de gentrositc."—An. German, COB.

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:^

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IPtfSfiurg.l THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 169

resource in the worst emergencies ; 1 have therefore chosen this hour to place in

your hands the son and daughter of yoiu- sovereign, who in their extremity look to

you for protection." These few words were addressed with such effect—with so

much dignity, and confidence in the national character, that the Palatines were

moved even to tears, and drawing their well-tried sabres, exclaimed with one voice,—" Moriamur pro rege nostro Maria Theresa!" "Let us die for our king' Maria

Theresa."

The Arch-duch*ess evinced the greatest firmness during this enthusiastic display;

but, on retiring to the privacy of her own chamber, she was quite overcome, and gave

vent to a flood of tears. The result of this day was beyond what could have been

anticipated, even by the most patriotic Magyar ; while Maria Theresa was informed

that a spirit of ardent devotion to her cause had diffused itself throughout the

whole country, and that every hour brought supplies to her treasury, and fi-esh

troops to her standard. The effect of this turn of affairs upon her mind may be

easily imagined—^particularly when we remember that it was on the very eve of this

change that she wrote to the duch*ess of Lorraine, in these desponding words

" Jigiiore encore s'il me restera une ville pour y faire mes couches."

In the Cathedral of Presburg, a Gothic structure of great antiquity, the Kings

of Hungary are crowned with much solemnity." The new king is then conducted

on horseback to an artificial mound on the left bank of the Danube ; and there, ascend-

ing the eminence, and drawing the sword of St. Stephen, he makes the sign of the

cross—east, west, north, and south—thereby pledging himself to defend his faithflil

subjects, at whatever point danger may threaten. The Hungarian Diet, so lamihar

to every reader, consists of "four states or orders, namely, the bishops and abbots;

secondly, the magistrates or great nobles, who are called magnates ; thirdly, the

knights; and finally, the firee citizens. Of this assemblage the two former orders appear

in person, and constitute what is called a magnate-table ; but the two latter, which

form what is called the state-table appear by their representatives. The understand-

ing is that they are to assemble every third year, but this depends upon the royal

pleasure." Until within the last few years, all parliamentary debates were generally

conducted in Latin ;

but the more naturallanguage

nowintroduced is the Hungarian,

into which several of our most approved English classics have been lately trans-

lated, and which is now cultivated with success by the mass of the people, and by

native writers of genius and distinction. This form of national assembly has

existed upwards of seven centuries.

' Tliereljy alluding to the patriotic and heroic bearing— worthy of a king—which she had mani-

fested on this perilous and trying occasion.

' The Emperors of Austria have been crowned Kings of Hungary during the last two centuries.

The population of Presburg is stated at upwards of thirty-five thousand, divided into Roman

Catholics and Protestants, from whom tlie magistrates are chosen, in equal numbers. The Jews arc

numerous in Hungary, which is open to every religious persuasion.

X X

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170 THE DANtJBE ILLUSTRATED. [CastU oC ^nsbttr;

PKK:<OURO FROM TUK CASTLE-UATE

About a quarter of a league below Presbuig the Danube, to the right and left,

throws off two branches, one of which encloses the large fertile island of Schiitt, or

Csallokoz, as it is called by the natives, which comprises an extent of country

twelve Geiman miles in length, by seven in breadth. It is well fitted, in point of

soil, for the production of wheat and fruit ; it abounds in game and, besides its little

capital of Bischdorf, contains about a hundred villages interspersed over its surface.

On the right or opposite bank is a smaller island of the same name, and possessing

nearly the same qualities of soil and produce ; but both are in a great degree rough

anduncultivated, and present

little

but a dull, lifeless expanse of vegetation as faras

Rabnitz, where the Raab pours its tribute into the Danube. But on aiTiving at Gcinyo,

or Guinee, as it is pronounced, tlie monotony of the scene is slightly relieved.

From this small town it has been proposed to construct a railway to Vienna, so as

to obviate the necessity of disembarking passengers and cargoes, as hitherto, when

the river is low, and to forward both by this new and rapid conveyance. The coun-

try is here so level that a great work of this kind might be accomplished at com-

paratively little expense, and prove a lasting advantage to all who are either engaged

in trade or travel for pleasure. At the eastern extremity of the larger Schiitt-

Insel, and the junction of the river Waag with the Daaiube, is seen the royal free

town of Komom. This city enjoys a high reputation in the history of the country

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JForttcgg of CComotn.] the Danube illustrated. 171

as an impregnable fortress, from the gates of which the assailants ha\ e often retired

in shame and discomfiture. It contains a population of nearly eleven thousand,

with a College of Benedictines, an academy, five Roman Catholic churches, one

Lutheran, one reformed, and one Greek church. At the south-east angle of the

island, already named, and at the very point of junction between the Danube and

its two tributaries, the Waag and Neutra, stands the ancient fortress, which, during

the lapse of many centuries, has proved the safeguard of the inhabitants, and one of

the chief Austrian bulwarks on the Danube. The fortifications have been consider-

ably extended and improved within these few years, and nothing has been left

undone that could be likely to peril its ancient reputation as a virgin-fortress.

There is a saying that when summoned to capitulate the usual answer from the bat-

tlements was " Komme-morgen" ! (Kom-mom) thus giving an expressive answer by a

play upon the name Comorn'—hence the following rhyme.

•' The walls are manned, the gates are strong,

Advance, ye sons of plunder."

They come !—The siege is fierce and long,

And loud the rival thunder

" Yield !" cries the foe—but still in scorn,

Though seemingly in sorrow,

Their answer was—" WTto wins Camorn

Must call again to-morrow!"

On the opposite side, with which it communicates by means of a flying-bridge, is

the small town of Szony, where the remains of walls, an aqueduct, and other anti-

quities, point clearly to its early colonization by the Romans. By others it is

described as the ancient Begration, and founded by a colony of Greeks. The

number of mills, which here project half across the Danube, forms a striking feature

in the picture ; and if ever ' the miller and his men' are idle, it must be for want of

grist, and not of water. On the left bank, the small towns of Path, Mocs, Karva,

and Parthany follow in quick succession ; and opposite to these are Almas, Ness-

miihl, and Siittoe ; and further to the right, the town of Dotis—with a gymnasium,

manufactures,warm-baths, and several antiquities of Roman origin. The right bankof the Danube now rises into gentle acchvities, on which the grape is cultivated

with great success. The Nessmiihler wine, produced from the same ground, is in

high repute among connoisseurs, and much care has been taken by the proprietors

—the Counts Zichy and Esterhazy—to improve its qualities by cultivation.

Shortly after passing Nessmlilil,^ we quit the Comom frontier; and in approaching

' A figure of a female is pointed ont in one of the streets, with the inscription supposed to be ad-

dressed to an enemy—Kom-mom, (come to-morrow,) a play upon tlie name of tlie place.—Handbook.

" Nessmuhl is the place where Albert II. died in 1439, from eating too heartily of melons, after a

successful exi)edition against the Turks; and from which his remains were conveyed with great cere-

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172 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [ffiitB of ffltan.

Gran the landscape continues to improve—swelling into gentle hills, and presenting

scenes of much pastoral beauty and cultivation. Karva, on the left bank, is a

place of some importance, having a castle, a church, and the convenience of a ferry.

Half a league further down is Mocs, in the archbishopric of Gran, with extensive

magazines and storehouses, belonging to the government. Siittoe, on the right

bank of the Danube, is a pleasant village, with a bridge of red and white marble, a

church, and ferry across the river.—But the only object likely to arrest particular

attention in this portion of the Danube is the ancient Strigonium, or

<Kitp Of (Siran, the seat of an archbishop, primate of Hungary, with a popu-

lation of about twelve thousand. The grand feature, as regards its early history, is

the castled height overlooking the town, and presenting a vast circumference of

dilapidated walls, towers, and bastions, which, duringthe

troubloustimes of the

empire, overawed assailants, and threw its protecting aims roimd the city. From

the earliest period of its native history. Gran was the favourite residence of the

Hungarian monarchs, namely, from the first incursion of the Tartai-s, in 1241, till

the entire destruction of the fortress. It consists of a royal free town, or frcistadt,

close to the Danube, with two towers, a Roman Catholic church, and the church of

St. Anne, with several Greek chapels. In the town are various public buildings of

note, and among these are the Town-house, the Hall of Justice, the College of

Benedictines, the National School, and the Hospital. In the lower town and

the market-place, near the chapels of St. George and St. Thomas, as well as in

several other places, are sources of medicinal waters, the quality of which is similar

to that of our Epsom, and from which magnesia and sulphate of magnesia are manu-

factured in considerable quantities. There are also warm baths near the base of the

hill on which the fortress stands, which are said to possess very salubrious quahties

and are consequently much patronized by the citizens and country people. The

archiepiscopal seat which had been estabhshed in Gran as early as the eleventh

century, having been transferred, on the invasion of the Tiu-ks in 1543, to Tyrnau,

the late Archbishop, Alexander von Rudnay, resolved to re-establish the primacv

within the precincts of Gran, its ancient site, and with this view to erect a cathedri^.

at his OMm cost, which should rival even that of St. Peter's at Rome. He lived to

see the greater part of his pious resolution carried, into effect ; and by extensive

loans, and devoting his own princely income, httle short of a hundred thousand

mony, and buried in the vault of Albe-royale. Historians, however, aro by no means agreed as to the

place of Albert's death. Maeas Sylvius, Dubravius, Lambecius, and Fugger call the village Longa;

and the last imputes the suddenness of the emperor's death not so much to the melon, as to some

poison slily conveyed into it. [v. An. Germ.] A century has not elapsed since tliis town was the scene

of revolting barbarities.—" It is but a few days ago," says an old aud distinguished traveller, " that

three women and a man were burnt, on an accusation brought against tliem for witclicraft, and making

conipiicts with the devil ; and three otlier supposed delinquents of this kind are still kept in prison. . .

.

Last year tlio judge of the place, with his wife and thirty-four other persons, were burnt at Seged."

See further particulars in Keysler, vol. iv. p. 24.5.

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€Ktt)tilrulal ©rait.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 173

pounds per annum, to the work of piety, a building has been newly finished, which,

as a specimen of ecclesiastical architecture is unequalled by any thing that has

been attempted in Germany, within the last two centuries. He did not live, how-

ever, to witness its completion, and it is doubtful whether the colossal plan, on which

it was commenced, will ever be brought to a successful termination. Rudnay was

in all respects to Hungary what Gundulph was to England—but Gundulph was well

supported in his architectural enterprises, while the successor of von Rudnay is not

The palace ofthe archbishop is built in a style corresponding with the cathedral—fit

for the reception of the first prince of the empire, whUe the Domherrenhausser, the

public schools, and other establishments are on a scale of elegance and hberality

which reflects the highest credit on the venerable primate. In the construction and

embellishment of these works the archbishop had the good taste to employ native

artists— and there is no dearth of talent in Hungary;—but his lavish expenditiu-c

has produced a languor and apathy which in his successors it will require many years

to overcome.

Around the base of the castle-hill, extends the Wasserstadt, which communicates,

by means ofa floating bridge, with the village of Parkany, on the opposite shore ; and

a short space below this the river Gran falls into the Danube. The river now makes

a sudden sweep towards the north, so as to form nearly a half circle between Gran

and Domos, and is bounded on either shore by the chain of porphyry mountainsY Y

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174 THE DANUBE ILLDSTRATED. [JSBfSSCjraB.

which border the valley of the Gran. The scenery becomes now more picturesque,

and is enlivened by frequent villages, with every appearance of industry and con-

tentment. Domos, situated close upon the river, has a prepossessing appearance,

as seen from the water ; but with the exception of some monastic ruins, it has

nothing to tempt the stranger's curiosity. In a beautiful valley, at no great distance

from the town, is an alum manufactory. The next place of more than common

interest, is the Kronflecken, or royal borough of

t!J!^i&&eQVAlJt which was formerly one of the largest and most flourishing towns in

Hungary. The ruined castle which crests the lofty hill overlooking the Danube, was

once a favourite summer residence of the old Magyar kings, who had magnificent

gardens here, and took their pleasure on those vine-clad heights of the Danube in

right sovereign style. But like all royal palaces of that day it contained also a prison

and here, at the beginning of the twelfth century. King Salomon was held, like

another Coeur-de-Lion, in durance-vile by his ' affectionate cousin' Ladislaus.—The

tower, seen on the left of the accompanying wood-cut, was the fastness to which the

royal captive was consigned, and is stUl a lofty and substantial prison, with an out-

look to the river, which must have been very refreshing to the captive monarch, as

he felt the cool free air on his fevered cheek, and meditated some new plan for

escape. The sovereign, who is said to have expended most money on the castle,

and who spent most time within its walls, was Matthias Corvinus, whose style of

living, and the taste he displayed in its embellishment, were the theme of constantadmiration among the ambassadors and strangers who frequented his court. But

at the invasion of the Turks, under Sultan Solyman, the royal Castle of Wissegrad,

was doomed to plunder ; and being afterwards dismantled in its works of defence

and defaced in all its embellishments by the Emperor Leopold, it has continued

from that day to be a deserted and crumbling ruin—a monument of that destiny

which, sooner or later, throws prostrate the loftiest works of man ; or, in seeming

derision of his pride, invests them with a mantle of noxious weeds. But in the pre-

sent instance, the fortress would have presented a noble front for many generations

to come, had not the security of the empire demanded the sacrifice, and rendered its

destruction as necessary, perhaps, as its first erection. But whatever regret mayintrude itself into his thoughts, as the traveller now casts his eye over its stately

ruins, it will be infinitely lessened when he reflects that, in proportion as these

frowning citadels have been diminished, the peace and prosperity of the country

have increased ; and that, upon the whole, these ramparts look quite as picturesque

when fringed with trees and weeds, as when they bristled with cannon, and echoed

to the tramp ofarmed warriors.

How still, how lonely,—not a sound

Disturbs the deep repose

That wraps, within one dreary mound,

Tlie Magyar and his foes.

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.\-

.^ E.-^

n

HH

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SafssegtaV.] THE DANUBE ILXUSTRATED.

Here sabres clashed and banners flash ad,

And high the crescent flew.

As through the gap the Moslem dashed

With shouts of—" AUah-hu ! " &o.

175

U'ISSBCRAO.

Dividing near Wissegrad into two nearly equal arms, the Danube encloses in its

embrace the island of St. Andrii, of a shape very nearly resembling that of an old

co*cked hat, with the point towards Waitzen. The island is about five leagues in

length, a flat but fertile tract with rich gardens and villages, and terminating a short

way above the old city of Ofen. Waitzen, or Vatz, is a town of some importance,

with a population of nearly twelve thousand, a bishop's see, a cathedral built by

Cardinal Migazzi in the Italian style, and remarkable for its dome and portico

a military academy, a college, and several other public institutions. The episcopal

palace, erected by the same cardinal, is a still more imposing edifice, in which there

has evidently been expended much treasure, but with a strict obsen'ance of classic

taste and a liberal encouragement of the arts. This edifice was just commenced at

the time of Kcysler's visit, in which it is noticed with well-merited praise. The

park-like grounds by which it is suiTounded are much in the English style, and the

scenery adjacent no lover of nature can view with indifference. The environs are

highly picturesque ; and inthe

nearer approach to Ofen, they acquire a deeper and

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176 THE DANnBE ILLUSTRATED. [IBuBa.

more historical interest. Surrounded by vine -clad hills, and with an air of much

local prosperity in its inhabitants, the town of St. Andra is the next object of

interest, and is rendered conspicuous in the distance by its seven or eight towers.

Its mineral springs are in considerable repute ; and, with a population little short of

nine thousand, it carries on a spirited trade in the native produce of the countiy,

which consists chiefly of corn and wine. Having now proceeded for some miles

into the district of Pesth, we arrive at Alt-Ofen, or the old city of Ofen. This town,

which has long since dwindled into an insignificant village, was well known to the

ancients under the name of Aquincum. Here the Roman colony, planted on the

shores of the Danube, founded most of those public structures which were sure to

spring up wherever they eflFected a permanent settlement ; and among these were a

spacious amphitheatre, extensive baths, an aqueduct, and other buildings o'f public

utiUty, considerable portions of which are still to be seen, and will repay the trouble

of investigation. At the present time, the population amounts to little more than

seven thousand, including Roman Cathohcs, Protestants, Greeks, Turks, and Jews,

each of whom enjoys the free exercise of his religious opinions, with a distinct

church, mosque, or synagogue, for the celebration of his peculiar rites. Like its

more powerful rivals, it canies on a brisk trade in wine, the staple produce of the

country,

iSulia> or Ofen, the old Hauptstadt, or capital of Lower Hxmgary, presents itself to

the stranger under a very interesting and novel aspect. It differs greatly in many

respects from the other cities, which he may have visited in his descent of the

Danube, and exhibits, both in its outward appearance and internal arrangements,

much that is strictly oriental in character and association. The population, accord-

ing to the last return, amounted to twenty-nine thousand.' It is the residence of

the Prince Palatine, or Viceroy, the seat of the Supreme Courts of Hungary, of

the civil and military tribunals, the head-quarters of the army, the residence of the

Governor-general, and ofseveral others holding the principal offices in the state. It

has also two bishops of the Greek church; an archigymnasium, the university

library, an obsen'atory, an arsenal, and a large theatre. The town is divided into

six departments ; namely, the upper town, or fortress, and the lower town ; then into

four suburbs, consisting of the Landstrasse, Neustift, Raitzenstadt, and Christina-

Stadt. The sulpur-baths of Ofen have maintained their reputation during the lapse

of many ages ; while the vineyards crowning the adjoining promontory—the Eugen-

ischen Vorgebirge—produce that well-flavoiued red wine,*" which among numerous

' Begleiterauf der Donaufalirt.

* The wine of this part of Hungary is ofa very superior quality. The red wine of Buda, like that of

Agria and Sixar, much resembles French wine ; but that of the Kascian villages approaches the Rhenish,

not only iu flavour, but keeps better than the common Hungarian wines. After the emperor had ex-

tended his conquests in Servia, akind of red wine was introduced from Bethune, or Widdin, which by

many persons was preferred to all the Italian wines. The racy flavour and strong body of this wine

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33uBa \9alaM.] THE dandbe illustrated. 177

others for which Hungary is so celebrated, holds a distinguished place as the 'Ofiier-

wein.' On the Festungsberge, or Hill of the Fortress, stands the royal Schloss, the

Prince Palatine's residence.

In the chapel attached to the palace are presented the ancient regalia of Hungaiy;

namely, the crown, ball and sceptre, mantle, gloves, shoes, and sword of St. Stephen,

with a silver crosier—relics which are guarded with extreme vigilance—for it was

long believed that with their safe custody the prosperity of the kingdom was indis-

solubly connected. The approach to " the Palatine Palace is very precipitous, the

height on which it is built being inferior only to that of the Blocksberg, the highest

rock near Buda. The road is truly regal, being ofgreat width, well planted with chest-

nut-trees, and admirably kept ; and whileon

theright hand the noble timber of the

palace-garden is perceptible above the ancient and war-battered wall, you look from

the left across an extensive vineyard, upon a wide stretch of the time-honoured city

of Buda, rising amphitheatricaUy against the side of the Blocksberg, and stretching

far away over the valley. An old Turkish round-tower, of that peculiar construction

which widens towards the base, has been suffered to remain as a buttress to the exterior

entrance ; and its dark and solid mass of discoloured stone contrasts forcibly with

the modem masonry of the capacious arch. Hence, constantly ascending, we

arrived at an outer court, or platform, surrounded by stabUng and offices ; and then,

turning abruptly to the right, passed under a second fine archway, above which, on

the inner side, a marble cannon-ball—also a relic of the moslem—has been built into

the brickwork ; and, having crested the rock, we found ourselves in a wide area,

enclosed on three sides by the lofty walls of the palace. The edifice is of immense

size, and in the ItaUan taste ; and the stone staircase by which the principal corridor

is approached, with its tall sentinels both above and below, is extremely handsome."

" But to me," continues the fair authoressj " the great charm of the Buda Palace,

was the splendid view from its windows. I could scarcely tear myselfaway from the

balcony to look at the gilded bed of the emperor, or even to follow the ' grande

maitresse' to" the gardens. The archduke is an enthusiastic horticulturist, possess-

ing both taste and knowledge of the science ; and thus his hanging-terraces, cling-

ing to the side of the rock, offer a successiou of beauty."

'

makes it a kind of cordial or dram ; and yet it may be purchased at an easier rate, than the extrava-

gant price paid for the ' Ausbniche,' or virgin wine, made of the spontaneous droppings of the grape,

but it will not bear long keeping, and consequently is not fit for exportation. Since these observations

by Keysler, vast improvements have been made in the management of the Hungarian vineyards. The

introduction of choice vines, their more diligent and scientific culture, the proper adaptation of the soil

to its peculiar produce—and, above all, the increased demand and more extensive appreciation of Hun-

garian wines, which are now a source of steady revenue to the state as well as to the wine-growers, who

within the last twenty years have made the subject their study—all these have combined to enhance

the value and improve the quality and flavour of nearly all the Hungarian wines.

' " Without being actually spacious these gardens, at each descent, present a totally different scene :

to the Dutch parterre, formal and flower-laden, where the bees, whose very motion is music, hum their

perpetual song, succeeds a stretch of shi-ubbery, where light and shadow play pleasantly through

Z f.

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178 THE DANUBE iLLUSTKATEi). [33uBa palate.

This palace, which is a modem structure, occupies the site of the original strong-

hold of King Corvinus ; but a few of the mutilated bastions, and walls and fragments of

outworks still suffice to stamp the spot with the seal of antiquity, and to awaken a

thousand associations of siege and storm, capture and defeat. Dming the long

space of three centuries, or more, it was alternately lost and won—alternately can-

nonaded, pillaged, burnt, and rebuilt by Christiim and Turk, to whom its posses-

sion was an object of the greatest ambition. As the seat of a powerful ganison, it

secured to the one an extensive province, rich in natural produce, and with an

amenity of scene and climate which were peculiarly agreeable to their ideas of

oriental luxury. To the other, it formed the strongest barrier against the Moslem

power—aiid checking or controlhng those hostile incursions, which were continually

aiming at the subversion of the Austrian empire and the subjugation of Christianity.

The possession, therefore, was hotly contested by both parties ; and after a fearfid

cjirnage, Buda was smrendered to the Turks,' who held possession of it for nearly a

century and a half. The consequences were, the introduction of all the habits

manners, customs, and ceremonies of Mahomedan life, and the acquisition of a teni-

tory which, pouring its tribute into his coffers and new life into his army, appeared

to confer unlimited power, and to justify the most extravagant views on the part of

the Moslem emperor. The old Gothic churches, founded during the crusades,

were soon fashioned into Turkish mosques ; every thing that bespoke Christians or

Christiaii worship was obliterated ; and with its baths, cafes, bazaars, seraglios, and

die crescent glimmering on all its high-places, Buda became the luxmious residence

of the Mussulman and an impregnable frontier bulwark to his new empire. During

.this period of its history, it might have been considered in many respects the

'Alhambra of the Danube ; but, like that too, its glory was destined to pass away.

Vizier after yizier, each with his twenty pachas to wring the tribute from three

parts of Hungary, took up his residence in this j)alace, and as they looked

down upon the Danube covered with barges, the town swarming with merchants,

the walls lined with troops, the heights covered with towers, and an armed flotilla

leaves and blossoms ; then again comes a French plateau, with ranges of hot-house plants, seeming

to keep guard over a marble basin, where a score of tortoises are sunning themselves on the surface of

an artificial rock—and, lastly, the ' Jardin Anglais,' with its smooth lawn, its shadowy walks, its scat-

tered flower-beds, and its magnificent magnolias. And all this open to the Danube, save where the

luxuriance of the ornaiuental and exotic timber forms an occasional screen, and framed in ou tlie other

side by the hoary wall which concealed from curious eyes the fair wives ofSoiyman the JIagnificeut, and

which still bears the impress of many an Austrian ball, perceptible even amidst its decay. Nor is this

the only relic of the Turk in the Palatinate Gardens, for, in the thickness of one of its walls, a flight of

steps still exists, leading down to the very edge of the river ; by which hidden way it is supposed that

numbers of the Moslems must have escaped, when the fortress, on whose site the present palace was

built, was reconquered for the last time by the Christians."—Such in part is the graphic sketch given

us of this palace by Miss Pardee, in her recent visit to tlie " City of the Magyar," a work in which the

j-eader will find much interesting and original matter.

'

A.D. 1541.

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ISttBa ants tjt ©ntks.j THE Danube illustrated.1 79

riding at anchor in the distance, they little imagined that the moment was approach-

ing when the desecrated symbol of Christianity would again float on its citadel and

churches, and the Turkish power be finally extinguished in this delighful region.

The event to which we allude took place' under the united skill and generalship of

the Duke of Lorraine and the Margrave of Baden. Pressed on all sides by the

Austrian force, the Turks now craved a suspension of arms, and sent an aga to wait

upon Lorraine for that purpose. But the Duke coolly replied, " I have but one duty

to perform; namely, to conduct the war,now declared against the Sultan, your master;

I will therefore make it my business to attack your general wherever I can meet

him. In the mean time, I will dispatch your letter to the emperor, who will

acquaint you with his pleasure." Surprised at this answer, the aga employedevery

means to shake the Duke's resolution, and endeavoured to make interest with the

officers of his staff. But the only reply was—" Such is the Duke's pleasure, and his

mind once made up, no power on earth can turn him aside."' Canying back to the

vizier this stem and uncompromising answer, the aga re-entered the fortress of Buda.

A scene of hurried preparation and fearful suspense ensued. The storm was

gathering fast around the devoted fortress, and the thunder at last bursting with

redoubled fury on its walls, a breach was speedily effected'—the Turks fought

with desperation; and retreating firom bastion to bastion, poured their deadly shot

into the serried ranks of the besiegers. But imitating the example of their intrepid

commanders, the Christian host surmounted every danger. Before sunset they took

possession of those castled heights, where we now stand, and hoisted the Austrian

banner on the tower of the old Gothic church, which still, consecrates the spot, and

points to the fearful scene of massacre which followed. Many of the Turks, how-

ever, surviving the horrors of the day, are supposed to have escaped by either

lowering themselves from the ramparts, or by descending through hidden passages*

leading to the river. Driven from this, their Hungarian Elysium, their despondence

was like that of the Moors when driven from Spain ; and, among those who escaped,

the happiness of reaching Stamboul was long embittered by the remembrance of

Buda.»

'

A. D. 1686. ' Anec. German.' It was tliG east side of Buda against which the Elector of Bavaria, during this siege, carried on )iis

attack from the opposite mountains. In that part General Regal had begun to build a new palace

for the governor: but the building, which would have been a noble structure, was discontinued at the

death of that generous nobleman. It was afterwards completed, however, in the style already no-

ticed.

* About fifty years ago a wide subterranean passage was discovered, leading from the citadel to the

edge of the Danube, with which it is probable the Turks were well acquainted, and duly availed them-

selves of it on critical occasions :—to this we have already alluded, p. \^R.

' The air of Buda, or Ofen, being pure and dry, is deemed to be peculiarly salubrious. Computations

which have been made, show that they have here on an average but eighty-three rainy, and twenty-six

snowy days in the course of the year ; whilst in Paris [Bulwer] they have not had an average of more

than a hundred and twenty-six fine days annually, during the last twenty years. [Claridge.] The name

Q^eti literally signifies a stove or o»w».

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180 THE DANUBE ILLUSTKATED. [ISatl^lS of ISuBa.

The old Turkish bath, already alluded to, is well deserving of a visit—for of all

the strange scenes to be met with, between Ulm and Sulina, this presents one of

the strangest. At your first entrance you are apt to start back, or at least to

advance with a very hesitating step—for the first impression on your mind is that

you are about to plunge into the water, and it is some time before you can distin-

guish the lip of the bath from tlie surroimding pavement, which is moist and

slippery with the vapour. But as soon as the eye is accustomed, and can accommo-

date itself to the gloom, a huge basin is observable in the centre of the apart-

ment, surrounded by Turkish arches, with a dome overhead, and one or two orifices

to admit the light. In this steaming basin, or reservoir, groups of both sexes—the

" fair and the false," as one of their own number expressed it—were luxuriously

indulging in the pleasures of hot water—screaming, hallooing, pushing, josthng,

jumping on one another's shoulders, and making the old arches re-echo to their

boisterous mirth. In the mean time, a coterie of old crones, encircling the fount,

where the hot liquid sulphur gushes out to supply the bath, were diligently present-

ing their half-bald sconces, and long gray matted hair, to the purifying influence of

the warm cascade—fondly hoping, as we imagined, that each successive jet-d'eau

would sweep off some little colony of intruders. Looking round us we observed

that those who had already undergone the steaming process were reposing themselves

on the smooth, cool, marble floor; cracking their jokes upon those who were still

in the ordeal, extolling the virtues of the water, or breaking forth, with a sort of

cracked melody, into snatches of some old Hungarian song.—The vapour rises in

clouds firom the water, which is of a rather high temperature, so that in a few minutes

we were undergoing the process of a very free transpiration.—But such a scene was

cheaply purchased at the expense of a little weight ; and, if sulphur was any com-

pensation, we carried off"on our garments so liberal an exchange, that we had no cause

to complain. We would advise all visitors, fond of grotesque figures, scenes, and

groupings, to visit, if only once, the old Sulphur Baths of Buda—but we will not

counsel them to remain beyond ten minutes or a quarter of an hour.'

i9C0t|^. This city, like the new town of Edinburgh, is of modem date, and nothing

can be more striking than the contrast it presents to that of Buda, whose antiquated

• The warm baths were called the Kaiser's Bath, the General's Bath, and the Eaizen Bath, or that

which we have noticed as peculiarly the ' Popular Bath.' " Near the emperor's bath," says Keysler, " is

a mill, which like that of Arquato, is put in motion by hot water. It being first collected into a pond,

where no fish can live, although Wernher, ' De admirandis Hungaria Aquis,''a'aA others affirm the con-

trary. But below the mill, where the water grows cold by degrees, but never freezes, fishes are often

seen, which, however, on being put into the Danube soon expire. The same thing happens wlien they

are taken out of the Danube and put into this water." [Wemher's account would lead to the suppo-

sition that fishes taken out of this hot water are naturally half-cooked, and almost fit for table. But

as he writes de admirandis, &c., some little hesitation may be excused on the part of his readers.]

These baths, which are much frequented in summer, are said to have been erected by Solyman the

Magnificent, after the battle of Mohacs. hereafter to be noticed.

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1|drtta of 15nJja.l THE DANUBE illustrated. 181

features, and primitive character we have just attempted to sketch. Connected

with the old capital by a magnificent suspension-bridge—by far the finest object on

the Danube—Pesth, in style and appearance, has a very imposing aspect; and

although it does not carry the mind back beyond a century, it certainly presents to

the eye one of the most splendid creations of modem enterprise. It combines in its

public buildings some of the best specimens of Italian architecture ; and, in its spa-

cious well-built rectilinear streets, presents models of excellent design, which the

founders ofmodem cities would do well to study and imitate. The quay bordering

the Danube for upwards of a mUe is unique ; the public offices, churches, and

private houses, which front that scene of bustle and commercial activity, are all on a

scale befitting the capital of an empire ; while their position, on the verge of a mag-

nificent river, gives admirable effect to the whole, and leaves an impression never to

be effaced. It would be difficult to imagine a scene, the result of human genius and

industry, more extraordinary than the city of Pesth ; but the effect is doubly

striking when viewed from the heights of Buda, or more particularly the Blocksberg

—the natural watch-tower of the place. The foundation of this city, the ' new

Buda,* dates from no remoter period than the reign of Maria Theresa and her son,

the Emperor Joseph, whose short life and reign were devoted to the welfare of his

subjects—to the reformation of abuses—the strict administration of the laws—and

to the hberal encouragement of the arts and sciences. In looking at Pesth, as the

result of his patronage, we may use the well-known epitaph, so concisely applied to

one of our own great men—' Monumentum si quteris, circ*mspice !"

Pesth, nevertheless, is a place of great antiquity ; and although modem in the

sense of a great commercial city, its position was too advantageous ever to have

been lost sight of, either by those who held or by those who attacked the old capital

of Hungarj-, with which for centuries it has been connected by a bridge of boats,

and upon which, owing to its low situation, it was mainly dependent for its safety.

The name is said to have been derived fi-om a brother of Attila, who made the heights of

iSulra his residence, and added to its strength and embeUishments. Down to almost

the close of the seventeenth century, however, its history is little else than a series of

attacks, defences, and hostile occupations. From the Turks, by whom it was foiu:

times taken and plundered, it was only wrested by the Margrave of Baden, at the

siege already mentioned, when it reverted to its legitimate sovereign, and com-

menced a new era of peace and prosperity. It is now the chief commercial city of

Hungary, and, with the vast facilities which it enjoys firom the introduction of

steam-navigation, the sale of its native produce and manufactures has received an

' Speaking of this monarch, Voltaire thus expresses himself :—" Joseph is such an emperor as Ger-

many has not had for a long time. Educated in splendour, his habits are simple;grown up amidst

Battery, he is still modest; inflamed with a love of glory, he yet sacrifices his ambition to his duty;"—

and so far his character was faithfully drawn.

3 A

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18-2 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [CaatU of ®fen.

impetus, which will shorly impart a most beneficial influence to every other station

on the Danube.

CASTLB OF OP»N. OK BtTDA.

The public buildings of Pesth consist of one or two principal churches ; the

university, the national theatre and Casino, the museum, the public library, and

several other edifices of minor importance, though generally combining good taste

with elegance and substantial workmanship. The churches belong to numerousclasses of dissenters, all of whom have the service in their own language, and after

their own ritual ; and towards each other evince a laudable spirit of toleration in

points of faith. Roman CathoUcs, Calvinists, Lutherans, Graeco-Catholics, Union-

ists, Separatists, and Jews, have all the free and uninterrupted exercise of their

religions ; and from the number of tongues in which their worsliip is celebrated, we

are reminded of the great miracle on the day of Pentecost—for here are assembled

men of all nations, and each in his own tongue proclaiming the tidings of peace

and reconciliation. The theatre, which forms a prominent feature in the great street

facing the Danube, is a spacious and classic structure, and only finished within the

last two years. It is intended for the encouragement and performance of pieces in

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2Cf)t l<rtU9e6attllt.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 183

tlie Hungarian language, with the patriotic view of inculcating a taste for the native

drama, and of thus calUng into operation those talents and genius, which otherwise

might never have benefited either their possessor or his country. The object and

motive are truly noble ; and now that the language of Hungary' is assiduously cul-

tivated, the results cannot fail to become more and more gratifying to all who have

the interests of her literature at heart.

The University, founded by Cardinal Pazman, first estabhshed at Tymau, then

removed to Buda, and subsequently to Pesth, is the only institution of the kind in

Hungary. It has a splendid hall, and affords a gratuitous college education to

upwards of fourteen hundred students. It was endowed by Maria Theresa, and

settled in its present locale by Joseph II. For the use ofthe professors and students,

there is an extensive library in every department of science, with a printing-press,

a botanic garden, and an observatory on the opposite side of the Danube. The

museum, when finished, promises to be one of the finest in Germany. With the con-

tributions fi-om various noblemen who, in imitation of its patriotic founder, have felt

the want of such a resource, and endeavoured to supply that want by liberally

seconding the grand object of their illustrious countryman, the museum of Pesth

must ultimately become a chief point of attraction. It has only been forty years in

existence ; but, with the hbrary bestowed upon it by the founder, it has a large

collection of antiquities, medals, and coins, relics connected with the national his-

tory, fossils and minerals, and a gallery of natural history. The Comitats-haus,

which has been very lately rebuilt, and is still unfinished, is a structure at once

spacious in dimensions and patrician in its style and character. It is used for the

election of the county magistrates every third year. But the most extraordinary

building in Pesth, is the N^U^^ItautlC, now the royal ordnance barracks, which, for

the space it encloses, the height to which the walls are canied, and the vast suites of

its compartments under ground, is sufficient to arrest attention, and to provoke many

questions fi:om the stranger. This colossal structure was built by command of

Joseph II.,but for what purpose—whether as a barrack orabastile—is still a mystery.

"It is supposed," says one writer, " that it was intended for the residence of a number

of poor families, upon a plan similar to that laid down by Mr. Owen at New Lanark."

" But," says another, " the Hungarians hint darkly at the extent of the undergi-ound

apartments, which, say they, are far too numerous to be of use as cellars j and they

conclude, fi'om the chains and rings with which these dungeons were provided, that

it was the emperor's design to have provided accommodation in them for a large

portion of the Hungarian nobility." We shall, therefore, in imitation of our prede-

cessors, leave the question to the decision of posterity.'

We have just seen a specimen of Shakspeara in Hungarian, the translation of which is pronounced,

by competent judges, to be a spirited and faithful transcript ofour immortal poet.

' There are also the town-house, tho hospital, the magazines and store-houses, with several glazed

passages, like those of Paris.

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184 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [©fie ^uaj at ^^eat^.

From the windows of the hotel overlooking the quay, the view of the opposite

shore is bold and striking ; while that more immediately under the eye presents a

picture of bustle and commercial activity—mixed up with individual groupings of

scenes and characters—which is irresistibly amusing to the newly-arrived tourist.

The broad quay, as far as the eye can reach, is lined with pedlars' stalls, strewn

with bales of merchandise, just landed from the long, unwieldy, primitive boats, and

ready to be embarked in the steamers; groups of Hungarian peasants, lazily

reclining under the shadow of the waggons or stalls, and wrapt in their shaggy sheep-

skin coats—Greek, Jew, Servian, and WaUachian, with deputies from every province

of the Upper and Lower Danube—merchants, ' militaires,' pedlars, priests, and players

—all enter into the ' dramatis personae' on the quay at Pesth, and give a faithful

but motley picture of human life. With the odour from tobacco too, the whole

atmosphere is impregnated; but in the open air it is by no means unpleasant—on

the contrary, it is more like an aromatic perfiime, than the incense of that ' noxious

weed' so emphatically denounced by ' good King James.' The boats passing and

repassing—each with a log-house inside, and some of its company smoking on

the roof, while one or two others, with long unwieldly oars, are guiding the clumsy

and grotesque bark towards the shore, are striking features in the amusing pictiure.

Then of a sudden comes the dashing equipage of some Hungarian noble, with its

feathered chasseurs, some detachment of artillery, or hussars, some procession of

pilgrims, or religious festival, to change the scene, and waken a new train of associ-

ations. Nothing can be more striking, indeed, than the contrast presented by this

and the opposite bank of the river. On the Buda side all is of an antiquated,

orimitive, and stately character—speaking only of the prowess of ancient kings, the

intrepid bearing of Magyar chiefs, the glories of St. Stephen, and the stem grandeur

of crusading days : while on this side, nothing is heard but the light gossip of the

day, the state of trade, the crops, the vintage, the health of the emperor, opening of

the chain-bridge, and the launch of the new steamer. The buildings too, contrasted

with the Gothic church, the dilapidated mosque, the old Moorish baths, and Sara-

cenic arches, that speak so audibly across the river—have a look of gaiety, cheerful-

ness, and prosperity, and withal an air so Italian in its character, that the one resem-

bles some old stern and venerable warrior, watching, with looks of mixed pity and

amazement, the corrupting effects of long-continued peace asd modem refinements.

But before proceeding to the other subjects selected as illustrations of Pesth, (the

Blocksberg, and the new suspension-bridge,) we shall here introduce a few particu-

lars respecting the recent Inundation, which for some time threatened the very

existence of the city, and left such fearful evidence of its destmctive visitation :'

' This interesting account is taken, with the Publisher's permission, from the " City of the Magyar,"

by Miss Pardee, founded on the authority of a Hungarian physician, viz. " The Inundation of Pestii,

with an Account of its moral and physical Effects, by Dr. Augustus Schoepff."

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Vn N i111 ^c id

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fminUaUonoC ^«gt]^.] THE Danube illustrated. 185

" At the beginningof January 1838, the Danube had already attained an unusual

and somewhat alarming height, and the water flooded all the drains, and subter-

raneous passages in its immediate neighbourhood, whence it was obUged to be

drawn off; after which, debouchures of all these underground inlets were carefully

closed. I mention this circ*mstance because it became ultimately evident that the

stoppage of these subterranean passages was one main agent in the destruction of

property, which afterwards ensued; and as it proves, moreover, that when the

Danube received its Hrst coat of frost, it was unusually high ; while, at the same time,

at Soroksar, a couple of leagues below the city, a branch of the river having been

choked with ice, caused the overflow to which I have alluded. The Danube was

entirely frozen over, and firmly closed between the 5th and 6th ofJanuary ; and a con-

tinuance of snow and extreme cold so severely operated upon it, that the ice

gradually increased to upwards of three feet in thickness. During the 8th and 9th

of March, the stupendous mass began to yield ; but after flooding the lower part of

Buda, it again settled. It was considered, however, to wear so menacing an

appearance, that a dyke six feet high was flung up the whole length of the city,

between the houses and the river ; when the authorities and inhabitants of Pesth,

satisfied with this precaution, and the stoppage of the drains where they communi-

cated with the Danube, and remembering that, during the inundation of 1775, the water

had never risen to the height of their newly-erected barrier, abandoned themselves

to the hope and behef, that before the river could attain the level of the dyke the

ice must break up, and be carried away by the strength of the current. Some few

individuals there were, nevertheless, who looked upon the frost-chained giant with

more anxious forebodings, and who asked themselves, what, if this comfortable

occurrence did not take place, was likely to be the fate of the devoted city f ' The

answer oftheir reason was by no means consolatory, and consequently a few, a very few,

ventured to take precautions against the possibility of disaster. It is almost need-

less to explain, that among these wise individuals was Count Stephen Szechenyi,

who supplied the wits of Pesth, for a time, with food for mirth and sarcasm, by the

apparition of a roomy barge, just within the porte-cochiere of liis residence : little

did those who scoffed imagine how soon they would become suitors for the loan of

that laughter-inspiring boat ! The jests had not time to become stale upon the lips

of those who uttered them, ere they were fearfiilly forgotten. Late in the afternoon

of the thirteenth, the river appeared to become more threatening in its aspect, and

it was considered necessary to use every precaution which could prevent its flooding

the quays. Immediate orders were given to this effect ; and the scene is described

by an eye-witness as fearfully dramatic. In every direction were to be seen

labourers toiling to fortify the dyke, and adding such other means of defence as

the impulse of the moment suggested : but still no serious apprehensions were en-

tertained, for it was believed that this was the last effort of the mighty river to firee

' City of the Magyar, vol. ii. p. 4.

SB

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186 THE DANUBE iLLnSTRATED. llnunflatfon o{ ^tat&.

itself from its frozen load ; and that, this feat once accomplished, all peril would be

past. Thus men moved about, chatting and speculating, and even jesting; excited

into false, but nevertheless loud spirits;giving advice when it was neither sought

nor followed, and seeming rather to be actors in a wild dream than a perU-teeming

reality. The greetings of acquaintance were heard among the crowd ; the ribald

jests of the thoughtless ; and, now and then, even the laughter of women, who tried

to trifle away their fears when they were chidden for them. But at eight o'clock in

the evening, the heavy peal of the alarm-bell boomed out ; and now doubt, and

hope, and jest were at an end. When its iron tongue first broke upon the air, the

scene along the river-bank was most extraordinary. Workmen and soldiers, lighted

by torch-bearers, were still actively employed in strengthening the defences of the

dyke. Crowds of people from all quarters of the city thronged the quay, and im-

peded the passage of the waggons, which were moving to and fro, laden with sand to

fill the breaches : strong men were carrying timber to different points, to increase

the resistance of the temporary break-water ; and it is calculated that not less than

sixty thousand persons must have been collected on the shore, when, about ten

o'clock, the swollen river suddenly made a new and mightier effort, and burst the

dyke in several places. The wild water, laden with jagged ice, rushed onward with

resistless violence—driving before them the cowering crowd, who fled appalled and

breathless before the swift pursuit of this strange and terrific enemy.* Down fell

the night, as if to aggravate the ten-ors of the scene ; and men hunied on, they knewnot wliither, pursued by a danger against which the bravest could not contend.

There was no laughter now upon the air. The shrieks of women and the groans of

men—^mothers screaming for their children, and children wailing for their mothers

the quick sharp sound of flying footsteps upon the frozen earth ; and over all, the

rushing, dashing, headlong voice of the emancipated waters, made up the friglitful

diapason. By an hour past midnight, several quarters of the city were flooded to

the height of twenty-seven feet ; and in several streets large boats might be seen

moving from house to house, while at each extremity of tlie suburbs, the ice-laden

river poured like a torrent upon the town ; and in those suburbs themselves the

poor inhabitants had barely time to escape with life, leaving their little possession to

the fury of the treacherous element, to which they had so long feailessly trusted.*

" On the morning of the 14th, whole streets, undermined by the body of pent-

up water, which filled the subteri'aneans beneath, fell with successive and deafening

crashes, burying alike men and animals in their ruins ; and of all that fatal time, this,

perhaps, was the most awful moment to a spectator.^

' City of the Magyar, vol. ii. p. 7.' City of the Magyar, vol. ii. p. 8.

" I remember being told by the Arch-duch*ess Palatine, when she was one day conversing with moon the subject of this frightful inundation, that as she stood at one of the windows of the palace ofBuda,

and looked down upon the suffering city, seeing whole ranges of buildings sink and disappear in the

watery waste about them, she felt her brain reel, and her heart sicken, as a vague feeling grew upoKher that the whole town would ere long be swept away."

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TEnunoation of ^cst^.]

THE DANUBE ILLnSTRATEU 187

PHOTINCIAL COBTUMK.

"From the 14th to the 15th of March, the water

continued sullenly and steadily to increase, spread-

ing wider and wider, sapping and overthrowing

dwellings, and drowning their panic-stricken inhabi-

tants. But the day of horror—the acme of miseiy

—was the 15th itself. Pesthwill probably never num-

ber in her annals so dark a day again—She might,

perhaps, not be enabled to survive such another

—the maddened river as that day dawned, rioted in

ruin ; and many looked upwards to the clear cold

sky, and wondered whether the Almighty promise

was forgotten. Thousands of men, women, and

children, homeless, houseless, hopeless beings,

clinging to life, when they had lost nearly all that

made life a blessing;parents and children, and sis-

ters and lovers—the young helpless in their first weakness, and the old trembling in

their last—the strong man, whose weapon was stricken from his hand by a power against

which the strongest contends in vain ; the philosopher, who in all his abstraction

had found no preparative for so hideous a death as this—the mother, whose hope had

withered as her babe died upon her bosom, and who clung to life rather from in-

stinctthan

volition ;

the fond,the beautiful,

the delicately nurtured—all were huddled

together during that fearful day, upon the narrow spaces scattered over the town and

suburbs, which the water had not yet reached. And, as it wore by, every half-hoiur

added to the devastation around them ; houses and buildings which had survived

the first shock, seemed to have been preserved only to add to the horrors of that

day. Many of them fell and perished from roof to base ; others became rent by

the heavy dashing of the waters, and through the yawning apertures the wasting

tide poured in and ruined all it touched ; while, to add to the confiision, in some

quarters of the city, the heavy barges which had been procured to remove the

sufferers from their threatened houses, broke loose, and went driving onward through

the streets on the crest of the foaming waters.'

..." To attempt a description ofthe horrors ofthis day would be a vain, as well as

an ungraceful task. But nothing tended so utterly to bring them to a cUmax as the

fall of the extensive Derra-palace, in the New Market-place. In vain did men

murmur to each other, that the building had been defective in its construction, and

unsound in its foundations ; their misery was deeper than the cheat which they

thought to put upon themselves ; and from that moment, those who yet enjoyed the

shelter of a roof, looked on their temporary asylum with suspicion, and a general

fear grew among the multitude that tlie whole city was crumbling about them."

City of the Magyar, vol. ii.

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188 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [EnunUatiotl Ot lB«8tt».

Here oiir fair author enters into some heart-rending details, for which we must

again refer our readers to the work itself—and thus proceeds:

"

By eleven o'clock

at night, throughout the whole city, there was not a foot of dry ground save in the

Market-Platz, the Joseph-Platz, the Franciscan-Platz, and the coiu-ts of the Lu-

theran church, the Invalid Hospital, and these were crowded both by men and

horses ; while many families of the highest rank were huddled together in the rude

wooden booths erected in the market-place, or sat in their caiiiages for days and

nights, exposed, like the rest of the population, to the sufferings of cold and damp."'

The loss of private property sustained by this terrible calamity was immense ; and

to this was superadded a most lamentable sacrifice of human life. The sympathy,

however, which the catastrophe awakened in every part of Europe, was expressed

by a prompt and hberal subscription in favour of the suffering inhabitants. The

nobility, the ladies, every influential and right-minded person^ lent a helping hand

and after a series of imparalleled misery, the inhabitants were provided with ever)'

comfort of which their circ*mstances woidd admit. The clearing away the vast accu-

mulation of debris was a Herculean task ; but this accomplished, the city once more

rang with the noise and bustle ofaccelerated labour ; and, with important alterations

and improvements, which the late disaster had suggested, the city has begun to re-

cover much of its original order and beauty; while the architecture has assumed in

many instances a more substantial and imposing character. For the old rows of sheds

and hovels occupied by the poorest class, regular and well-built dwellings have been

substituted ; so that what was ruinous to the citizens in one sense was the com-

mencement of extended and solid improvement to the city in another. Were it not

' The following anecdote, as it reflects credit on the distinguished individual concerned, is deserving

of commemoration :" While the fury of the element was yet at its height, and when all was want

anguish, and desolation throughout the city; while thousands of wretched beings were still without

food or shelter, the Arch-duke Palatine sent his eldest son, Prince Stephen, to speak peace and comfort

to the miserable citizens : and despite the danger of the mission, the high-spirited youth accepted it

without hesitation. Nor was it a light boon which this noble scion of the house of Hapsburg received,

at the hands of his imperial father ; for the river was pouring angrily down, laden with masses of ice,

driven onward by the current, and threatening ruin to the unwary bark, with which they might come

in contact. There were no attentive menials waiting his disembarkation on the opposite shore, withready services and obsequious words : he went to meet misery, famine, and madness ; but as he stood

erect in the boat, he cast not one look behind, to the safe asylum which he had left ; he waved his arm

encouragingly toward the sinking city, and after a weary and perilous passage, his little bark began to

thread the flooded streets of Pesth. No sooner had his appearance brought comfort to the suflFerers

for there must have been comfort in the conviction that abandoumeut was not superadded to misery

than he vigorously applied himself to the task of mitigating the wretchedness by which he was sur-

rounded. With his own hands he distributed the bread with which his boat was laden ; he had a kind

and hopeful word for all ; and it is certain that the sympathy and exertions of the Palatinate family,

on the occasion of this dreadful calamity, will be as durably impressed upon the hearts of the inhabi-

tants of Pesth, as though they had been engraved upon marble." City of the Magyak, vol. ii.

' Honourable mention is made by Miss Pardee of the devoted services of Count Szapary—Barons

Wesselengi and Pronaz, M. Eckstein, and of a lady, in the sacred canse of humanity.

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Efie ISlotlisbers] the Danube illustrated. 189

that, with the destruction of the former buildings,there

is

associated the painfulreflection of a thousand deaths—a thousand bereavements'—the effects of the inun-

dation might be forgotten in the number and style of the buildings that have

since sprung up. In its extended mercantile relations—the increased influx of

strangers, and the various resources recently thrown open, Pesth enjoys the surest

pledge of advancement in all the arts that conduce to national prosperity; and that

its patriotic citizens may daily witness the progressive consummation of their wishes,

is a hope and desire in which every Enghsh subject who now descends the Danube

win heartily participate

©5^ 13lOCfe0t>frff» of which the best view is from the quay opposite, forms a

very imposing and colossal featiure in the front of Pesth. It is crowned by a fortress

with an observatory, for the use of the university, and projects in several distinct

promontories towards the river—here rugged and precipitous,there broken into fissures

and ravines, and here again carpeted with fresh verdure and fringed with lichen

and low shrubbery. At its base it is girdled with houses—part of Ofen, and closely

bordering the Danube, which at this point, according to Meyer, is upwards of four

hundred yards in breadth. But if the view of the Blocksberg itself be a striking

object from the quay, the y'x&Nfrom the Blocksberg is doubly so. Pesth on one

side, the old castellated cities underneath, the islands in the distance westward,

the suspension-bridge that now spans the majestic stream in the foreground;

steamers, barges, and rafts, all in motion, or at anchor along the quay, present an

assemblage of objects which it is diflicult to imagine as entering into the same land-

scape. In front the new city lies spread out like a map, with its spacious quay,

squares, market-places, hotels, palaces, and state-buUdings, all clearly defined. But

the most striking point is the old fortress of Buda on the left, which, by its very

irregularity, the antique character ofits buildings, its battled walls and commanding

position, comes into admirable contrast with the splendid but stUl uniform city

of Pesth. Behind this hUl, and indeed wheresoever the spectator turns his eyes,

extensive vineyards mantle the acclivities, interrupted here and there by wide fields

of com, and variegated with pastures, orchards, and gardens. It was from the pre-

cipitous margin of this rock that Attila, according to tradition, hurled his ofiending

brother into the Danube. How glad would his fiiends the Roman people have been,

had they caught him in the Forum, to have made a similar experiment with Attila,

from the Tarpeian Rock. Here also St. Gerard is said to have planted the first

seeds of Christianity in Hungary, and to have sufiered martyrdom in the cause.

The people still call the hiU by his name ; but the sanctity of the spot, according to

' In Pesth allein sturzten 2281 hauser zusammen, und iiahe an 1,000 erlitten Beachadigungen.

Ueber tausend Menschen verungliickten, oder retteten nur das nackte Leben. Gross war die Noth,

doch auch gross war die hiilfe, die Barmherzigkeit, die Theilnalime, und man hat nicht vernommcn,

das sich Diebesbandeu gebildet, wie zu Lyon, um von dem Allgemeinen UnglUck einen braudmark

endcu Gewinue zu Ziehen." Meyer.

3 c

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190 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. l^^t StlSp«n8lon=Brf1J8t.

their authority, has not protected it from being an occasional rendezvous for evil

spirits ! Duiingthe inundation, for example, the summit was crowded with these un-

hallowed visitors; and such was their mirth and revelry, whilst from this commanding

point they looked down on the perishing city, that peals of fiendish laughter bore

testimony to the pleasure which the destruction of our race afforded them. After-

wards too—although we do not vouch for the truth of so weighty a charge—it

appeared that various astronomical instruments belonging to the observatory had

been turned to diabolical purposes ; for the first visitor who made use of the glasses

after their fiendish appropriation, could see neither moon nor stars as heretofore

but in place thereof, he beheld a dance of witches, with Prince Beelzebub at their

head—and what was unspeakably worse, with a near and dear earthly relative of his

own, acting as chief partner to his Satanic Majesty. Frantic at the sight, he

shouted out " Holy St. Gerard ! is that my own wife Adelheide !

No reply—but down dropped the glass from his hand, and,

happily for the sight of others, was broken in pieces—He rushed

home ; and there, at his own hearth, sat his weird-wife, rocking

her baby in its cradle. But, as he very shrewdly observed, she

was greatly flurried and disconcerted. He was fortunately a

learned man, and having read that edifying author, ' Adol-

phus Scribonius de Purgatione Sagarum, &c.,' he remembered

that this philosopher lays it down as an indisputablefact,

that witches weigh in-

finitely less than other persons—for, says he, " the devU is a spirit and a subtle being,

and penetrateth so thoroughly the bodies of his votaries, as to make them quite

rare and hght." Now, this thought no sooner struck our hero, than he resolved to

try the test, and seizing his witch wife with both arms, he threw her up almost to

the ceiling—and might indeed, as it turned out, have done so with his three fingers

—for in fact, with all her apparent bulk, she did not weigh four ounces ! Now, if

any philosopher ever had just cause to run mad, Herr Reisenschloss undoubtedly

had. To the glory of his favourite author his experiment, indeed, had been perfectly

successful—^but when he looked at his wife, at the cradle, and his household gods !

(and we need not weaken the picture by dweUing upon it,)

—he became quite frantic,

darted out of the house, and confusedly relating the frightful story to a sympathizing

friend, found refuge in the wards of a public hospital. It has now, in consequence,

become a favourite maxim in the neighbourhood of the Blocksberg, that husbands

should never consult the stars too narrowly on " St. Gerard's eve ;" and if there be any

of our readers so incredulous as to doubt the veracity of the above, we can only

resent it by commiserating their scepticism.

^tit SbU6ptn&ion-iivi'Ogt, as it appears fiom the summit of the Blocksberg, is

a most beautiful feature in this animated landscape, and the more so that, with its

beauty as a work of art, it unites the grand desideratum of unprecedented utility.

Buda and Pesth, by this connecting medium, may now be said to form hterally but

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jFulD o{ ma6oa.j the Danube illusteated. 191

one town ; while formerly, when the intercourse depended on a bridge of boats,

families were often cut off from each other for weeks together ; or if their society

was to be kept up, it was seldom done in the winter and spring months, but at great

personal risk ; for when the boat-bridge was once removed to give free coinrse to the

ice, the trajet was made in rude barges—suitable indeed for the robust and hardy

fishennen, but quite unfit for the interchange of hospitalities, or participation in the

gaieties of the season, where ladies were expected to take a part. The foundation of

this magnificent structure—^which our countryman, Mr. Tierney Clerk, has now so

happily completed—^was duly commemorated by the ' Buda Gazette.' * ITie cere-

mony was highly imposing, and drew together all who are most distinguished for rank

andtalent

in this part of Hungary.]|tl)C£00ion0 in Hungary, formed ofa numerous concourse ofpilgrims, are of fre-

quent occurrence and highly picturesque. The dress of the peasants here consists

in general of a sheep-skin cloak, a broad blanket-hke coat, and a round felt hat.

They are often remarkable for a fine, but vacant countenance—a classic cast of fea-

tures, but inanimate, and marked with a dreamy Ustlessness. Some of them seemburnt

almost black, hke Asiatics, crouching in comers, and when not employed, sleeping,

Uke the Lazaroni at Naples, on the quay. These form the chief constituency of pil-

grimages ; and when carrying crosses, banners, and efiigies of saints, and chanting

lugubrious anthems in their praise, these peasant devotees are to be seen in all their

glory. Such is one of the processions here represented ; behind is seen the old

bridge of boats, over which a long train of pilgrims is passing.

Feld-Rakosch, or the Field of Rakos, where in ancient times the national legisla-

ture used to assemble, is in the immediate environs of Pesth. Here, in the thirteenth

and following centuries, the business of the Diet was conducted in the open air ; and

' The point at which the ceremony was performed was decorated with great pomp, and surrounded

by benches raised in the form of an amphitheatre, capable of holding four thousand spectators. At

an early hour the Archduke Palatine gave a grand dinner to a party of native and foreign personages

of distinction. At half-past four the Archduke Charles, who came as the representative of the empe-

ror and king, arrived in state, accompanied by the Archduch*ess Maria Dorothea, Prince Joseph, and

the Princess Elizabeth, followed by a brilliant trainof

nobleladies

and gentlemen, preceded by thecommandahts of Buda and Pesth. The Archduke Palatine introduced the imperial party into a

splendid tent, prepared for their reception, having a table in the middle, on which were placed the

plans, elevations, and sections of the bridge, and the coins and documents which were to be enclosed in

the stone, and the silver trowel, which weighed five pounds, and the hammer. These having been

inspected, the august party proceeded to another place richly decorated, where, in the presence of the

surrounding multitude, the rescript of the emperor, sanctioning the important undertaking, and de-

puting the Archduke Charles as his majesty's representative, was read. The ceremony was performed

with all t)ie accustomed formalities, and attended by salvos of artillery, the waving of the united stand-

ards of Austria and Hungary, and the acclamations of the people.

This bridge, now completed after seven years' kbour, measures one thousand two hundred and

twenty-seven feet in length, by thirty-nine in breadth. It is remarkable that in digging for a foun

dation to the present structure, that of the old bridge, begun and projected by Matthias Corvinus, was

iiscovered.—Other particulars will be found in the Appendix,

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(92 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [STralTt of ^ti^

as in those days, no baron on any public occasion stirred from his own castle with-

out a numerous retinue of armed dependents, the Council is said to have amounted

to a hundred thousand men—a force, which if it did not make a ' long' was sufficient

to form a strong ' parliament.' On these grand occasions the spiritual lords also

took the field ; and as they drew after them their several suites of ecclesiastical

retainers, all in the robes of office, the scene externally must have been very simi-

lar to that presented by the great oecumenical councils held at Constance and other

places. Perhaps the nearest approach made by anything in the present day to the

great council-field of Rakos, is the annual field-meeting of the Swiss repubUc for the

election of a chief magistrate.

Of the manner of Hving at Pesth, a recent traveller on the Danube gives the

following particulars :—" The principal amusem*nts of the male population, he

observes, consist in hunting, shooting, and fishing. In the former, the sportsman

exhibits his scarlet coat, and English horse and groom ; and is so completely a

ringlaise, as not to be distinguishable from the followers of her majesty's hounds at

Windsor. And here it must be added, that in consequence of the dryness of the

climate, and consequent absence of scent, this amusem*nt rarely continues longer

than two months in the year. Agriculture, and the arts, sciences, and industry are

encouraged by societies and premiums, and this has had the efiect of developing

much natural talent. Most of the Meerschaum pipes sold in Germany are made

here."

"

Althoughthe winter," he adds, " is much colder here than in either Paris or

London, it is less severely felt, in consequence, probably, of the German mode of

heating the houses, by which an equal temperature is diffused throughout. Upon

going abroad only a small addition to the clothing is necessary, the rarified state of

the atmosphere rendering persons less liable to take cold than in either of the capi-

tals just mentioned. An Englishman, on entering a chiu-ch here in the winter

season, will be surprised to find that such a thing as a cough is seldom heard.'

The trade of Pesth consists chiefly in wines of the country, of raw hides, wax,

honey, and a spirituous liquor distilled from plums ; and to the circulation of money

considerable impulse is given by four annual fairs, which bring together a vast con-

coiuse of people, from all the adjoining countries. On these occasions it is calcu-

lated that fourteen thousand waggons pass the outer lines, and that in the coiu-se of

' To any one obliged to practise economy, especially if lie be a lover of the cliase, Pesth offers an

inviting residence. Here he may live at one half the expense to which he would be subjected in almost

any other pliice, have the advantage ofsporting over an extensive range of country, abounding with all

descriptions of game, and associate with a people proverbial for their hospitality, who are desirous of

assimilating their manners to ours, and many of whom spealc our language. No Arab in the desert

ever exercised the virtue of hospitality with more unbounded liberality than a Hungarian magnate.

An English gentleman travelling in Hungary, after having once obtained an introduction, will bo

lodged and entertained by every nobleman to whom he presents himself.—Claridge. Guide down the

Danube.

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SratieoflperHi.l THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 193

the year eight thousand barges unload at the quay. The united population of Pesth

and Buda is calculated at a hundred and twenty thousand inhabitants.'

IfCH LObS-irOH'l H.

' An important question in regard to " mixed marriages" in Hungary, has just been decided, to the

great satisfaction of the people. A letter, dated Presburg, July 7, states, " that the Emperor of Austria

in his quality of King of Hungary, has just decided the long-disputed question of the religion of chil

dreu sprung from mixed marriages. In answer to a petition from the last Diet, praying that parents

of different religionsmight be freed from the obligation of bringing up their children exclusively in the

Catholic religion, his majesty has ordered that children may be brought up as Protestants or Catholics,

as may seem fit to the parents, and, in case tliey cannc* agree, the cliildren are to follow the religion of

the father." This resolution, the letter states, " caused great satisfaction in the city, and in the evening

of the intelligence the houses were illuminated."—A measure so eminently calculated to harmonize and

conciliate all religious distinctions cannot fail to be productive of the greatest advantage to society.

3d

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194 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. rSBUBntss Of tf)t Banufie

PESTH TO THE BLACK SEA.

"Les Hongrois sont nn race d'hommes, qui pensent et agissent noblement. De tontes les nations

que j'ai visitees, c'est celle pour qui j'ai concu la plus haute estime. Je lui dois ce faible tribut de

louange, ct je m'en acquitte avec plaisir."

The character of the scenery below Pesth forms a direct and striking contrast to

what has been already noticed in the previous course of the Danube. The bold

rocks and vine-clad hUls, with which it is bordered at Pesth and Buda, are suddenly

replaced by flat shores, reedy marshes, and an extent of pastures which, stretching

away into the distant horizon, are only bounded on the left by the Carpathian

chain, and on the right by the mountains of Sclavonia and Servia. A succession of

water-mills, projecting half-way across the channel, are among the last objects that

recall the vicinity of Pesth. As the steamer cautiously threads its way through this

rather intricate navigation, and when the tourist's eye first rests on the boundless

tract of country which now expands before him, he feels as if he were taking fare-

well of civihzation, and entering upon a vast primaeval desert, where man is still a

semi-barbarian ; and where the arts by which he converts to his use the natural pro-

ducts of the earth are still in their infancy, or wholly unknown. The immediate

banks of the river present little beyond monotonous ranges of sandliills, here

and there slightly broken into heaps, with numerous flocks and herds, widely scat-

tered along their grassy slopes.Looking to the

river,a few boats

aremet

at long

inten'als, working slowly against the stream ; and here and there—but scarcely en-

livening the vast soUtude—a village is seen, with its white church and huts, just

emerging from the water, or half-buried in its vineyards and pastures. Scarcely a

sound meets the ear but that of the water, as it is broken into foam by the paddle,

and follows like a stream of light in the wake. The ear and eye ai'c so continually

on the stretch, to lay hold of something that may recall the positive evidence of

human existence, that when a stranger, unaccustomed to such profound solitudes,

amves at a village or small town, he feels a singular relief in the change. On the

amval of the steamer in such places, it is usual for the whole population, with the

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n

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i»8]^a.l THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 195

priests at their head, to turn out; and thus, for a time, the idea of soUtude vanishes,

and he feels again sinrounded by beings of his own species. But the strange faces,

grotesque garbs, and wild music by which he is welcomed ashore, are so many con-

vincing proofs that he is among a people whose language and habits are new to him,

and to whom his own appearance is matter of no httle wonder and speculation

But the evidence of rude abundance by which they are surrounded, sufficiently

indicates that, although ' strangers to arts and sciences,' they have the more indis-

pensable comforts of hfe, if not its luxinies, enjoying all that the early patriarchs

enjoyed—the wealth of their flocks and herds ; and with this happy sense of inde-

pendence they make no appeals to his charity—^happy that they know, and that they

have no more.

—But returning to the objects more immediately connected with

thework in hand, we shall confine our observations to such as, from historical interest,

or pohtical importance in the present day, have particular claims on the attention of

strangers.

The first town of any importance after Buda, is Mohacs, a large straggling village,

highly characteristic of the country,—with wide streets, opening on the margin of

extensive commons, into which the cattle were pouring in the evening, when we

landed.' In wet weather the roads here are almost impassable. About the town,

however, there is a pleasing pastoral air, which is very agreeable to strangers. At

the windows of most of the houses we observed quantities of flowers, whUe the

inmates were quietly seated at their doors, enjoying the cool air, which was impreg-

nated with the refreshing odoins of spring.* Here the steamer halts for the night,

and to the curious traveller, time is thus afforded for a survey of the battle-field,

between the Turks and Christians, in m.dxxvi, in which a complete victory was

obtained by the former. WhUst the Diet of the empire was holding its delibera-

tions on the question of affording assistance to Louis, Bang of Hungary and Bohe-

mia—then threatened by the Turks—Solyman, taking advantage of its hesitation,

crossed the firontier, and in the course of his march made himself master of several

towns. The two armies came in sight of each other on the plain of Mohacs;

where, after making the best arrangements which the smaUness of his army and other

disadvantages would allow, Louis hoisted his Christian standard, and within an hour

the battle was at its height. The Hungarians, however, being overwhelmed by

numbers, found their hereditary prowess of little avail ; and, taking sudden flight,

were cut down in vast numbers by the infidel pursuers, who boasted that every

Turkish scimitar on that day was red with Christian blood—Louis himself, after

performing prodigies pf valour, was compelled to quit the field ; but his steed in

' M.S.

* On board the steamer, on this occasion, was a Hungarian proprietor, on his way to assist at the

marriage of liis brother, with the daughter of a Servian prince ; and to show in what the wealth and

produce of tlie land consisted, he mentioned that the dowery of this liigh-born dame was five thousand

swine—such also in remote times were tlie doweries in England. MS. Journal, "W. H. B.

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196 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [lEllok.

attempting to clear a ditch, beyond which his rider would have been safe, fell back-

ward ; and the kingj exhausted with fatigue, and weighed down by his heavy armour,

perished like the meanest of his followers. The victory on the part of Solyman was

complete ; it opened to him the gates of Buda, which was given up to plunder ; and

where the great hbrary, collected by Matthias Corviuus at vast expense, was consigned

to the flames. Solyman is said to have interposed only so far in the destruction around

him, as to rescue a few ornaments of the royal palace, among which were two superb

columns, and three statues ofApollo, Diana, and Hercules. It is also reported, although

upon no certain grounds, that he caused fifteen hundred Hungarian gentlemen to

be beheaded in cold blood ; whUst only a few minutes after witnessing this scene of

horror, he shed tears when he was shown the portrait of King Louis and his Queen,

Maiy of Austria.'

Out of thirty thousand Christians who this day fought under the banner of Louis,

only six thousand escaped ; and the defeat may be easily accounted for, when it is

known that Solyman's army amounted to two hundred thousand men. On the same

ground, however, in the course of time, the Tm-ks met with a signal defeat, under the

arms of Prince Eugene and Charles, Duke of Lorraine, and lost nearly as many of

their own in this, as they had slain in the former battle. This stroke of retribution

acted as so powerful a check on the ambition and resources of Turkey, that the

crescent has never since dared to violate the Hungarian fi-ontier.

Erddd, Dalya, Vukovar, Oppatovacz, Scharingrad, and Illok, all on the right

bank, form the only places deser^'iug of attention between Mohacs and Peterwardein.

The first of these, a Sclavonian town on the right, lies within a remarkable link of

the Danube, has a Greek and a Catholic church, with the remains of an old

castle, finely situated, in which the Counts Palffy—an ancient Hungarian family—re-

sided during the feudal ages. Dalj'a, a market-town, with a population of between

three and four thousand inhabitants, partly of the Greek and partly of the Roman

Catholic persuasion, is surrounded by a fertile tract of corn-lands, and enjoys the

advantages of a lucrative fishery. Vukovar, a mju'ket-town considerably larger than

the preceding, stands at the confluence of the Vuka with the Danube, and at the

distance of thirty-two German posts from Vienna. It has several churches, Greek

and Roman Catholic, a Franciscan convent, and a handsome Council-house.

Oppatovacz, a small Synnian town, contains several churches for its mixed popu-

lation, and a relay of post-horses. Opposite to this, on the left bank, is the smedl

town of Bacs, where the river of that name falls into the Danube. Scharingrad, Uke

the preceding, is a Syrmian town, about a league distant from it, with the remains

of an ancient castle, but nothing remarkable.

SUOftf with about three thousand inhabitants, is a place of great antiquity

But, eaya a French writer, " Soliman Stait genereux : il ue fit certainement point cooper quinze

oens tetes pour le plaisir de voir couler du sang, et ne versa pas des larmes sur des peintures, lorsque la

luort de Louis semblait lui assurer le succesde son cntreprise." An. Germ.

17G0.

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x\

N

I

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fPcttrisarfiein.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 107

various Roman works of art having been discovered, from time to time, in the town

and neighbourhood. It contains a Roman Catholic church, a Greek church, and

a Franciscan convent, in which is the tomb of St. John Capistranus [page 200-1],

Its chief ornament is the handsome palace of Prince Odescalchi, Duke of Syrmia

and Ceri,—a name never to be mentioned but with feelings of admiration'—towhom

Illok and its environs chiefly belong.

ilCt^ftOatDftn, so named fromits being the

supposedbirthplace

of Peter-the-Hermit, occupies a bold and commanding promontory, upwards of two hundred

feet above the river ; and from its resemblance to that celebrated fortress, has been

called the ' Hungarian Gibraltar.' Connected by means of a floating-bridge with

Neusatz, on the opposite bank, Peterwardein forms the capital town of Sclavonia,

with an united population of near twenty-five thousand, exclusive of the garrison,

which varies in strength and numbers according to the state of the frontier. The

appearance ofPeterwardein, though boasting of no greater elevation than that we have

' We allude to Marc-Antonio and Thomas Odescalchi, whose names and deeds stand pre-eminent as

uniting the purest Christian philantliropy with tlieir high station, and giving literally their wealth and

possessions to feed the hungry, to clothe the naked, and to provide a home for the destitute.

3k

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198 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. fCCarTolrft?.

named, is very imposing ; and when fully manned, and its embraziires filled with

heavy ordnance no enemy could approach within the range ofits fire, but at a vast sa-

crifice of life. The resemblance which it bears to the Prussian fortress of Ebren-

breitstein, is not so close as some have represented ; the latter crowns a lofty, naked,

abrupt rock, while that of Peterwardein is not so remarkable for the height of its

rocky, grass-grown steep, as for its isolated position, by means ofwhich it commands

both river and plain. But viewed in connexion with the coimtry around it, this

stronghold between Austria and Turkey is a place of vast military importance ; and,

during its occupation by the latter, served materially to consolidate the strength of

Solyman and his successors in the valley of the Danube. In the present day,

although the danger fi-om that old quarter may be said to have vanished, it is still

an important bulwark, which, in the event of war, some other power would not grudge

a few desperate efforts to secure. The buildings of the fortress, appropriated to

various departments under the surveillance ofan experienced commandant, are lofty

and spacious, containing an extensive arsenal, with quarters for ten thousand men,

and the state-prison, the ' judicium militare.^ With Peterwardein the name of Prince

Eugene is gloriously associated.* Here, in 1716, he obtained, with the imperial forces,

a brilliant victory over the Turks, who left thirty thousand turbans in the field,

(with the heads in them,) as well as their leader, Mustapha Kaprogli, who fell by a

musket-shot. The residt of this famous victory was the fall of Temesvar, and the

total discomfiture of the Ottoman power in Hungary.

Neusatz, or Neoplanta, already mentioned, is comparatively a modem town,

having, hke Pesth, grown up under the patronage and sound policy of Maria

Theresa and her successor. The inhabitants are principally of the Greek church,

with a bishop at their head. It contains a royal Gymnasium, and other institutions of

public utilitj' ; and, until the middle of the last century, canied on a brisk trade with

Turkey. The cession of Belgrade, and the consequent emigration of the Christian

population, were the principal causes of the subsequent prosperity of Neusatz ; but

independently of these, few situations could be more favourable to the interests of

trade than its natural position on the banks of the Danube, where so many circum-

stances combine to render it so highly eligible both for commercial enterprise and

political securitj'.

About a league and a half below this point is the picturesque town of Carlowitz,

a military commune of nearly six thousand inhabitants, two-thirds of whom are

Greeks, with an archbishop, who is primate of the old Greek Church in Austria. It

It was on occasion of this victory that the pope, desirous of bearing public testimony to the interest

he felt in so great an event, as well as to the wisdom and valour of Prince Eugene, sent him that par-

ticular present with which the Roman pontiffs had been pleased at times to honour those great generals

chiefly emperors and kings—who distinguished themselves in battle against the Infidels. This

consisted of a sword, called estoc, and a velvet cap richly adorned, which were presented to the Prince

with the greatest ceremony.

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Btlgratlt.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 19»

contains a cathedral, the episcopal palace, several pubUc institutions, among which is

a college for the education of the Greek clergy. By the treaty ofpeace signed here in

1699, the Turks ceded extensive provinces to Austria, Poland, and Russia; but hav-

ing violated its articles, fifteen years afterwards, and drawn upon them the vengeance

of Prince Eugene, they suffered near this place a loss of thirty thousand men, with

that of a Grand Vizier, and numerous sta,ndards.' The vineyards around Cai'lowitz

produce the celebrated wine of that name. Nearly opposite is a sand-bank, which

runs far into the Danube, thereby causing so much backwater as to expose the

adjoining lands to frequent inundations. Between this and Semlin is Slankamen,

the ancient Rittium, where the river Theiss (Tibiscus) falls into the Danube : it is

also celebrated for a victory gained over the Turks by the Margrave of Baden. To

this succeed the villages of Szurdok Belegisch and 0-Banovcze, with two islands in

firont, and at Semlin the steamboat anchors for the night. This is the fi:ontier-town

between Hmigary and Turkey, where travellers from the latter have to perform a

quarantine of from six to twelve days, or longer, according to circ*mstances. In

LAXAKSTTO.

the lazaretto, however, the traveller is furnished with every convenience, and even

comfort, to compensate for his detention. On the top of Zingankaberg are the ruins

of a castle, described as that of John Corvinus Hunniades, the champion of Chris-

tendom in the fifteenthcentury. He fought against the Tm-ks heroically, and, for

many years, rendered himself so formidable to them, that they sumamed him the

'Devil.' The Sultans Mahomed and Amurath Il.were both compelled to retire from

the siege of Belgrade by his energetic defence of it. Neai-ly opposite Semlin ai'e

the town and fortress of

13(IgraU«. This city, the ancient capital of Servia and 'Alba Graeca' of the

Lady Montagu, in one of her letters, observes—" We passed over the field of Carlowitz, where

the last great victory was obtained over the Turks, by Prince Eugene. The marks of that glorious

bloody day are yet recent, tlie field being strewn with the skulk and carcasses of unburiodmen, horses,

and camels. I could not look without horror on such numbers of mangled human bodies, nor without

reflecting on the injustice of war, tliat makes murder not only necessary but meritorious."

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•200 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [IScIgraUe.

Romans, occupies a highly advantageous position at the angle of junction between

the right banks of the Danube and the Save. Placed on so critical a point of the

grand ' debatable frontier,' its histoiy is that of the crusades, and of the long and

exterminating wars which followed. On its ramparts, garrisoned in turn by Chris-

tian and Turk, but never changing masters, save at the deplorable sacrifice of life, the

cross and the crescent have alternately waved in haughty defiance, or cowered under

the humihation of defeat. In front of this stem and fi-owning stronghold, rival

armies have met in sanguinary conflict—met to dispute the possession of a few walls

and bulwarks, weighed against which the unlimited sacrifice of human hfe appeared

but as a feather in the balance. But to Hungary the military custody of Belgrade

was more than life—for in its capture or surrender, her existence as a Christian

nation was involved ; and to resign her independence and bow her neck as a con-

quered province of Turkey, was a thought that roused her sons to those acts of

heroic devotion, which it is impossible to read but with feelings of the warmest

sympathy and admiration. Nor was the enemy of the Christian name less active in

pushing his conquests beyond the Servian bulwark ; with the resources of a mighty

empire behind them, ready to supply every loss sustained in the field ; and with the

assurance of at last planting themselves in a land where the phmder of tlie cities

and the produce of the soil would secure for them unlimited indulgence, the follow-

ers of Mahomet exhibited all the energy characteristic of men who fight with a

tempting prize in sight—but the possession of which could only be attained by

valour and the sword. Inferior in mihtary tactics, perhaps, but in niunerical strength

far superior, to the Christians, the Moslem power was too often crowned with

success. But although checked and discouraged for a time, retaliation was sure

to follow; and not unfrequently on the very spot where the Christian arms

had met with a reverse, some brilliant victory again wiped off" the disgrace, and

re-estabhshed the cross on the high-places of Belgrade. But as to particularize the

occasions on which the cross and crescent alternately rose and fell in this and the

adjoining province would far exceed the limits of the present work, we shall only

advert to the more prominent features of its historj', which invest the fortress of

Belgrade with so deep and enduring an interest. To the heroic conduct of Hunniades,

Vaivode ofTransylvania and general of the armies of Ladislaus, King ofHungary, and

to his predecessor, the friar Capistrano—who appears to have been a second Peter-

the-Hermit—the arms of the cross are indebted for many of those brilliant achieve-

ments which drove back the Turks within their own limits, and rescued the soil and

population of Scr\'ia from their iron gi-asp. As pious and heroic patriots, their

names are ' in all the churches;

' and in later times, their example has not been lost

upon their warlike descendants semper nomenque laudesque manebunt. To

' Some very important resolutions, in respect to the government of Servia, liave just transpired.

Tlie Country, while these pages are going to press, appears to be in a, state of gi-eat political excitement,

the result of which we hope to communicate in a subsequent portion of this work.

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#

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UtlaraUe.] the Danube illustrated. 201

them was owing, under Providence, the rescue of Belgrade" from the hand of

Mahomet II., who, with an army of two hundred thousand men and a numerous

flotilla, had invested it on all sides. When the Christian garrison looked down

upon this beleaguering host, which in numbers exceeded all that had ever been

witnessed by the oldest soldier, they were struck with dismay, and gave themselves

up for lost. But Hunniades and his friend Capistrano—the former by his heroic

example, the latter by openly preaching—invoking every follower of Christ to

hasten to his standard, and heading the rude army thus assembled, embarked on the

Danube, and bore down upon the Turkish flotilla. Directing the prow of his galley

against that ofthe Turkish admiral, Hunniades gi-appled her, dock to deck, and board-

ing her at the point of the sword, inspired the Infidel with such terror that Hunniades's

' " A place still more distinguished," says a popular writer, " is Belgrade, with its splendid

mosques, tall minarets, domes, gardens, and cypress-groves. It stands in a most nohle situation,

where the waters of the Save and the Danube join. ' These two majestic streams, blending their

waters at this point, expand into what might be mistaken for the ocean itself, and the spot where the

Save pours itself into the queen of European rivers is clearly perceptible from the diversity of the

tints.'* Belgrade was founded by the Romans, afterwards destroyed by the barbarians, and then

rebuilt by Justinian. The citadel is a commanding object, standing as it does on a steep hill one hun-

dred feet high, and jutting out into the waters of the Danube. This is the source of many a Turkish

atrocity towards Christian captives. Rhigaa the Greek was here sawed asunder limb by limb ; and so

late as 1815, thirty-six unhappy Servians were impaled alive, in violation of a pledge given as

to their safety. Belgrade is the seat of a pasha of three tails, and of the only garrison that

the Turks, in pursuance of their treaty with the Servians, can maintain in the country. The

immense fortifications are now fast mouldering away. The history of Belgrade is too full of great

events for us to attempt even a bare enumeration of them, so we prefer occupying our space with a

brief glimpse of the very interesting town. This is composed partly of ' lines of modern houses, but in

general of rows of wooden stalls, in which the owner arranges his merchandise with no small degree of

taste, and parades his customers, surrounded by his workmen, intent upon their several tasks. The

barber and coffee-vender alone carry on their trade in closed shops, and enjoy the luxury of glazed

windows. To any traveller fresh from "Western Europe the motley population of this town is a novel

and highly interesting scene ; the tailor and the gun-smith, the baker and the victualler, by their

wliite turbans, sallow sombre faces, and haughty mien, will be instantly recognized as Turks ;the red

cap, sharp eye, and insinuating manners of the merchant and dealer betray their Greek extraction

and the merry countenance of the shopkeeper smirks beneath the round close bonnet of the native

Servian.'t At no great distance from Belgrade we find the commencement of several groups of

islands, densely covered with oziers and evergreen shrubs, and peopled with many varieties of water-

fowl. Some of these are exceedingly beautiful. The variety of their forms, their numerous inlets,

tlieir clusters of magnificent shrubs, hung with flowers, among which one might fancy we perceive

some of the sweetest and most brilliant of our English hedgerows and gardens, the deep solitude,

interrupted only by the screams or occasional flight of strange-looking birds, all make up a scene on

which the voyager delights to dwell. From hence ' a field of Indian corn, hills deeply indented by

the rains, and exhibiting sometimes the appearance of artificial fortresses, sometimes retiring to a dis-

tance, and leaving in front abrupt mounds of the most fantastic shapes : villages with their churches and

steeples on one side, and churches and minarets on the other ; Servians on our right, fishing in little

co*ckle-shells of boats; Hungarians on the left, tending herds of swine; mountains towering in tlie

distance;'—engage our attention until we reach Moldava."+

• Frickel's Pedestrian Tour. t New Cyclopedia, article Belgrade. Vol iv. t French period-.

3 F

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202 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [IStlgraBe

intrepid followers, bearing down all opposition, continued their triumph from deck to

deck, and animated each other with the shouts of St. George and victory. Nor was the

friar a passive spectator of the scene : placing himself on the prow of the war-galley

which led the second diNasion of the Christian flotilla, and extending with one

hand a crucifix, and with the other beckoning on to the attack, his figure was con-

spicuous to the whole fleet; his orders, too, were eagerly caught, and passed like

watch-words from prow to prow. The waves of the Danube, that were so lately

white and foaming with the rapid strokes of ten thousand oars—were in a few minutes

red and discoloured with Turkish blood.—The combat raged till noon—but ere

evening, all was still, save where, gathered round the friar's barge, the victorious

army united in the loud and long-continued ' halleluias' which ascended in grateful

homage to the gates of heaven.

The loss of the sultan, during the siege and combat, was estimated at thirty thou-

sand men. Hunniades, now taldng the command of the fortress, reorganized the

garrison, and placing it in a thorough state of defence, restored unanimity and con-

fidence among the inhabitants, and for a time baffled all the strength and resources

of Turkey to place it in jeopardy. In 1522, however, it was captured by Solyman

the Magnificent,—whose successful career along the Danube has been already

noticed,—and from that period, till it was retaken in 1688, by the Elector of Bavaria,

it remained one ofthe great strongholds of the Turkish empire on the Danube. Three

years subsequent to the above event, it was recaptured by its old master, the sultan,

but recovered by the gallant exploits ofPrince Eugene, in 1717,* captiuredby Laudon

in 1689, and afterwards delivered over to the Turks at the peace of Belgrade.

The population of Belgrade is estimated at thirteen thousand, including four

thousand Turks and two thousand Jews. The predominating features of the city,

in the distance, are its mosques and numerous minarets. It contains one Christian

church and thirteen mosques. The other public edifices are the residences of the

late Ozemy George, and his successor Prince Milosch, the miUtary chief' of the Ser-

vians, the ruins of Prince Eugene's palace, the pacha's residence within the citadel,

and one or two others of less importance, in the different quarters into which the

'

On this occaiion, says a French writer,—" On trouva dans la ville cent soixante et quinze canons

de bronze, vingt-cinq de fer, et cinquante mortiers."—The following is characteristic of Turkisli bar-

barity :—" Le Grand Visir, Ali, qui commandait I'armfee des Turcs, fut blessiJ li mort^ et inounit le

lendemain k Carlowitz. On ne pent se rappeler, sans fremir, I'inhumanit^ de ce Musulnian. 11

avail entre ses mains le General Breiiner, officier distingue dans le troupes iniperiales. II fit venir ce

prisonnier et ordouna qu'il fflt massacre sous ses yeux."—An. Germ. ed. lyCO.

' Milosch, who lately abdicated in favour of his son, is thus spoken of by Mr. Claridge:—

" Milosch

is desirous of introducing great reforms into Syria ; but he has many long-established customs and

deeply-rooted prejudices to contend against : lie has, however, done much; and be it mentioned to his

honour, that he has liberated the serfs, and declared every Servian to be free. lie has given a consti-

tution ; trade is unfettered by restrictions ; his ports are open to the vessels of all countries ; a traveller

IS safe, for whenever a robbery takes place, the inhabitants of the neai-cst village are responsible, and

must find thedelinquent or pay o. hea^'y fine."

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1K«IItn6crg.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 203

town is divided. But as to its present condition and appearance, it is far from pre-

possessing " aber ist Belgrad schlecht gebaut und nicht geflastert, und sein Inneres

entspricht dem aussem Ansehen nicht."—Colonel Hodges, an officer of expe-

rience and distinction in the service of his country, was the late English representa-

tive in Servia. Her British Ma-jesty's Consul at present is T. de Fonblanque, Esri

INLAND bCBNJG UN THK DANUBK-

About three leagues below Belgrade the river Temes, previously uniting with the

Bega, pours its tribute into the Danube, and near the confluence stands the popu-

lous town of Pancsova. Nearly opposite, on the right bank, and with a large island

intervening, is that of Vischnitza, succeeded by the market-town of Krozna, well

known as the scene of a disastrous battle in 1739. The Danube is here interrupted

by two small islands, and near the mouth of the Jessova river, appear the town and

fortress of sem*ndria. The latter, erected early in the fifteenth century, by a Servian

prince, is built in the form of a triangle, and flanked by numerous towers. The

distance from Belgrade to this place is five German miles, and all along the oppo-

site, or Hungarian bank, military outposts ai'e stationed at short intervals, formed of

wooden cabins mounted on pillars, and siurounded by a gallery, from which the

military occupant may have a clear view of what is passing aroimd him, without

incurring any risk from the sudden inundations to which this low and marshy tract

is continually exposed. About five leagues further down is the town of Kiditza,

situated close to the embouchure of the Morava river : directly opposite is a large

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204 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [fiabafeat.-

island in the Danube, six leagues in length, and on the left bank is seen the small

town of Kubin—close to the Donavitza canal. On the right bank the towns of

Petko Bescharovatz and Rama successively present themselves to the eye. The

latter is a Servian town of considerable strength, with the remains of a Roman forti-

fication near it. On the opposite bank, between the mouths of the rivers Kavasch

and Neva, stands the military town of Neu-Palauk, an Austrian station. On the

right bank are Gradiska, and Tiirk-Bossesena, with the two small towns of Alt and

Neu-Moldava nearly opposite, where the Danube is split into two islands. Bui

although the towns and villages are comparatively numerous, between Belgiade and

this point, the scenery is iminteresting and monotonous, and the only difference

observable in the Danube is in its increased breadth, the number and size of its

islands, with someadditional turmoil

andrapidity in its current, and the mountains

gradually contracting the plain. Previous to reaching Moldava, the steamer halts

for the night at a small station called Basiasch, where an inn has been provided by

the navigation-board for the convenience of passengers. The next object thai

arrests particular attention, and greatly relieves the monotony of the scene, is the

picturesque rock of

^AbAfxai, of which the accompanying plate gives a faithfid and striking repre-

sentation. It rises abruptly and in isolated grandeiu" from the centre of the river,

near the largest of the two islands already mentioned. The origin ofthe name is

said to be derived from the following domestic circ*mstance:—A Turkish aga,

of high consideration in the country, and who held a command on the frontier,

having returned home unexpectedly, discovered, with shame and indignation, that

the fairest ofhis seven wives had suddenly disappeared, and gone offwith a noble Hun-

garian. Instigated to deadly revenge by this double insult, the Turk communi-

cated with his favourite janissary, and promised him ten purses of gold if he could

recover the fugitive, and bring him the head of her paramour. The janissary

accordingly set off in hot pursuit ; and following on their traces came imsuspectedly

in sight of them as they were crossing the frontier. But, unconscious of his danger,

the Hungarian now thought himself secure of his prize, and dismissing the greater

part of his retinue, retired with the fair Zuleika to a small Christian fort, or rather

Kiosk, within the boundary line. Here he was attacked in an unguarded hour by

the janissarj', who, having disguised himself and comrades as Servian peasants,

craved an audience of the Hungarian chief, complaining of injuries they had just

received from some Turkish marauders, and demanding justice at his hands. Theii

request was instantly complied with ; but no sooner did the count receive them at

the outer gate than, throwing aside their sheep-skins, and drawing their scimitars,

the janissaries fell upon the supposed wife-stealer, cut him down, and nmning furiously

into the divan, there found the beautiful culprit stretched, apparently lifeless, on the

floor. To raise, bind, and bear her off were the work of a few minutes; and to agonize

her by an act of refined cruelty,the head of her paramour was slung to the neck of

her

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EegenU of ISnbafeaC.J THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 205

steed;and, in this manner she was hurried into the presence of her husband—the

terrible Aga. In another minute slie was to have been tied—not with the silken

noose, but tied up in a horrid sack and cast into the Danube ! But the aga thinking

to protract the term of punishment by some more ingenious method, countermanded

this order, and sent his helpless victim to perish slowly on a desolate rock in the

Danube, with these last words thrilling in her ear—

'Ba-ba-kay!' 'Repent of thy sin!'

But whether she obeyed him in this is very doubtful. The sentence, however, was

duly executed, and the lady—though at the greatest personal risk of her tormentors,

(for the rock is encurcled bydangerous eddies)—was safely lodged on the craggy pin-

nacle, and instantly abandoned to her fate. The aga was delighted with the success

of his stratagem, and enjoyed all that sweet satisfaction which springs from satiated

revenge. The ghastly head of the count gratified his eye by day, and at night he

felt new pleasure in reflecting that his faithless Zuleika was slowly famishing on a

dreary rock.

The lifeless head, however, on which he gloated, was happily not the head of the

count ! The janissary, too eager to execute his commission, had missed his man,

and in the darkness cut down and beheaded an aide-de-camp of the count, who, on

hearing that Senuan peasants were at the gate, had gone to announce the temporary

absence of his master Of the identity of the lady, however, there was unhappily no

doubt ; and we need not describe the frenzy into which the count was wrought, when

the startling tidings reached him on recrossing the lines. But, more inclined to deeds

than words, every soldier, every servant under his commandswere instantly called to his

aid, and before even the janissary had told to the aga the success of his expedition,

Hungarians and Servians were lying in ambush hard by, anxiously waiting to frus-

trate, at the expense of their own lives, any sentence that might affect that of the lady.

But what could not, perhaps, have been accomplished by open force, was happily

effected by patiently waiting the result ; and when the armed body had all returned

from the rock, to announce the faithful execution of their orders, they little ima-

gined that at the same instant a well-manned barge, gliding cautiously round the

comer of the island, was making its way to the left side of the rock. In a few

minutes it cleared the eddies, and fastening its grappling-irons into the rocky shore,

disappeared for some time under the friendly shadows of night and a starry sky.

But again the oars were pulled with energetic and redoubled strokes ; the boat in

a slanting direction bore rapidly towards the left bank, and there landing its freight,

was sent adrift among the breakers ; while the company, well mounted on Turkish

barbs, speedily vanished in the depths of the forest.

Anxious next morning to know whether his victim was still suffering all the agony

he so fondly anticipated, the Turk despatched his executioner to the rock, with .strict

injunctions to throw her headlong from the precipice—^for his sleep, as he confessed,

had been much troubled with frightful visions of rescue, and he could not rest till

the final sentence was carried into effect. But when the janissary with great diffi-

3 G

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200 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [€Da«tle of IKoIumbar^

culty again ascended the rocky prison, he could discover nothing of the captive;

nothing but the cords with which she was fastened to the precipice, and some shreds

of manuscript in the Hungarian character. The functionarywas a shrewd but cautious

man ; and in repeating to the aga the result of his visit, stated it as a fact beyond

question, that worked up to a pitch of frantic despair, the culprit must have flung

herself headlong into the Danube—adding, in confinnation, that a projecting point

of the rock, where she must hare fallen, had caught and still retained a consider-

able portion of her garment.—This account, though ill according with his dream,

appeared to satisfy the aga, and calling for fresh pipes and coffee, he dismissed all

fears of rescue, and relapsed into a pleasing reverie as to the best plan of filling up

the vacancy caused by the heartless desertion of his seventh wife.

In less than a week, however, his arrangements for this tender ceremony were

much disconcerted, by news that the Imperialists had reached the nearest frontier,

and, like insolent ' Christian dogs,' had defied both the grand sultan and the prophet.

" Alia il Alia !" exclaimed the aga, and ordering his troops to march, reached the

point threatened, on the very eve of the great battle of Carlowitz. During the

fearfid carnages of that day, the Hungaiian noble sought in vain to encounter the

aga in the melee. But strange as it may appear, the first person brought to his

ctimp in the evening was the said aga ! He was mortally wounded ; and his last mo-

ments were embittered by the knowledge of Zuleika's escape—of her having abjured

Tslamism, and become the wife of her deliverer—the very man in whose tent he was

that day a prisoner.—We now resume our progress downwards.

AtBabakai' the scenery ofthe Danube becomes bolder and more striking, extend-

ing along a romantic defile, densely wooded, here overhung with frowning rocks,

and there opening in gloomy vistas over untrodden and primajval forests. But the

point at which all that is wild or romantic in scenery appears to concentrate, is the

feudal

®a0tl£ Of StOlUtnbaCJ. This, of its kind, is one of the most striking scenes

on the Danube—and the effect it produces is greatly heightened by the utter and

undisputed solitude over which it presides. On the right, as we approach this

majestic ruin, gigantic massive rocks, pierced with caverns, and haunted by eagles

that brood unmolested in its inaccessible crevices, seem in fine harmony with a

stronghold, whose early chiefs were as much addicted to predatory warfare, as the

eagles to which it is now abandoned. Of the castle, originally of vast dimensions,

only seven or eight towers now remain—but these are sufficient to indicate what it

must have been when the Greek Empress Helena, a lady of transcendant beauty,

suffered imprisonment within its walls. The largest of the caverns above mentioned

' Tlie gfroat new road along the left bank of the Danube, which in many respects rivals in design

and execution the best of Napoleon's routes across the Alps, commences near the rock of Babakai,

and terminates at Orsova, so as to obviate the dangers of every attempt to navigate the Danube be-

tween these two points, at certain times of the year.

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JerBap^iaapiBs.j the Danube illustrated. 207

is that in which, according to tradition,St. George slew the Dragon—and whose

carcass, it is said, still putrefies in its recesses, and sends forth those myriads of small

flies, which are so tormenting to men and cattle. " They are so destructive," says

Mr. Claridge, " that oxen and horses have been killed by them."' It is called the

Kolumbacz-fly;and a conjecture has been ventured regarding its origin, which

states that " when the Danube, rises, as it does in the early part of summer, the

caverns are flooded; and the water remaining in them and becoming putrid, produces

tliis noxious insect." But of this there is considerable doubt, grounded on experi-

ment ; because some years ago " the natives closed up the caverns," but without

any sensible advantage. These flies " nearly resemble musquitoes, and in summer

appear in such swarms that they look like a volume of smoke, and sometimes cover a

space of six or seven miles. Covered with these insects"—rightly described by lannajus

as the 'furia infernalis'—" horses not unfrequently gallop about till death puts an

end to their sufferings. Shepherds anoint their Umbs with a decoction of worm-

wood, and keep large fires burning, to protect themselves fi"om them ; but upon any

material change in the weather, the whole swarm is destroyed."

From Kolumbacz^ onwards, the scenery presents the same characteristics of

wild, solitary grandeur—^beetling cliffs shooting up into the sky—the exclusive

domain of eagles and other birds of prey, screaming as they wheel in rapid circum-

volutions over head ; vast, interminable forests, that chmb the highest mountains, and

descend into the deepest gorge ; cataracts roaring and leaping from rock to rock ; majes-

tic trees, with the soil washed from under them, and ready to be hurled by the next

blast into the river ; others, stript of their bark, white and mutilated, dashing along

with the ciurent, are but a few of the sights and sounds which meet the traveller in

this primaeval wilderness. Almost the only reUeving features are here and there a

flock of goats, a rude Servian fishing-boat, or a solitary herdsman.

About half a league under Kolumbacz is the village of Liupkova, containing near

twelve hundred inhabitants. Between this vUlage, in the Banat of Temeswar and

Boricz, on the right or Servian bank of the river, are the rapids called Jerdap, or the

' Strudel and Wirbel' of the Lower Danube. Drenkova, at which the steamer com-

' They principally " attack the tender parts of the animals, which are free from hair, the eyes, ears,

nostrils, and throat, down which they creep in such numbers as to cause suffocation from the swelling

produced by a multitude of bites. Children left by their mothers in the open air, out of sight, have

been killed by them. At Neu Moldava, the cattle, sheep, and horses are kept in-doors by day, during

the season of the fly, and driven out only at night, being at the same time anointed with pitch, &c, on

their nostrils and other tender parts, to protect them."

' A little below the town of Moldava recommences the mountainons scenery of the Danube, and at

the very entrance of the rocky gorge through which the river finds its course, are the ruins above pien-

tioned, occupied about a century ago by a band of WaUachian brigands. On emerging from this part,

the rapids of the Danube are before us. The bed of the river is here wholly composed of rough rocks,

sometimes starting up in masses nearly to the surface of the water, sometimesforming a wall acioss it

from bank to bank.— The Danube.

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208 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATKU. n&avCDa.

UKiCNKUVA.

pletes her voyage, is merely a log-house, or a temporary shelter for travellers and

merchandize ; but as the situation is favourable, and the traffic by steam on the

increase, accommodations better proportioned to the demand will soon spring up.

Here we spent the night, and although the inn is small, every thing was done to

make us comfortable. It was here that, in 1839, fourteen passengers by the steamer

were lost. Availing ourselves of the halt, we took a ramble up into the forest, and

were greatly delighted with the wUd and magnificent scenery which it disclosed.

Next morning we embarked in a small cutter, and were soon involved among the

eddiesand currents, which render this passage so formidable to the unexperienced

traveller, and are never without danger, when the vessel is in the hands of an unskilful

pilot. The intricacy of the navigation was so apparent, that we felt it difficult to

divest ourselves of serious apprehensions for the result—especially when, at frequent

mtervals, the vessel seemed to be hurrying towards projecting rocks, around, and

over which the breakers were continually tossing their foam with a thundering roar.'

' Vast exertions have been mode to facilitate the navigation of this part of the Danube, but liitherto

without effect. Tlie method adopted is similar to that by which, under the Empress Maria Theresa,

the navigation of the Strudel and Wirbcl of the Upper Danube was so greatly improved. But here

the task is of a much more arduous nature, the distance greater, the material harder, the river deeper

and more rapid ; so that " it has been calculated that it would occupy a thousand miners more thau

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Befilt o( Sajan.l THE DANUBE illustrated. 900

All these obstacles, however, were successfullycombated

orevaded by the experi-

enced eye and skilful management of our helmsman, who, keeping a steady course

between Scylla on the one hand and Chaiybdis on the other, launched us at length

into smooth water, where we could look back with unconcern to the roar and tur-

moil of the breakers that gleamed in our wake. Through the whole of this passage

the scenery presents a character of savage grandeur and sublimity ; but the most

striking point is that of Greben, a bold picturesque promontory, which was no sooner

caught sight of than it extorted from us a simultaneous shout of admiration. From

this point, which forms a magnificent terminus to the rapids, we passed Swinicza,

and glided along for several miles over an untroubled surface, where the Danube

assumed the character of a spacious lake, rather than that of a river with whose

wild and capricious nature we had so lately to contend. The width of the river is

now five thousand feet, or upwards; while in the Kazan defile its immense volume of

water is confined within a channel not exceeding four hundred feet from bank to

bank ; so that what it loses in width must be supplied in depth, which, at the nar-

rowest point of that gorge has been ascertained to exceed twenty-eight fathoms.

The next remarkable object in our descent, is the ancient Castle of

HvCTOtiUlt, or Tricida, an engraving of which is here introduced. It is sup-

posed to be of Roman origin, an opinion which is confirmed by the character of

the workmanship, as well as by its vicinity to the other majestic relics of the Empe-

ror Trajan's reign. Of the three square towers remaining, two occupy the crest ofa

naked rock, and the third, which communicates with these by means of a draw-

bridge, under which runs an ancient road, stands on a beethng, detached rock, the

base of which is imdermined by the Danube. It commands a fine view of the

intervening river, and the vast and sweeping forests by which the mountains, around

and beyond, are completely enveloped. Shortly after this we approach the most

remarkable scenery, perhaps, in the whole course of the Danube, namely, the

HHefile of Ita^an* The entrance to this pass is indescribably grand;present-

ing, in the most striking combination, all those qualities, features, and appearances

wliich are the essential constituents of sublimity in natural landscape ; it strikes even

the most experienced traveller with surprise and admiration, and tlirows many of his

previous recollections of Alpine and transatlantic scenes into the background. Its

precipitous banks—rising in almost unbroken masses, sheer from the water's edge, and

to an amazmg altitude seem to blend with, and disappear in the sky. Higher still,

filling every ravine and flinging perennial masses of verdure over the inaccessible

cliffs and summits, oak forests, that have never resounded to the woodman's axe,

but flourished thus in primasval and self-propagating beauty and freshness, through

fifty years incessantly, at a cost of many millions of florins, to cut a passage twenty feet wide and

four deep, with the probability that, even when completed, no steamer would be able to stem the

rapidity of the current, so greatly increased by the removal of the impediments." -Handbook. But the

great Alpine road now in rapid progress will coinppnsate for tins disappoiutnient.

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810 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [^ass Of Sajaa

immemorial ages, give rise to feelings and impressions to which it is impossible to

give utterance. Along the face of the precipices, eagles were seen wheeling in rapid

flight, or lazily sailing with expanded wings through their native element—but at

such a height that these despots of the sky appear but as " choughs and crows"

to the spectator who looks up to their eyries from this defile. To the freshness of the

vegetation was added the perfume of numberless flowers and shrubs ; so that the

airwas impregnated with deUcious odours which, wafted from a thousand gardens, that

required no culture from the hand of man, continually met us as we floated down the

stream. The scene was singularly novel in its character, and no less pleasing and

impressive. It is to be regretted that this extraordinary defile has not been

more expressly noticed—jiarticularly by those toiu-ists on the Danube who,

in other respects, have given so many faithful and animated pictures of its

scenery. It is truly observed, however, in one of the most popular works of the

day, that " there is an awfiil grandeur in this colossal gorge : for a long distance, the

rocks are so perpendicular, that a plumb-line might be dropped from their brow

into the water below ; and their extreme height above the stream falls Uttle short of

two thousand feet."

The village of Plavisovicsa, near the entrance to Kazan, is the place selected by

the Diet of Hungary as " a depot for the materials employed in caiTying on their

improvements in the channel and along the banks of the river." "On looking at the

two sides of the river," observes a writer in the Quarterly Review, quoted by Mr.

Murray, " I immediately saw that the Servian was that on winch the road ^ should

have been constructed, even had the Roman rehcs not been there, nor the faciUties

which the Roman work itself still continues to afibrd. The plan of the Romans, that

is, corridors of wood, too, seemed the one best adapted to the nature of the country,

which is covered with forests of oak. In fact, it appeared to me that the Roman

road might be re-established with great ease ; the rock having been cut away where-

ever it was called for, scarcely more than the restoration of the woodwork would

have been necessary. Servia would easily have supplied the timber, the river would

have transported it ; every Servian wears a hatchet in his belt, and lives luider a

system similar to that which has left so many and so stupendous ruins of works des-

tined to public utility in Hindostan and Spain."

'" Until the construction of the new road, all communication along the banks of the river ceased here

the cliffs are so abrupt and close to the water as not to allow room for a goat to climb. As late as

1837, the only way of reaching Orsova from this, by land, was by taking a steep and tortuous road,

which here turns away from the Danube and crosses two or three ridges of hills. The new road, how-

ever, has been boldly carried through the defile, a passage having been blasted for it in the limestone,

by the river-side. As you pass along this gallery, it has the appearance of an overarching cavern,

while from the water it looks like a mere groove, or the serpentine holes bored by the teredo in a piece

of wood." Murray's Handbook for Southern Germany.

' In the accompanying engraving t» this Pass, the traces of the old Roman road are seen on the right,

und the line of the new road on the left.

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VrteranPs CTstre. 1TUB DANtTBK ILLfJSTRATED. 211

'ITie next object of interest in this defile is the Rock of Kazan—Fels-Kaszan,

near the centre of the stream, which, impatient of obstruction, roars and foams

around it with the motion and \'iolence of a whirlpool. A little further down is

Pestabora, with the Veteranische-Hohle, or Veterani's Cave—so called in memory

of General Veterani,' an Austrian officer of distinction, who defended this pass against

the Turks, at the close of the seventeenth century. Deficient in numbers, he had

recourse to stratagem, and shutting himself up in this cavern, with three or four

hundred men, here he kept the Mussulmen at bay, and vigorously maintained his

position for several months. Thirty-six years later it was again turned to similar

account ; and if well provisioned, and with no treason in the garrison, its natural

advantages are such as to render it almost impregnable. The entrance in the face

of the cliff is very small, and unless sought for escapes observation. The interior i.i

VILLAQB ON THK UANUDK

' This distinguislied officer is mentioned by Lady Montagru as having " met and very civilly iiivit«.i

her to pass the night at a little castle of his," on her approach to Belgrade, in the neighbourhood of

which he held a command-twenty-seven years after his defence of this cavern.—See Letter xxiii.

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212 THE DANUBE ILLI'STRATED. [ffirajan'g SCaftl.

capacious, opening into a second cavern, lighted from above, and with a single gun

planted in front, capable of sweeping the whole defile- When it was last occupied by

Major von Stein, in 1718, it had most of the accommodations of a regular garrison,

such as a large fire-place—a cistern, well supplied with good water—an oven for

baking—a powder-magazine, and other military stores, secured by a massive iron

door. That it was made use of in the same way by the Romans is rendered

probable, by inscriptions and characters, which, as we learn from a German accoimt

of the " Grotto," are still to be obsen^ed on its walls. Its dimensions, as given in

' Der Begleiter auf die Donaufahrt," are sixteen fathoms long, twelve in breadth and

ten in height; so that six hundred men might be conveniently stationed in the

natural fastness, should it ever again be necessary. But it is by no means likely that

garrison-duty will be again performed by either Austrian or Turk, in such quarters

Three leagues fiuther down, on the left, is the village of Ogradena, a military

station on the Wallacho-Illyrian frontier, with about four hundred inhabitants ; and

nearly opposite to this is the rocky precipice called

?CraJAn*0 ^AftU Along its base runs a narrow projecting terrace, parallel with

and fi"onting the stream. Under this platform are observed numerous square sockets

cut in the rock," in line, and at regular intervals, into which the ends of ihe beams

that supported the ancient road were inserted. This rocky stage or terrace is

chiselled out of the precipice, but, being too narrow for the purposes of a great road,

the defect was remedied by flooring over the projecting beams, and thus giving it a

convenient width towards the river, along the margin of which it was carried in the

form of a hanging-gallery. But this plan, though partially adopted in some of the

Alpine passes, has been long abandoned for the more safe and satisfactory one of

blasting the rock by means of gunpowder, as adopted in the construction of the new

road, which, like those of the Splugen and Simplon, would never have been accom-

plished but for this all-powerful agent. How the Romans, by sheer manual labour,

contrived to open a military thoroughfare along the face of this tremendous

gorge, it is difficult to conceive. The vast quantities of timber, too, which were

necessarily employed in its construction, by decay, and accidents of season, must

' Dieso mit eincr Lichtoffnung verselieno und mit mehreren Versclianzungen befestigte Hcihle

beherrscl*t die Falirt auf diesem Strompunkte vollstandig, und scheint nach den darin nocli vorhandenen

Inschriftcn sclion zur Zeit der alten Uomer militarisch beniitzt wordon zu seyn.

' At the lower part of the passage an ancient corridor is cut in tlie rock ; at the upper, huge mortice-

holes are let in for the insertion of beams, on which the corridor was borne along its face. A large

inscription, still legible, gives the honour of this great work to Trajan. A recent traveller, whose MSS.

are quoted by a writer in tlie ' Quarterly Review,' (No. 108,) says, " Never did I more strongly feel the

greatness of that wonderful people, than when, on sailing down the Danube, I first observed the traces

and comprehended tlie object to which this work was destined. . . . Here was the evidence of the

accomplishment by the Romans, although scarcely an indication of it remains in Roman authors, of an

enterprise which is now universally admitted to be one of the most important for the public welfare of

Europe." Also, Notes on the Via Trajana.—French paper.

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®II»=®WOl)a.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 218

have exposed the road to frequent danger, had not the adoption of covered galleries,

as in Switzerland, protected it from the weather above, while the skill and solidity

of the woodwork underneath, gave it all the support necessary for a public highway.

Though exposed to the ravage of torrents, it was fortunately exempt from that of

avalanches; and the former they could either avoid or lessen, by diverting them into

other channels. But under what aspect soever we may contemplate this great monu-

ment of Roman skill and perseverance, our admiration will continue undiminished

and, if anything were wanting to raise our ideas of these ancient masters of the

world, we could hardly adduce a more convincing evidence in their favour than the

' Via Trajana.'

About the centre of the precipice, and nearly level with the platform, is a large

tablet cut smoothly into the face of the rock, with the following words, recording the

completion of the gigantic enterprise, and, as it is conjectured that also of the first

Dacian campaign, a.d. cm.

"IMP. CjES. D. NERV^. FILIUS. NERVA. TRAJANUS. AUG. GERM. PONT. MAX. .."

The remainder of the inscription cannot now be deciphered. Two winged genii

support the scroll, and on either side is a dolphin, with the Roman eagle above ; but

both letters and ornaments are much defaced, not merely by the effects of weather,

but also by the fires lighted under the recess by Servian fishermen."

On leaving this interesting rehc, the river widens as we descend, and in a short

time brings us to Old-Orsova, which is only two leagues and a half from the defile of .

Kazan. This military town and commune are situated on the left bank of the river,

in the Banat of Temeswar; and higher up, on an island near the opposite shore, stands

the Turkish fortress of New-Orsova. The island is three thousand yards in length,

by eight hundred in breadth, and strongly fortified ; but its artificial strength is

greatly impaired by time, violence, and neglect ; and although every means that mili-

tary engineering could devise, were once employed to render it impregnable, it is to

but Uttle purpose that it commands the river, so long as its own bulwarks are com-

manded by all the neighboming heights. It is the residence of a pa9ha ; but except

Fort-Elizabeth, which stands in advance of the main fortress, there is little to

engage attention. The whole fortifications were raised and garrisoned by Austria,

in times when the arms of Turkey were more formidable, and when the frontier was

harassed by active and incessant warfare, but were ceded to the latter with other

strong places, according to the treaty. Old-Orsova, to which we now return, is a place

of more interest, as it exhibits a motley picture of all that is strange or singular in

the voice, gait, garb, and multifarious speech of its nine hundred 'einwohnem' of all

• •' Da das, von Serbischen Fischem unter dieser Wolbung ofters angemachte Feuer die inschrift

LLeilweise verwischte, &c."

S I

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214 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [ffitSOba

tribes—Wallachians, Servians, Sclavonians, Austrians, Turks, and Hungarians. When

we arrived the whole commune was assembled on a festive occasion, and mirth and

hilarity were the order of the day. It was the celebration of a marriage, when every

hamlet around had sent in its groups of peasantry, all in their holiday costume, and

presenting a novel and animated picture. Those of the better sort were dressed much

a la Frangaise, and formed a striking contrast with the greater portion, who wore only

the Servian and WaUachian cloak. The crowd with which we came first in con-

tact was engaged in the national dance, forming a circle, with hands joined, and regu-

lating their steps and movements to a soft, wild, and rather plaintive music, which we

were told was very ancient, having been handed down from generation to generation,

from time immemorial. This they chanted to the instruments of a gipsy-band,

which, moving from place to place, as itinerant minstrels, find a ready welcome

on aU similar occasions. Some of these humble, but zealous votaries of Apollo

were almost Africans in complexion, but with features and expressions such as

Murillo loved to paint. In other parts of the town the dancers were actively

engaged in private houses—all animated by the same character of music as that

which met us in the street. The whole scene was one of pleasurable excitement,

in which all engaged in it appeared to advantage, and we could not but congratulate

ourselves on having fallen in with so pleasing an incident.'

Orsova forms the extreme limit of Hungary on the south-east, and within sight

are the provinces of Servia, Wallachia, and Turkey. These military frontiers

where every man holds his land by feudal tenure—can furnish an immense army in

time of war ; and, on any appearance of Turkish inroad, every man between the ages

of eighteen and fifty hastens to his post. The Austrian border, thus protected from all

aggression, extends from Lower Dalmatia to the Polish frontier—a distance of more

than four hundred and fifty leagues, protected throughout by an almost incredible

series of military outposts—there being seldom less than three watch-towers to every

league.

Near Orsova, and close to the river, are " wooden buildings for effecting an

exchange of commodities with the people of the adjoining states, under such restric-

tions as are likely to preclude the chance of contagion. There is a Greek church

here well deserving of attention, as well as the lazaretto, part of which is appropriated

to the reception of merchandise, and for the horses and men engaged in its transport.

Tlie rest is set apart for the reception of travellers, who will have little beyond

the confinement to complain of, although the place is not equal to the lazaretto at

Semlin"^ already noticed. " On account of the quarantine regulations, the inhabi-

tants of Sen'ia and Wallachia are prevented from coming into contact with the sub-

' Long sheepskin " cloaks, with the wool outside, reminding one of a door-rug. Both in their cos-

tume and physiognomy, they bear a striking resemblance to the Dacians, represented on Trajan's

Column, who in the time of that emperor were inhabitants of this country."—M8. Journal—IWi.* Murray's Handbook—Guide down the Danube, p. 157

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JfWefta'HCa.J THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 216

jects of Austria, and dare notcross the frontier without an escort. The Austrian

quarantine isj^t;e days for those who come out of Wallachia, and ten for those from

Servia, increased to forty days in time of plague. The WaJlachians, again, have a

quarantine of five days against the Servians, so that none of the three parties can

intermix for the purposes of buying and selUng, nor can they touch each other's

goods." * The inconvenience thus occasioned, and the perpetual annoyance arising

out of this state of things—as it affects travellers, and all who are engaged in com-

mercial piursuits—are grievous obstructions, which, could it be accomphshed without

danger to the public health, it were most desirable to have removed. But that there

is at length some prospect that these sanatory regulations wiU be greatly modified,

and the term of quarantine speedily abridged in duration, the annexed letter,* which

has just been put into our hands, affords some most gratifying evidence.

Before re-embarking on the Danube, it is not unusual for tourists, who have

descended thus far, to make an inland excursion to

8C|JC i3attl0 Of ffHt\iSiiiiH, known and frequented by the Romans under the classic

' Handbook, Southern Germany, p. 457. Also MS. Notes on the Danube. 1842.

' " Cairo, June 28, 1843.—Some very important results have been obtained by the commissioners

who have been sent by the Russian government to this country, in order to make experiments as to the

contagion of plague, and the means of arresting the propagation of the virus. One most satisfactory

conclusion has been already come to, and if nothing more be done, that conclusion must lead to the early

modification and final overthrow of the whole quarantine system, as at present constituted ; for the

commission have come to the unanimous opinion, that articles of any sort, after having been subjected to a

temperature offrom fifty to sixty degrees of Reaumur, cannot communicate the plague.

" The commissioners collected a large quantity of garments, of sundry tissues, and ofsusceptible, raw

materials, which were thoroughly impregnated with the supposed virus of the plague. These were

placed in a chamber heated by a stove to the temperature of from fifty to sixty degrees (Reaumur),

some portions loose, some portions tied lightly together, others closely pressed together, and others in

cases hermetically closed. They were subjected to the action of the heat for forty-eight hours.

" Sixty-six persons of all ages and temperaments, including Turks, Egyptians, Syrians, and Negroes,

were clad in the garments, and put into the closest contact with the articles which had been thus

treated. The board of health, and the various medical authorities at Cairo, were called in to exercise

the necessary control and surveillance over these very important experiments.

" The result has been, that not one single person of the sixty-six has been attacked by plague, or his health

affected in the slightest degree by the experiments to which he has been subjected.

" The commissioners state that the quality of the materials has not been in any way deteriorated by

the action of the heat ; that the colours of the various manufactured articles have not been dimmed or

changed ; that the experiments have been attended with scarcely any cost; and that securities may thus

be obtained against the communication of plague at an exceedingly small expense.

" No doubt it would have been well if the commissioners had also ascertained whether the plague

could be communicated by articles not having been subjected to this high temperature. But, in defer-

ence to prejudiced ignorance and to sinister interest, we must proceed slowly.

" A large volume of correspondence on the subject of quarantine has lately been presented to Par-

liament on the motion of Dr. Bowring. No doubt he, or some other member of parhament, will, ere

long, again call attention to a system so unenlighteiied and barbarous as that which now digraces the

legislation of the so-called civilized Europe. Many changes and improvements are in progress, and

every change shows the little foundationfor the fears and follies of the supporters of the existing state

of things." [Published in the Times.] Some other experiments are now in progress, October 20.

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216 THE DANCME ILLCSTHATED. [13at{|g of i%lc1)al>ta.

name of TherrtKB Herculis ad aquas. It is a much-frequented watering-place, being

visited by many guests firom Wallacliia and Moldavia, including Boyards ; and the

following particulars are taken from the work of a recent visitor, who thus speaks of

it :—

" The whole state of Mehadia consists of two ranges of handsome buildings,

forming an oval, three-fourths of which are let out as lodgings, having an hotel

amongst them. The remainder of the buildings are appropriated to the reception

of invalid officers and soldiers, who, in most cases, recruit their health here in the

short space of four weeks. The place enjoys the proud distinction of having been

built by the Austrian monarch ; and the total absence of shops, the uniformity of

the buildings, and the air of retirement which pervades the whole, give it all the

appearance of a royal palace, with its appendages. The superintendence is confided

to a single person, and is conducted upon the same system as the Baths of Schlan-

genbad, in Nassau.

B.VTns OH MBBADtA-

The sceueiy around is very fine; the woods are pierced m all directions,

and thus afford picturesque walks and shady retreats. The season com-mences in the middle of May ; and after the first fortnight, it is difficult to procureapartments. A mihtary band is in attendance morning and evening ; and a ball,

to which strangers are invited, is held once a week. Here the Hungarian nobility,

who make it their favourite place of resort, throw off all ostentation, and mix with

the company at the jDubhc tables, where the conversation is carried on chiefly in

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Sfte Iron=ffiate.] THE DANUBE ILLOsTrated. 217

French, although many speak English, which is much read and cultivated in Hun-

S^'-—There are eight baths, possessed of as many different qualities, and said to be

stronger in their mineral properties than any others that have yet become known.

That the Romans thought so, is to be inferred from the name ' Hercules' Baths

and that they really are so is indicated by the extraordinary and almost miraculous

cures effected by them. The number of springs is twenty-two ; and the waters,

with a temperature of seven degrees of Reaumur,' are celebrated for the cure of

gout, scrofiila, chronic and rheumatic diseases, and contractions of the limbs. There

are Latin inscriptions, in various places, all laudatory of the healing influence of the

waters; and between four and five years ago a fine marble statue of the divinity after

whom they are named, was found in the principal bath, and conveyed to the museum

at Vienna. The climate ofMehadia " is so mild that the fig-tree, and others peculiar

to warm chmates, grow wild in the woods.' But although the waters of Mehadia may

cure an infinity of ills, a long residency here," says Paget, by way cfcontrast, " is apt

to induce in a healthy man one as bad as any in the list ennui. In the morning it is

de rigueur to parboil yourself, in the fetid waters, from which you escape so exhausted,

that, leaning out of the window, and watching your neighbour enjoying the same

recreation, is all you are capable of. At one o'clock the gentlemen meet at the

table-d'hote—the ladies generally dine in their own rooms, and consume a very

indifferent dinner. Then, till six in the evening, the time must be killed ; and a

littlequiet gambling is generally transacted about this time, by such as have a taste

for it. Smoking was our great resource—especially after some Cosmopolite Turks

had established themselves here, with a large stock of chibouks and Latekia, for the

edification of all Christians who loved good tobacco. At six, the beau-monde make

their appearance, the gipsy-band strike up their joyous notes; and till eight o'clock

the promenade of Mehadia is gay with music and beauty.*

Returning to Orsova, we re-embarked in boats provided by the Navigation Company,

and proceeded to encounter the perils of the Eisem Thor—the Iron-Gate* of the

' The annexed table, from a German work, gives the name and scale of temperature ofeach particu-

lar spring:

The Kalksbad 30° Reaumur. The Rauber-bad, or Hercules' spring 35°.5 Reaumur.

The Old Gliederbad . . 39°.5 „ The Angenbiider 42° „

The New Gliederbad . . .20° „ The Springbrunnen 47°.5 „

TheSchindelorLudwigs-bad35°.5 „ The Schwitzloch ...... 30° „

On the left, near the Czerna river, are the Fieberbad, temp. R. 3y°.5 and the Franciscibad, temp.

R. 25°.

« Claridge. See also " Der Begleiter," p. 54. ' Paget's Hungary.

^ Passing over unnoticed many interesting places, and mucli beautiful and sublime scenery, we hasten

to the Iuon-Gate of the Danube, a spot that, taken altogether, is perliaps the most remarkable feature

of the river. This is a series of rapids, extending thiough a narrow valley, formed on tlie north by the

Banat range, an offset of the Transylvanian Carpathians, and on the south by a lateral range of Mount

Balkan. The name is probably derived from the extreme difficulty of the passage, and from the fer-

ruginous colour of the rocks, which occupy the entire bed of the Danube for nearly three miles. The

3 K

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218 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [^^e Eton=<5ate.

Danube—which is so apt to be associated in the stranger's imagination with something

of real personal risk and adventure. The " iron-gate," we conjecture, is some narrow

dark, and gloomy defile, through which the water, hemmed in by stupendous cliffs,

and ' iron-bound,' as we say, foams and bellows, and dashes over a channel of rocks,

every one of which, when it cannot drag you into its own whirlpool, is sure to drive

you upon some of its neighbours, which, with another rude shove, that makes your

bark stagger and reel, sends you smack upon a third !—

" But the ' gate ? '" " Why the

gate is nothing more or less than other gates, the * outlet;' and I dare say we shall

be verj- glad when we are 'let out quietly.'" " Very narrow at that point, 'spose ?"

"Very. You have seen an iron-gate ? " "To be sure I have." " Well, I'm glad

of that, because you can more readily imagine what the ' iron gate' of the Danube

is." " Yes—and I'm all impatience to see it ; but what if it should be locked when we

arrive ?" " Why, in that case, we should feel a little awkward." " Should we have

to wait long ? " " Only till we got the key, although we might have to send to

Constantinople for it." " Constantinople ! well, here's a pretty situation !—I wish I

had gone by the ' cart.' " " You certainly had your choice, and might have done so

—the Company provide both waggon and water conveyance to Gladova ; but 1

dare say we shall find the gate open." " I hope we shall ; and as for the rocks and

aU that, why we got over the Wirbel and Strudel and Izlay and twenty others, and

'spose we get over this too. It's only the gate that puzzles me— the Handbook saj's

not a word about that—quite unpardonable such an omission!—Wnte to the pub-

lisher"—

By this time we were ready to shoot the rapids ; and certainly, at first appearance,

the enterprise was by no means inviting. The water, however, was in good volume at

the time ; and although chafed and fretted by a thousand cross, curling eddies,

which tossed their crests angrily against our bark, we kept our course with tolerable

steadiness to the left, and without apparent danger, xmless it might have arisen from

sheer ignorance or want of precaution. More towaids the centre of the cliauuel

there would certainly have been some risk ; for there the river is tortured and spUt

into numberless small threads of foam, by the rocky spikes winch line the channel,

and literally tear the water into shreds, as it sweeps rapidly over them—and these,

more than the declivity itself, are what present a most formidable appearance in the

rocks are exceedingly rough in their appearance, tumbled about in every kind of form and position,

and when the waters are low, have a very terrific uppearance : Mr. Quin likens them to the gaping

jaws of some infernal monster. When the Danube is at its ordinary level, the ro.ir of the

waters as they hurry through the Iron-Gate is heard for many miles round. Vessels of a low draught

may descend the rapids, but to ascend them is a matter of great difiSculty ; here, therefore, occurs the

only obstruction to a water-communication between llungary and Turkey. The mountains which

form the sides of this most extraordinary vnlley have an interest of another, but scarcely less absorbing

kind. Roman antiquities of an important character are found there and in the neighbourhood ; roads,

bridges, &c. with inscriptions still readable. The most important of these are a road aud bridge, [see

pages 212-13 ante,] both attributed to the Roman Emperor Trajan. The former was constructed as

a tracking-path along the Servian side of the Iron-Gate. Periodical, Art. The Danube.

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ffilaUoba.] THE dandbe illustrated. 2i&

descent. But when the river is full, they are not much observed, although well

known by their effects in the cross-eddies, through which, from the channel for

boats being always intricate and irregular, it demands much caution and experience

to steer. ITie entire length of these rapids is rather more than seventeen hun-

dred yards, with a perpendicular fall of nearly one yard in every three hundred, anda velocity of from three to five yards in every second. Boats, nevertheless, are seen

from time to time, slowly ascending, close under the left bank of the river, dragged

by teams of oxen. "But the iron-gate ?" said an anxious voice, again addressing

his fellow-tourist.—" 1 see nothing like a gate—but of course we have to pass the

gorge first.?

" "We have passed both," said his friend, « and here is Gladova." " Passed

both !' Tell that to the marines

!

' I know a gorge when I see it, and a gate when I

see it; but as yet we've passed neither." " Why there they are," reiterated the other,

pointing to the stem;those white, frothing eddies you see dancing in the distance

—those are 'the Iron-Gate !' and very luckily we found the 'key!'"'—The inquirer

now joined heartily in the laugh, and taking another view of the ' Gate,' we glided

smoothly down to the little stragghng, thatch-clad village of

(!KlallOt)a>' which at that moment presented a scene of great activity and anima-

tion. This viUage is the steam-boat station, and the embarking of goods and

passengers throws an air of life and prosperity into every cottage—the inmates of

which owe their chief support to the introduction of steam. The town and village

population, along the whole course of the Lower Danube, appear, indeed, as if just

awaking from a deep lethargy, into a new life ofpleasant and profitable exercise of their

faculties. Hitherto the stir and bustle with which they have been animated, have

been chiefly those of warlike preparation—aggression, defence, and retaliation, which,

' for centuries, have converted these fertile provinces into vast battle-fields, and

driven the arts of peace into miserable exile. Now, however, that the people have

arrived at something like a sense of their own weight in the scale of government

some with a constitution, and others with advantages to which even the last genera-

tion were strangers—an air of prosperity has at length visited their long-neglected

' " At the Iron-Gate the Danube quits the Austrian dominions and enters those of Turkey. The

country on the south continues for some time mountainous, then hilly, and by degrees sinks into a

plain : on the north is the great level of Wallachia. In its course towards the Black Sea, the Danube

divides, frequently forming numerous islands, especially below Silistria. Its width where undivided

now generally averages from fifteen hundred to two thousand yards, and its depth above twenty feet.

Before reaching its mouth, several large rivers flow into it, as the Alt, Sereth, and Pruth. On its

junction with the last-mentioned river it divides into several branches, which do not again unite, and it

lit last terminates its long course by issuing through seven several mouths into the Black Sea."

' The view of this village is taken looking up the Danube, and in the distance are seen the hills

enclosing the Iron-Gate ; at which, according to Strabo, [see introductory notice to this work,] the

Danube merged in the Ister. Troissart, who calls tins " the mouth of the Danube," says " the noise

of the water is so tremendous tliat it may be heard seven leagues oiF."—Vol ii. 602.

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«20 THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. [€iIaT)OIM.

plains, and promises, with the blessings of continued peace, to introduce among

them the permanent advantages of commerce and agiiculture.'

The excitement which now prevails in the heart of Servia and along the Bul-

garian frontiers, will soon, it is hoped, terminate in the removal of ancient

abuses, and the firm establishment of more enlightened forms and institutions of

government. In the costume of the villagers who met us as we stepped ashore at

Gladova, we observed something very picturesque—particularly the head-dress of

the females, which in shape approaches that of a Roman helmet ; and this, with a

sort of scale-armour, which covered their shoulders, gave them quite a martial

Minerva-like air. One or two of the faces also, having a classic cast of features, the

effect was improved and rendered more remarkable, from being, so far as we had

observed, peculiar to this Dacian village, and probably a relic of the Roman colony

planted here by Trajan. The houses of the villagers are of very nide constraction,

with coarse thatch, and of diminutive size. The situation, however, is so favourable,

that its present site wUl soon be occupied by larger and more substantial buildings.

AyUKDUrT NHAR MKIIADIA

' The condition of the Servian peasantry in the early part of tlie last century, was so wretched, that the

lady of an English ambassador, then on her way to Adrianople, speaks of them in these terms :- " Theoppression of the peasants is so great, that they are forced to abandon their houses and neglect their

tillage—all they have being a jirey to the janissaries whenever they please to seize upon it.

We hada ifuard," she observes, " of five hundred of them ; and I was almost in tears every day to see their iuso

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Sojotens.] THE Danube illustrated. 221

Below Gladova, we enter one of those vast monotonous plains thi-ough which the

Danube, split into numerous channels, and enclosing

manyislands,

pours its capri-cious flood towards the Black Sea ; and the next object which fixes attention is

^OJOrenp, the ancient Severinum. This Wallachian village, of itself, has nofurther claim to attention, than what may arise from its being considered the first

point on this side of the Danube, on which the Romans attempted a permanent

settlement. The evidence of strong fortifications is still visible, the character and

dimensions of which leave no doubt of their being intended to form an impregnable

-ampart at this point, fit for the accommodation of a numerous garrison. But the

grand featiures of the scene are the remains of Trajan's Bridge, with a mouldering

square tower in the foreground, crowning an artificial mound, and intended as a

strong cover to the bridge. Of the latter, some colossal vestiges still remain, con-sisting of sohd abutments on both sides of the river, with the ruins of small forts

for the protection of the passage. In the channel of the Danube, when the water is

low, the massive stone piers which supported the platform are still visible ; but far

the greater portion of the ruins is on the opposite, or Servian bank, where several

arches, backed by a massive tower, stand forth as memorials of this majestic bridge.

The grand object of this unparalleled structure was to unite the hereditary with

the newly-acquired provinces of Rome ; to protect the firontier, to push their con-

quests further to the north, and expedite those ambitious measiu-es to the accom-

phshment of which the passage of the Danube had hitherto presented the most

formidable obstacles. The situation chosen for the bridge, although at a point

where the river is very wide, was every way calculated to second his views. The

banks, comparatively open and level, would admit of an immense ai'my being

assembled, and marched in order of battle to the Dacian shore ; whUst, if the expe-

lence in the poor villages through which we passed. After seven days' travelling through thick woods

we came to Nissa, once the capital of Servia, situated on a fine plain on the river Nissava, in a very

good air, and so fruitful a soil that the great plenty is hardly credible. I was certainly assured that

the quantity of wine last vintage was so prodigious, that they were forced to dig holes in the earth

to put it in, not having vessels enough in the town to hold it. But the happiness of this plenty," she

truly observes, " is scarce perceived by this oppressed people," and adds the melancholy proof as fol-

lows :—" I saw here a new occasion for my compassion : the wretched peasants who had provided

twenty waggons for our baggage from Belgrade hither for a certain hire, being all sent back without

payment, some of their horses lamed, others killed, and without any satisfaction being made for them.

The poor fellows came round the house, weeping and tearing their hair and beards in a most pitiable

manner, without getting any thing but blows from the insolent soldiers. I cannot express how much

I was moved at this scene. I would have paid them the money out of my own pocket, with all my

heart; but it would have been only giving so much to the aga, who would have stripped them of it

without remorse." Lady Montagu.

The Christians of Bulgaria and Bosnia are at this moment {July, 1843,) anxious to transform their

provinces into principalities, and to confide the government of them to a prince of their own nation, in

ihe same manner as tlie principalities of Seivia, Moldavia, and Wallachia. Crowds of emissaries,we are

informed,are now travelling the country in all directions, exciting the people to revolt; and the present

moment appears favourable, in consequence of the turn which affairs have just taken in Servia.—The

result, also, of a new deliberation of the authorities of Belgrade was anxiouslyexpected.

Ed.3 L

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aafBWtt.] THE DANUBE ILLUSTRATED. 223

the native herdsmen, with their blanket-like cloaks, standing near the wattled

enclosures for the cattle, or by fishermen trying the effects of their rude nets, and

other " piscatory implements," in the stream. Near these villages and their pens

is always to be observed the well, with its tall pole, lever, and rope for the bucket

a familiar feature in German landscape ; but supposed to be of great antiquity, and

serving all the purposes of a more elaborate apparatus, where the depth of the well

is not great. During sjiring or before the fervors of the sun have commenced, the

verdure near the banks is bright and luxuriant, and between the river on this side

and the desert beyond, forms a beautiful and refreshing belt for the eye to rest upon.

The shores, too, are enlightened, from time to time, by flights of birds ; by human

figures moving along the plain ; but the general impression left

uponthe stranger's

mind is that of utter solitude—so disproportioned to the vast space are the sights

and sounds which he expects as the natural indications of a peopled region—^j'et,

"I have loved thy wild abode,

Unknown, unploughed, untrodden shore,

Where scarce the peasant finds a road,

And scarce the fisher plies an oar." Campbell.

On the Timok, at the junction of that river with the Danube, the Roman legions

had a strong encampment, with a paved military road, by which pubhc inter-

course was kept up between the Danube and the Adriatic. Taking this and other

circ*mstances into consideration, it may be reasonably conjectm-ed that this region

must have then supported a numerous population j and that it was not tUl after the .

desolating wars which followed, and the march of crusading armies—which, by

making it a vast battle-field, threw a permanent blight over its territory—that it

assumed those features of desertion and lonehness, by which it is now so strikingly

marked. On the right bank of the river, crowning a soUtary rock, are the remains

of an ancient castle ; and at its base is the small bourg, once filled with its feudal

dependents, called Florentin. On the shore opposite is Kalafat, a Wallachian

village, consisting of low straggling huts, and backed by a wide range of luxiniant pas-

tures. The course of the Danube is now broader, but so intersected with islands

as to present at times the appearance of numerous lakes.

Between this point and Widdin the scenery becomes much improved and

diversified by undulating hills, while the symptoms of life and industry are more

distinguishable by their effects upon the external landscape. The first view of this

Turkish fortress and town, with the magnificence of the Balkan range soaruig aloft

in the background, compensates for the monotonous scenes above-mentioned, and

makes a vivid impression on the stranger's mind. On landing, we found ourselves at

once in the East ; but on exploring the interior we were stnick, as in most of the

other Turkish towns, with its air of neglect, and decay. The population, neverthe-

less, is said to exceed twenty thousand ; and its bazaars bear testunony to the

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BAHnSHB SUUI>.

224 THE DANUBE ILLDSTBATED. [:N'(tepolte.

revival of native industry and commerce, to which the steam-navigation of the

Danube is now giving afresh

andunexpected impulse. The fortress is of great

strength, and mounts, we were told, little short of three hundred guns.* The pasha

who resides here practices great cour-

tesy towards strangers, and does every-

thing to promote friendly intercourse

between this, and the provinces ad-

jacent. He received us courteously,

and gave us coffee and j)ipes.—The

external features, which giv